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Cornell  University  Library 
F  12708  R98 

liiillif  \ 

3   1924  028  832  693  H 

olln  Overs 


Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 



oUange  county, 










EVEKTS    &    PECK. 





In  submitting  tliis  volume  to  its  patrons,  its  publishers  are  quite  confident  it  will  be  appar- 
ent from  its  pages  that  every  reasonable  effort  has  been  made  by  them  to  make  it  complete  in 
its  several  departments.  Notwithstanding  this,  however,  they  are  conscious  that  to  some  of 
its  readers  it  may  appear  that  historic  records  have  been  omitted  which  should  have  been  given, 
and  that  in  other  cases  record  has  been  made  of  matters  without  consideration  of  their  un- 
importance. On  behalf  of  its  compilers,  it  is  proper  to  say  that  its  publishers  have  the  fullest 
confidence  that  the  most  ample  care  has  been  taken  to  catch  up  all  the  threads  of  history 
and  unite  them  in  a  common  woof ;  that,  if  some  are  worthless,  the  mass  is  valuable ;  that 
if  any  have  been  lost  or  overlooked,  the  fault  is  not  one  of  intention,  the  primary  object 
having  been  to  preserve  even  the  minutest  detail  of  the  history  of  a  county  which  ranks 
among  the  first  in  the  State  in  its  organization,  in  its  development,  in  its  intelligence,  and 
in  the  patriotism  and  worth  of  its  sons. 

Of  many  of  the  pioneer  families  of  the  county  it  may  be  said  that  they  have  now  no 
known  representatives  within  its  borders.  While  the  footsteps  of  their  sons  may  be  traced 
in  almost  all  of  the  States,  the  record  of  themselves  can  scarce  be  found,  even  on  graven 
monuments  where  their  remains  were  interred.  The  friendly  voice  of  neighborhood  tra- 
dition— perhaps  the  imperishable  record  of  services  performed  to  the  State — is  all  that  remains; 
but  these  have  been  gathered  up  as  completely  as  possible,  that  their  life-work  may  be  placed 
in  rank  with  those  of  their  contemporaries,  that  they,  with  them,  may  go  down  to  the  future 
in  a  common  remembrance  of  the  toils  and  struggles  and  dangers  which  they  alike  endured. 
While  this  attention  has  been  given  to  those  of  past  years,  the  biographical  record  of  the 
men  of  the  living  present  has  been  amply  cared  for. 

To  the  different  departments  of  the  volume  special  attention  need  not  be  directed.  It 
may  be  proper  to  say,  however,  that  the  General  History  of  the  county,  as  well  as  the  history 
of  Newburgh  and  of  New  Windsor,  were  prepared  by  Mr.  Rdttenbeb,  and  will  be  found  com- 
plete and  reliable.  That  department  necessarily  embraces  many  facts  relating  to  the  towns 
which  could  only  be  presented  in  consecutive  narrative  to  convey  a  correct  view  of  the  sub- 
jects considered.      The  histories  of  the   remaining  towns  were  compiled   by  Mr,  Lewis  H. 

Claek,  and  the  biographies  by  other  writers.     Acknowledgment  has  been  made  in  the  body 



of  the  work  for  assistance  kindly  given  to  the  compilers.     The  persons  referred  to  have  also 
the  thanks  of  the  publishers. 

The  illustrations  speak  for  themselves,  and  will,  the  publishers  believe,  challenge  admi- 
ration. The  maps  are  the  most  complete  and  accurate,  so  far  as  they  claim  to  furnish  details, 
that  have  ever  been  given  to  the  public.  In  the  lists  of  volunteers  in  the  war  of  the  Re- 
bellion, while  there  are  perhaps  errors  and  omissions  which  would  gladly  have  been  avoided, 
there  is  also  a  mass  of  inforr  otherwise,   perhaps,   never  have  had   the 

published  record  which  it  deserve 

The  publishers,   however,   have  no   desire  to  appear  as   unnecessarily  commending   the 
volume,  nor  do  they  conceive  it  necessary  to  apologize  for  any  of  its  imperfections.      Ap- 
preciating fully  the  generous  support  which  has  been  extended  to  them  by  the  representative 
men  of  the  county,  they  are  content  to  await  their  verdict. 
Sbftembeb,  1881. 




Abori&ikai.  Bistort.. 

Land  Titlks — First  Settlejients 


Civil   Gotersment  —  Origi.val    County    op    Orange — The 
Present  Coctntt  of   Orange — Codrts,  Public  Buildings. 
Etc ■ 20 


Churches — Religious  and  Benetolent  Societies. 


The  Lutheran  Church — Fresbyterian  Cbnrch — Church  of  England — Be- 
formed  Dutch  Church — Congregational  Church — Aesociate  and  Asao- 
ciate  Reformed  Fresbyterlaa  Churches — Baptist  Church — Methodism 
— Roman  Catholics — Friends — Beligious  Societies — Benevolent  Ot^ 
ganizations 126 

Bench  and  Bar  op  Orange  County 


Location  —  Physiology  —  Geographical 
Climate — Geology. 

Mountains   and  Valleys  —  Ponds,    Streams,    Etc, 


Nouenclatcre —      Physicians — Medical  Societies 162 

-  Climate, 


Military  History- 

-French  and  Indian  War- 

•War  of  the 

Col.  Allison's  Goshen  Begiment,  1776 — Col.  Hathorn's  Florida  Regiment 
— Col.  WoodhuU's  Cornwall  Regiment — Col.  Hasbrouck*8  Newburgh 
Regiment — Col.  Clinton's  New  Windsor  Begiment — Special  Organiza- 
tions and  Continental  Begimente — Uniforms  and  Equipage — French 
and  Indian  War — War  of  the  Bevolution — Col.  Lewis  Dubois'  Fifth 
Continental  Infantry — Col.  William  Allison's  Goshen  Begiment  Militia 
—  Col.  Haabrouck's  Newburgh  Begiment  Militia — Col.  WoodhuU's 
Oomwall  Begiment  Militia 46 


Revolutionary  Events — Pledge  op  Association. 

Revolutionary  Associations — Freciuct  of  Newburgh — Precinct  of  New 

Windsor — Precinct  of  Hanover — Precinct  of  Walllcill — Precinct  of 

Uamakating — Precinct  of  Goshen — Cornwall  Precinct — The  Story  of 

Claudius  Smith 62 


Second  War  with  England — War  with  Mexico 73  I 



Orange  County  in  the  Rebellion.  i 

Third  Begiment,  Company  B— Eighteenth  Begiment— Fifty-sixth  Begi- 
ment—Seventieth  Begiment — One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  Begi- 
ment—Seventy-first  Militia,  Company  I — Nineteenth  Begiment  Mili- 
tia— One  Hundred  and  Sixty-sixth  Regiment — One  Hundred  and 
Sixty-eighth  Begiment — One  Hundred  and  Seventy-sixth  Begiment — 
First  Mounted  Bifles,  Company  C — Second  Begiment  Cavalry  (Harris 
Light) — Fifteenth  Cavalry— Fifteenth  Heavy  Artillery,  Company  M — 
Seventh  Independent  Battery — First  Begiment  of  Engineers — Ninety- 
eighth  Regiment,  Company  C — Moneys  Expended  by  the  Town  and  by 
the  County  for  War  Purposes 78 

Commercial  History — Original  Roads — Turnpikes — Rail- 
roads AND  Canals — Plank-roads — Banking — Agricul- 
tural AND  Mechanical  Statistics,  Etc 105 


The  Prkss  of  Orange  County. 

i  Press  of  Goshen — Press  of  Newburgh — Press  of  Middletown — Press  of 
Montgomery — Press  of  Port  Jervis — Press  of  Warwick — Miscella- 
neous   186 

Orange  County  Civil  List. 
Representatives  in  Colonial  Assembly — Delegates  from  the  Colony  of 
New  York  to  the  First  Continental  Congress,  1774 — Second  Continental 
.Congress,  1775 — Delegates  to  the  Provincial  Congress  of  New  Tork, 
1775-77— Members  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  1775-76— Delegates  to 
the  Conventiou  Called  to  Deliberate  upon  the  Adoption  by  the  State 
of  New  York  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  held  June  17, 
17S8 — Delegates  to  the  State  Convention  of  1801,  called  to  Amend  the 
Constitution  of  1777 — Delegates  to  the  State  Convention  of  1821, 
called  to  Amend  the  Constitution  of  1801 — Delegates  to  the  Conven- 
tion of  1846,  called  to  Amend  the  Constitution  of  1821 — Electors  of 
President  and  Yice-Fresideut — Bepreseotatives  in  Congress— Repre- 
sentatives in  State  Senate — Membera  of  Assembly — Administrative 
OfBcers — Members  of  Council  of  Appointment — Begents  of  the 
University — Surveyors-General — Canal  Commissioner — Inspectors  of 
State  Prisons — Master  of  Chancery — Masters  and  Examiners  in  Chan- 
cery— Puisne  Justice  Supreme  Court — Judge  Circuit  Court — Justices 
of  Supreme  Court — Judges  of  Court  of  Common  Pleas— Judges  of  the 
County  Courts — Special  County  Judges — Surrogates — District  Attor- 
neys— County  Clerks — Sheriffs — County  Treasurers — County  Superin- 
tendents of  Schools — School  Commissioners — Board  of  Supervi- 
sors   201 

Town  Boundaries 206 


General— Patents  and  First  Settlements — Villages,  Etc. 
— Revolutionary     Localities — Revolutionary     Inci- 
dents— Civil  List — Rebellion  Record. 

Location,  Physiology,  Etc. — Civil  Organization — Name — Town  Becords 
— Boads — Schools — Support  of  Poor — Licenses — Post-offices — Creeks, 
Streams,  Swamps,  Etc. — Village  of  New  Windsor — Orangeville,  or 



Moodna— Quasaalck  Valley— Vail's  Gate,  or  Mortonville— Little  Bri- 
tain—The Square— Eagville,  Eock  Tavern,  Etc.— Wasliington's  Head- 
qnarters — Plum  Point — Lafayette^a  Headquarters — EdmonBton  House 
— Falls  House- Knox's  Headquarters— The  Camp-Ground  and  Tem- 
ple—Arrest of  Cadwallader  Golden,  Jr.- The  Full  of  the  Highland 
Forts— Morgan's  Kiflemen— Seizure. of  Salt— A  Tea  Riot— Dominie 
Annan— Boy  Soldiers— St.  Thomas'  Church— New  Windsor  Presby- 
terian Church— Associate  Reformed  Church,  Little  Britain— Union 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Vail's  Gate — Little  Britain  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church — Burial-Grounds 210 



BCROH — Villages,    Hahlets,    Streaks,    Etc. — Census 
Returns — Newburgh    Poor    System — Turnpikes     and 
Plank-roads — Banks — Incorporated  Companies — Firr 
Department — Newburgh   Regatta   Association — Nbw- 
burgh  Horticultural  Society — Churches,  Schools,  Etc. 
— Civil  List. 
Settlement  of  the  German  Patent — Settlement  of  Other  Patents — Pre- 
cincts of  Newburgh — Subsequent  General  History — Second  War  with 
England — General  Incidents— War  of  the  Rebellion — City  of  New- 
burgh— Review — Balmville— Middlehope— The     Dauskamer — Hamp- 
ton— ^Fostertown — RossTiile- Luptondale — Rocky     Forest — Gardner- 
town — Gidneytown — DuBois'  Mills — New  Mills- West  Newburgh — 
Powder  Mills — Belknap's    Ridge — East  Coldenham — Orange  Lake — 
Quassaick  Creek — Fostertown  Creek — Teut-Stone  Meadow  Creek — 
Bushfield's  Creek — Benton's  Creek— Powellton  Brook — Raccoon  Hill 
— Acker's  Creek — Trout  Brook — Poll  Rose's  Pond — Springs — Fitzpat- 
rick'e  Pond — King's  Hill — Cronomer's  Hill — Limestone  Hill — Much- 
attoes  Hill — Washington's  Headquarters — The  Vale — Public  Stocks — 
Newburgh  Market — Hay-Scales — Newburgh  Steam-Mills — Gas-Light 
Companies — Newburgh    Ferr.v — Churches — Comparative    Statistics — 
Theological  Seminary — Public  Libraries— Newspapers — Literary,  Re- 
ligious, and  Benevolent  Societies-Cemeteries— Precinct  and  Town 
OfQcets — Village  and  City  Officers — Seals  of  the  City  and  Village  of 
Newburgh 245 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Towns,  Socikties,  Banks, 
Incorporations,  Etc. — Places  of   Historic  Interest — 
Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
Extracts  from  Town  Records — Lieutenant-Governor  Cadwallader  Golden 
— ^Montgomery  Village— Walden — St.  Andrew's — Coldenham — Allard's 
Corner — Scott  Town  —  Scott's  Corners  —  Keisertown  —  Montgomery 
Academy — Montgomery  Public  School — The  Walden  Union  Free  School 
— The  Goodwill  Presbyterian  Church — St.  Andrew's  Church,  Walden 
— Coldenham  Church — Reformed  Dutch  Chnrch  of  Berea — First  Re- 
formed Dutch  Church  of  Walden — First  Presbyterian  Church  at  Mont- 
gomery— Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  Montgomery — Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  of  Walden— Church  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Mary — WallklU 
Valley  Cemetery  Association — Masonic — Temperance  Societies— Banks 
— The  Insurance  Agency — Indian  Localities — Old  Homesteads — Orange 
County  Scientific  and  Practical  Agricultural  Institute- Woolen  Fac- 
tory at  Walden — New  York  Knife  Company — Walden  Condensed  Milk 
Company — Brickyard  at  Walden — Walden  Knife  Company — Walden 
File-Works — Steam  Flouring-Mill- Montgomery  Woolen-Mill— Titus 
&  Stratton's  Grist-Mill- Walker's  Faper-Mill  at  Montgomery — New 
York  Condensed  Milk  Company— Creameries — Various  Manufactories 
—War  of  1861-65 370 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,   and   Title — Natural   Fea- 
tures— Early  Settlement — Orqanizatio.v — Villages — 
Schools — Churches — Burial-Places — Towns,  Societies, 
Etc. — Places  of  Special  Note  or  of  Historic  Interest — 
Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
Physicians — First  Town-Meeting  —  Hopewell  —  BullviUe  —  Searsvllle 
— Thompson's  Ridge — Collaburgh — Pine  Bush — Presbyterian  Society 
of  Hopewell  —  Graham's  Church  (Associate  Reformed}  —  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  of  Crawford  —  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Pine 
Bush— Mills 412 

j                                            WALLKILt. 
;  Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  and  Title — Natural  Fea- 
'          TUREs— Early    Settlement — Organization — Schools 
I          Churches  — Societies,    Libraries,    Banks,    Incorpora- 
tions, Etc. — Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
Manumission  of  Slaves- Taverns- Assessment-Roll,  1803— First  Town- 
Meeting  of  Wallkill  after  the  Division— Middletown— Scotchtown— 
Mechanictown— Circleville— Phillipsburgh- Recollections  of  Half  a 
I       Century— Howell's  Depot— Van  Burenville— Sand  Station— Fair  Oaks 
i      —Crawford  Junction— Purdy's   Station  — Lockwood's—Eockville  — 
I       Millsburgh— Stony  Ford— Brimstone  Hill— Michigan— La  Grange— 
Davistown-Honey-Pot— Guinea— Bull  Hack— Pierce  Valley— Wall- 
I      kill  Academy— The  State  Homoeopathic  Asylum  for  the  Insane  at 
[       Middletown,  N.  Y.— First  Congregational  Church— Congregational 
Church  of  Howell's  Depot— The  Primitive  Baptist  Cliurch,  Middletown 
—Presbyterian  Church  of  Scotchtown— Congregation  of  Union  Church 
at  New   Shawangnnk— The  First  Presbyterian  Church  at  Middle- 
town— Second  Methodist  Episcopal  (or  Mount  Johnson)  Church— Pres- 
byterian Church  of  Circleville— Second  Presbyterian  Church  at  Mid- 
dletown—Firet  Baptist  Chnrch  of  South  Middletown— Grace  Church 
of  .South  Middletown  (Episcopal)— Methodist  Episcopal  Chnrch  of 
Middletown— St.  Joseph's    Roman    Catholic    Church— The   Separate 
American  Methodist  Church  of  Phillipsburgh- The  Methodist  Episco- 
pal Zion  Church  of  Middletown— The  Free  Christian  Chnrch  of  Middle- 
town— Old  Bnrial-Ground  of  Congregational  Church— Old  Cemeterj- 
opposite  the  Academy— South   Middletown  Cemetery  Association- 
Hillside  Cemetery  of  Middletown— Scotchtown  Cemetery  Association 
—Howell's  Cemetery  Association— St.  Joseph's  Cemetery— The  Webb 
Cemetery  Association,  Wallkill— Hoffman  Lodge,  No.  300,  P.  and  A.  M. 
—Hoffman  Lodge,  No.  412,  F.  and  A.  M.— Midland  Chapter,  No.  240, 
R.  A.  M.— Middletown  Lodge,  No.  112, 1.  0.  0.  F.— Luther  Lodge,  No. 
380,  I.  0.  0.  F.— Orange  Encampment,  No.  93,  I.  O.  0.  F.— Excelsior 
Lodge,  No.  829,  I.  0.  G.  T.— Germania    Mannerchor — Middletown 
Bank— First  National  Bank  of  Middletown — Middletown  Savings- 
Bank— New  York  and  Erie  Insurance  Company— The  Wallkill  Bank 
— Middletown  Library — The  Orange  County  Milk  Association — The 
Sutherland  Falls  Marble  Company,  Wallkill — Oil  and  Mining  Com- 
pany— Draper  Oil  Company — Adams  Mining  Company — Middletown 
and  Unionville  Telegraph  Company — Middletown  Building  and  Loan 
Association — The  Evening   Standard  Association — The  Zetesin   De- 
bating  Society — Middletown    Gospel  Temperance    Union' — Wallkill 
Council,  No.  57,  Royal  Templars  of  Temperance — The  Middletown 
Hebrew  Union— Indian  Spring— The  Manufitctnre  of  Hats— The  Mid- 
dletown  Tannery — Saw  Manufactory — The  Monhagen   Steam-  and 
Water-Mills — The    Manufacture    of    Files- Carpet  -  Bag    Factory — 
Orange  County  Furnace — Book-Bindery — Morgans  &  Wilcox  Manu- 
facturing Company — Decker's  Milts,  Etc 429 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — TownSocieties,  Libraries,  Incorporations, 
Etc. — Places  of  Historic  Intkrest — Industrial  Pur- 
suits— Military. 
Physicians— Lawyers — Mount  Hope  Village — Otisville — New  Vernon — 
Flnchville — Guymard — Old-School  Baptist  Church,  New  Vernon — Con- 
gregational Church  at  Wallkill  and  Deerpark  Patent— First  Presby- 
terian Church  of  Mount  Hope — Methodist  Episcopal   Church  of  Otis- 
ville— Flnchville  Methodist  Episcopal  Church — Presbyterian  Church, 
Otisville— Catholic  Church  at  Otisville— The  Farmers'  Library — The 
Washington  Lead  Company — Empire  Mining  Company— Wallkill  Lead 
Company — Savoss  Copper-Mine — Champion  Lead-Mining  Company — 
New  York  Central  Mining  and  Mineral  Company — Mount  Hope  Min- 
eral Company — Guymard's  SilveivLead  Company — Erie  Mining  Com- 
pany— Empire  Mineral  Company— Finch  Homestead— The  Peddler'a 
Spring— Old  Coin— Location  of  the  Mastodon— Old  Orchards 605 


Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 

Early  Settlem  ent — Organization — Villages — Schooia 

— Churches— Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 

Assessment-Roll  of  1776— Special  Notes  on  Families- Old  Tavemi  of 

Goshen— Goshen  Village— Mapea'  Comefs— County  Farn>— East  and 

West  Divisions — Presbyterian  Church  of  Qoahqu — St,  Jamea'  E^copal 


Church  of  Goshen— The  Separate  Methodiat  Church  of  Goshen — 
The  AMcan  Methodist  Episcopal  Zion  Church  of  Goshen— Gath. 
olic  Church  of  Gosheo — Slate  Hill  Cemetery  AsBociation — Westcott 
Burial-Place— Cemetery  of  the  Episcopal  Church — Webb  Burylng- 
Ground— The  Vauduzer  Family  Lot— The  Haight  Family  Ceme- 
tery, Goahen  — The  Case  Family— The  Catholic  Burial -Place— The 
Wallkill  Valley  Cemetery  Association- The  Goahen  Library  Asso- 
ciation— Goeben  Gas-Light  Company — Orange  County  Fire  Insurance 
Company — National  Bank  of  Orange  County — The  Goshen  Na- 
tional Bank — Goahen  Sayings-Bank — Old  Westcott  Well — Orange 
County  Agricultural  Works— G(wben  Brickyard  and  Tile-Works — The 
Rider  Engine  Company  of  Goshen — Flaning-Milla — Goahen  Foundry 
and  Gas  Machinery  Company — Creameriea— Old  French  War— Revo- 
lutionary War— Celebration  of  July  22, 1862 — Centennial  Celebration, 
July  22,  1879  — Revolutionary  Recorda  — Mexican  War — Regular 
Army 520 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — NatUkal  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Societies,  Libraries,  Banks,  Incorpora- 
tions, Etc. — Places  op  Historic  Interest — Industrial 
Pursuits — Military. 
The  Seward  Family — General  Notes  from  the  Records — Warwick — In- 
corporation—Fire Department — Water- Works — Poat-Office — Florida — 
Amity — Pine  Island— Bloom^s   Cornera— New    Milford — Edenville — 
Liberty  Corners — Newport — Sandfurdville — Stone  Bridge — Big  Island 
— Lawton  —  Dutch    Hollow  —  Bellvale — ^Warwick    Institute — Amity 
Home^lohool— Seward  Institute,  Florida — Baptist  Church  in  Warwick 
— Preebyterian   Congregatiuu    of  Florida— Presbyterian    Church  of 
Warwick— Preabyteiian  Church  of  Amity— St.  PauPs  Church  in  War- 
wick-Protestant Episcopal  Church  of  Warwick — Methodiat  Epiaco- 
pal  Church,  Florida — Preaby  teilan  Congregation  of  Florida— Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  of  Warwick  Village — Methodiat  Episcopal  Church  of 
New  Milford— Methodiat  Episcopal  Church  of  Eden— Bellvale  Metho- 
diat Episcopal  Church — Union  Methodiat  Epiacopal  Church  of  Stirling 
— Af^can   Methodiat   ^pisoopal    Church   of  Florida^St.    Stephen's 
Church,  Warwick  Village — Cavalry  Baptist  Church — Methodist  Episco- 
pal Church  of  Mount  Bethel — Warwick  Cemetery — Wawayanda  Lodge 
-Patrons  of  Husbandry — ^Warwick  Cornet  Band— Temperance  League 
of  Warwick — Young  Men's  Christian  Association  of  Warwick  Village 
— Army  and    Navy  Association  of  Veterans  at  Warwick — Warwick 
Library— Franklin  Library — First  National  Banlt-if  Warwick — ^War- 
wick Savings-Bank— Warwick  Valley  Farmers*   Milk   Association- 
Thomas  Smith's  Creamery — Producers'  Milk  Company,  Warwick — 
Chouckhaas  Hill— Birthplace  of  W.  H.  Seward 664 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches  —  Burial  Places  —  Societies,    Libraries, 
and  Banks— Places   op    Historical   Interest — Indus- 
trial Pursuits — Rebellion  Record; 
Chester  Proper— Chester— Wust  Chester— East  Cheater— Gray  Court  Sta- 
tion— Salem  Neighborhood — Sugar-Loaf   Village — Cheater  Academy 
— Cheater  Union  Free  School,  No.  1 — Preabyterlan  Church  of  Chester 
— Methodiat  Episcopal  Church  of  Salem— Methodist  Protestant  Church 
of  Salem — Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Sugar>Loaf— Methodiat 
Episcopal  Church  of  Cheater— Gray  Court  Cemetery  Association- 
Standard  Lodge,  No.  711,  F.  and  A.  M.— The  Cheater  Library— Cheater 
National  Bank — Gray  Court— Sugar-Loaf  Mountain 613 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Town  Societies,  Libra- 
ries, Incorporations,  Etc. — Places  op  Historic  Interest 
— Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
General  Notes  from  the  Records — Justices  of  the  Peace — Washlngton- 
viUft— Salisbury     Mills    Village  —  Blooming-Grove— Craigville — Sat- 
terly's  Mills— Oxford  Depot— Presbyterian  Church,  Blooming-Grove- 
Congregational  Church  at  Wauhingtonville— Presbyterian  Church  at 
Waahingtonville— WashlngtonTille  Old-School  Presbyterian  Church- 

Oxford  Methodist  Episcopal  Church— Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at 
Granville — Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  Craigville— Methodiat 
Epiacopal  Church  of  Salisbury'e  Mills— Blooming-Grove  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church— Satterlytown  Methodist  Episcopal  Church — 
Friends'  Meeting-House—Farmers'  Creamery  Association  of  Blooming- 
Grove — Library  Society  of  Blooming-GroTe- Salisbury  Mills  Manu- 
facturing Company- Town-Meetings  of  the  Period  1765  to  1797 — 
Wigwam  of  Marin gamus-Official  Action,  War  of  1861-65 629 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title— Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

—  Churches  —  Burial-Places  —  Societies  —  Places  op 
Historic  Interest — Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 

Campbell  Hall— Hamptonburgh— Neelytown— Bumaide— Kipp's- Pur- 
gatory-Paradise— La  Grange— Decker*8— First  Presbyterian  Church 
at  Hamptonburgh— St.  David's  Church  of  Hamptonburgh— Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  of  Otterville— The  Bull  Homestead— The  Stone 
House 649 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

—  Churches  —  Burial-Places  —  Lodges,  Societies,  Li- 
braries, Etc.  —  Places  op  Historic  Interest  —  Indus- 
trial Pursuits — Military. 

Families  in  Town,  1810  to  1815— Slavery— Early  Physicians— Extracts 
from  Records— Union ville— Incorporation — Westtown  —  Gardnerville 
—Mitlaburgh— Johnson  PostrOfBce— Smith  Village— Waterloo  Milla— 
Presbyterian  Society  at  Weattown — Presbyterian  Church  of  Weattown 
— Firat  Preabyterian  Church  of  Unionville — Orange  Baptist  Church  of 
TTnionville- Old  Rome  Church— Methodist  Episcopal  Church  at  West^ 
town— Presbyterian  Congregation  of  Drovpned  Lands — Meadville  Bap- 
tist Church — Union  Meeting-House— The  Miuieink  Cemetery  Associa- 
tion—The Westtown  Library — Westtown  Circulating  Library  Associa- 
tion   659 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 

—  Early  Settlement  —  Organization  —  Villages  — 
Churches  —  Burial-Places  —  Places  of  Historic  In- 
terest— Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 

Firat  Town-Meetiug— Hampton— Millsburgh—Ridgehury—Centreville 
— Gardnerville  —  Brookfield  —  Wawayanda  —  Denton  —  First  Baptist 
Church  of  Brookfield — Presbyterian  Church  at  Ridgebury — Centre- 
ville  Presbyterian  Church — Centreville  Methodist  Episcopal  Church — 
First  Presbyterian  Church  of  Denton— Society  of  United  Christian 
Friends— Pine  Hill  Cemetery— Jogee  Hill 676 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 

—  Churches  —  Burial-Places  —  Societies,  Incorpopa- 
tions.  Etc. — Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 

Physicians— First  Town*Meeting — Greenville — Centre  Points-Smith's 
Corners— Bushville— Baptist  Society  of  Greenville — Methodist  Epiaco- 
pal Church  of  Greenville— Mineral  Spring  Mining  Company — Green- 
ville Mineral  and  Mining  Company 692 


Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title — Natural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
— Churches — Burial-Places — Societies,  Banks,  Libra- 
RiKs,  Incorporations,  Etc. — Places  op  Special  Note — 
Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
An  Early  Trip  to  the  Minisink  Region— Asaeaament-Roll  of  1775 — Fami- 
lies in  Southern  Deerpark,  1810  to  1815- Early  Physicians — General 
Notes  from  the  Records— Slaves — Assessment-Roll  of  1825— Town  Offi- 
cers—Bonding  of  the  Town  of  Deerpark — Fort  Jervis — Incorporation 
— Fire  Department— Westbrookville — Port  Orange— Cuddebackville — 
Rose  Point— Port  Clinton — Gumaer's— Huguenot— Carpenter's  Point— 


Sparrowbush—Bushkill— Quarry  Hill— Shin  Hpllow— German  town— 
Honeaville — Bolton— Paradise — Brooklyn — Hatanioras — High  School 
in  the  Fowler  House— St.  Mary'e  Orphan  Asylum— The  Public  Schools 
of  Port  Jervia— The  JBeformed  Protestant  Dutch  Church  of  Magagh- 
keneck — First  Presbyterian  Church  of  Port  Jervis — Separate  Ameri- 
can Methodist  Church,  Port  Jervis — The  Sparrowbush  Union  Free 
Church,  town  of  Deerparlt— Grave  Church  of  Port  Jervis— Drew  Cen- 
tennial Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Port  Jervis— Ruformed  Church 
of  Ouddebackville — German  Lutheran  Protestant  Churclt,  Port  Jervis 
— Port  Jervis  Baptist  Church — Church  of  the  Immaculate  Conc(>ptioD 
— The  Old  Gumaer  Graveyard — The  Old  Burial-Place  of  Port  Jervis — 
Laurel  Grove  Cemetery — Weeping  Willow  Cemetery  Association — Re-" 
formed  Church  Cemetery — Catholic  Cemetery — Rural  Valley  Ceme- 
tery Association — Port  Jervis  Lodge — Neversink  Chapter — Delaware 
Commandery — Tri-States  Masonic  Relief  Association — Mount  William 
Lodge— Ustayantha  Lodge — Neversink  Lodge — Attila  Lodge— Mount 
WilHam  Lodge— Delaware  Council,  No.  9— Delaware  Council,  No.  10— 
Orange  County  Building  and  Loan  Association — Deerpark  Mining 
Company— Neversink  Mineral  Company — Montana  Mill  Company — 
Deerpark  Lead  Company — German  Roman  Catholic  St.  Joseph's 
Benevolent  Society— Port  Jervis  Building  and  Loan  Association,  No.  1 
— The  Deerpark  and  Westfall  Building  and  Loan  Association— The 
Delaware  Building  and  Loan  Association — The  Neversink  Building  and 
Loan  Association — The  Mutual  Building  and  Loan  Association — The 
Tri-States  Medical  Society — The  Port  Jervis  Co-operative  Association 
— Deerpark  Council,  No.  66,  Royal  Templars  of  Temperance — Mini- 
sink,  No.  28,  Improved  Order  of  Bed  Men — Port  Jervis  Gas  Company — 
Port  Jervis  Mannerchor — Riverside  Lodge  of  Good  Templars— Invin- 
cible Lodge — Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union — Port  Jervis 
Temperance  Union — Young  Men*s  Social  Union — National  Bank  of 
Port  Jervis— First  National  Bank  of  Port  Jervis— The  Port  Jervis 
Savings -Bank— Tri-States  Rock— Site  of  the  Old  Dutch  Church— Van 
Etten  School-House — The  Forts — Old  Stone  House  in  Germantown — 
Indian  Burial-Place — Glass  Manufacture — Erie  Machine-Shop — Glove 
Manufacture-rSash  and  Blind  Factory,  Port  Jervis— Foundry  of  Swin- 
ton,  Shimer  &  Co. — Foundry  of  St.  John  &  Malven — Stone  Grist- Mill 
at  Fort  Jervis — Goodale's  Furniture  Factory — Preservation  of  Green 
Fodder — French  War  of  1755 — War  of  the  Revolution — Donations  for 
Soldiers  and  Soldiers'  Families 696 

Situation,  Bodndaries,  Area,  and   Title:— Natural   Fea- 
tures— EarlySettlembnt— Organization— Villages — 
Schools — Churches — Burial- Places — Societies,  Libra- 
ries, Incobporations,  Etc. — Places  of  Hiktoric  Inter- 
BST — Military. 
Settlers    prior  tn   the    Revolution- First    Town-Meeting- Cornwall — 
Canterbury— Comwall-on-the-Hudsoii  —  Idiewild  — Garnerville~Riv- 
erside — Boeville- Montana  Woolen-Mills— MountainviUe-Salisbury 
Mills — Bethlehem — Presbyterian  Congregatiou,  Bethlehem — Frieuds' 

Meeting,  Cornwall— First  BaptUt  Congregatiou,  New  Cornwall— First 
Presbyterian  Society  of  Canterbury— Friends'  MeeUng,  Cornwall  (Or- 
thodox)—Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Cornwall— Cornwall  Presbyte- 
rian Church— Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  MountainviUe— Church  of 
St.  Thomas,  Cornwall— Masonic— Temperance— Odd-Fellowebip—yi™ 
Departments-Cornwall  Circulating  Library  Aasociat ion— Cornwall 
Pleasnre-Ground  and  Driving-Park  Association— Hudson  River  Paint 
Company— West  Point  and  Cornwall  Turnpike  Company— Cornwall 
Oxide  Paint  ManufacturingCompany— CornwHll  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany-Cornwall Saviiigs-Bank- Butter  Hill— Sloop  Hill— C^mtinental 
Spring— Black  Rock— Grant's  Haunt— Picnic  Rock— Briin's  Bluff- 
Natural  Bridge— The  Old  Ring  Homestead— Idiewild— Mead  &  Taft— 
Orr's  Mills— Summer  Boarding— Soldiers' List.. '^ 


Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title— Natural  Features- 
Early  Settlement — Oroanization^Villages — Schools 
-Churches.— Burial- Places  — Societies,     Libraries, 
Incorporations,  Etc.— Places  of   Historic  Interest — 
Industrial  Pursuits — Military. 
Toryism— Its  Principal  Leader— An  Unusual  Case  of  Arrest  long  after 
the  Commission  of  a  Crime— First  Town-Meetit\g— The  Three  Towns 
—Monroe— Woodbury  FaUs-Seanianville— Highland  Mills  Post-Office 

Central    Valley— Greenwood     Lake— Turner's— Queensbonugh— 

Greenwood  Iron-Works—Southfiold—Helmsburgh— Augusta— Hagle 
Valley— Other  Localities — Presbyterian  Congregation  of  Smith  Clove 
—Friends'  Meetings— Methodist  Episcopal  Cliurch— St.  Johu^s  Frt-e 
Church,  (Jreenwood — Grace  Church- Monroe  Library  Association— 
The  Forest  of  Dean  Iron  Company— Stirling  Iron  and  Bidl way  Com- 
pany—The  Forebt  of  Dean  Iron  Ore  C()mpauy — Greenwood  Luke 
Association— Farmers*  Creamery  Associationof  Turner's— The  Pairott 
Iron  Company— Stirling  Furnace— Forest  of  Dean  Furnace — Queens- 
borough  Furnace — Greenwood  Furnace— Monroe  Saw-Factory — Mon- 
roe Works — Houghton  Farm 787 

Situation,  Boundaries,  Area,  Title— "if  atural  Features — 
Early  Settlement — Organization — Villages — Schools 
—  Churches  —  Burial- Places  —  Societies  —  Places  of 
Historic  Interest — Industrial  Purscits — Military. 

West  Points- Highland  Falls- Fort  Montgomery— West  Grove — West 
Point  Military  Academy— Highland  Falls  School — First  Presbyterian 
Society  of  the  Highlands— First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Fort 
Montgomery— First  Protestant  Methodist  Church  at  Buttermilk  Falls 
— Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Highland  Falls-rChurch  of  the  Holy 
Innocents,  Cornwall — Church  of  the  Sucred  Heart— Highland  Union 
Cemetery — West  Point— Grave  of  Molly  Pitcher — Fort  Montgomery 
and  Fort  Clinton 810 





William  SiUlman 98 

Henry  WilemaD 141 

Phineas  Mcintosh 141 

John  Alsop 141 

John  Chamlerd 141 

ViDcetit  Matthews 141 

George  Cliutou 142 

Phineas  Bowman 143 

Jonathan  Fisk 143 

JonRB  Storey 144 

Wm.  Boaa 144 

Henry  G.  Wisuer 144 

Walter  Cs»e 145 

John  Duer 146 

Gilhert  O.  Fowler 146 

Poter  V.  Hunn 147 

Ogden  HoiTman 148 

John  W.  Brown 149 

SamuelJ.  Wilkin 149 

John  G.  Wilkin 151 

Joeeph  M.  Wilkin 162 

George  M.  Grier facing  153 

Isaac  R.  Van  Duzer 153 

Wm.C.  HaabloucU 154 

Nathan  Weetcott 154 

Joseph  W.  Gott 155 

David  F.  Gedoey 166 

James  K.  Prouk 157 

Oliver  Young 168 

Thomas  J. -Lyon 158 

Abram  S.  Caasedy r. 159 

William  Tanamee 160 

Frederic  Bodine 160 

Joseph  Whelan 163 

Increase  Crueby -  164 

James  M.  Gardiner 166 

Isaac  Garrison 167 

David  C.  Winfleld 108 

Kobert  Shaw 169 

Harvey  Everett 171 

Bartow  Wright facing  171 

Samuel  M.  Crawford 171 

Thomas  8.  Edmonston 172 

8.  6.  Carpenter 173 

C.  P.  Smith 173 

Solomon  Tan  Etten 174 

James  D.  Johnston 175 

George  Hunter 176 

H.  C.  Seely between  176, 177 

T.  Walsh "        176,177 

H.  H.  Bobinson "        176,177 

W.  C.  Teny 177 

P.  M.  Barclay facing  178 

Theodore  Writer "      179 

UeWitt  C.  Jayne 183 

J.  W.Ostrom 183 

William  A.  M.  Onlbert 184 

IraS.  Bradner 185 

Charles  M.  Lawrence 186 

V.  M.  Drake 189 

Charles  Mead 190 

E.  M.  Euttenber 184 

Lydia  Sayer  Hasbrouck 196 

J.  W.  Hasbrouck between  196, 197 

M.  D.  Stivers 198 

W.  H.  Nearpasa 201 

Eobt.  H.  Wallace 231 

Ohaa.  Clinton  and  Descendants 238 

John  B.  Caldwell 239 

E.  D.  Drury 240 

Robert  Burnet....';^ 241 

Jas,  W.  Morrison 242 

J.  B,  Kernochan 242 

Thos.  J.  Fulton facing  243 

Wm.  L.  McGill 243 

John  S.  Bull 244 

John  Cromwell facing  244 

Wm.  L.  P.  Warren 288 

Thomas  C.  Ring 290 

John  R.  Wiltsle , 291 

John  Brown 303 

John  Johnston 306 

Joseph  McCarrell 313 

Thomas  Powell 351 

Homer  Ramsdell 352 

BeAjamin  Carpenter 354 

David  Crawford 365 

The  Walsh  Family 356 

Daniel  B.  St.  John 357 

Charles  Downing 358 

John  Forsyth between  358,  359 

Joel  T.  Headloy 360 

Thomas  Shaw 360 

James  Mackin 361 

George  Clark 362 

William  Wright 363 

Peter  V.B.  Fowler , 366 

Daniel  Merritt , 366 

John  L.  Foster 366 

B.  K.  Johnston 367 

I   William  I.  Underbill 368 

I   Nathaniel  Barnes between  366,  369 

j   Gilbert  Williams "       368,369 

Jacob  Gillies ,,...       "       368,369 

Robert  Whitehill 369 

'   James  McCord > 369 

I   Charles  Miller ^ 409 

.Toseph  U.  Decker. 409 

I   Francis  C.  Decker 410 

George  Senior. 410 

James  Todd between  410,  411 

John  Kidd "       410,411 

James  R.  W.  Beattie 411 

C.J.  Mould 411 

M.  G.  Snyder ; 412 

John  H.  Leggett 421 

Daniel  Thompson 426 

Leander  Crawford 426 

A.  E.Taylor 427 

Horace  Bull 428 

Siting  France 428 

Daniel  Bull between  428, 429 

Augustus  Thompson "       428,429 

Seldon  H.  Taloott 455 

Wm.  B.  Eoyce 473 

Silas  H.  Stringham 488 

Robert  H.  Houston 488 

Edward  M.  Madden 489 

Saml.  S.  Wickham 491 

Wickham  C.  McNish 492 

Albert  Bull > 493 

Ellsha  P.  Wheeler 494 

Oliver  P.  Eeeve 496 

B.  W.  Shaw : „ 497 

Horton  Vail 498 

CO.  Sawyer 499 

Thos.  B.  Hulse 499 

James  B.  Bell 600 



AlansoQ  Slaughter 601 

John  B.  Hulse 602 

Hiram  S.  Wilkinson „ 602 

Virgil  Thompson between  602,  603 

Israel  H.  Wickham "        502,503 

Hiram  B.  Webb 603 

M.  F.  P.  Bliven 504 

H.  Bull between  504,  606 

A.  L.  Vail "        604,505 

H.  S.  Linderman "       604,506 

H.B.Wilcox "       504,£06 

George  Wallace facing  605 

George  Smith 619 

Nathaniel  Webb 632 

W.  D.  Snodgrass 635 

A.  S.  Murray 542 

Wm.  Murray 54.^ 

Wm.  T.  Kussell 546 

Alex.  Wright 553 

A.  H.  Sinsabaugh 664 

Henry  Merrian 665 

John  J.  Smith ; 556 

Charles  W.Keevs between  566,657 

William  Knapp "       556,657 

Oliver  B.  Tuthill "        556,567 

De  Witt  C.  Durland .'. "        566,567 

Alfred  Wells 657 

Thomas  Thprne 558 

John  J.  Heard 658 

John  C.  Walling between  568,  559 

Walter  H.  Sayor "        668,659 

Garret  Thew 660 

William  B.  Tuthill 660 

James  W.  Hoyt between  560,  561 

Stephen  Smith "        560,561 

John  N.  Kyerson "        560,661 

Kobert  Young "        560,  661 

Johns.  Crane "        660,561 

Charles  F.  Johnson "        661,561 

George  Mapes ^ 561 

Edson  Coleman 661 

JohnT.  Ackley 66a 

Adrian  Holbert between  562,  563 

Noah  Gregory "       562,603 

Richard  L.  Wood "       662,663 

N.O.  Coleman «       562,663 

James  M.  Bull .' 563 

The  Seward  ll'amily 670 

EzraSanford 604 

Benj.  Sayer. 605 

Edward  L.  Welling 606 

JelTrey  Wisner 607 

James  Burt 607 

Gabriel  Wisner 608 

James  Wheeler. 608 

Gabriel  Houston .' 609 

Isaac  V.Wheeler 609 

A.J.Burt 610 

John  Willcox 610 

Thomas  Welling 611 

William  H.  Houston Oil 

James  E.  Waterbury 612 

Nathaniel  B.  Feagles 612 

Gardner  K.  Nanny between  612,  613 


..  613 
Hezekiah  Hoyt ' 

John  T.  Johnson „ 

Jesse  Boe ^^3 

James  Durland 

James  J.  Board 

Minard  Sutton 

Nathaniel  Boe 

Ira  Bull f 

,  .      „.  626 

John  King 

Robert  N,  Colfax °^° 

C.  B  Seely ^'^ 

John  B.  Tuthill "^ 

W.  M.  Bysdyk between  628,  629 

AbrumDemciest "       628,629 

J.K.Oakley ^^ 

Thomas  N.  Hulse ^^ 

Nathaniel  D.  Woodhnll 646 

Nathan  H.White 646 

Edmund  S.Howell 647 

Hezekiah  Howell 647 

A  Iden  Goldsmith 648 

Jesse  Bull 648 

Silas  B.  Horton between  648,  649 

Auselm  Helme "        648,649 

C.  S.  Marvin "        648,839 

Charles  M.  Thompson facing  662 

Daniel  H.Bnll "      664 

Vincent  Booth - "      656 

Solomon  T.Smith "      668 

Hulet  Clark 874 

John  C.  Wisner 874 

Peter  Worry between  674,  676 

Peter  Kimber "       674,875 

M.  S.  Hayne 678 

0.  E.  Carpenter 691 

George  W.  Horton 691 

Edward  J.  Flynn 728 

H.  H.  Farnum 738 

Eli  Van  Inwegeu 739 

Peter  P.  Swartwout 760 

George  Cuddeback...T;^ 761 

Moses  Van  Inwegen 751 

Nathan  Skinner 752 

Levi  Van  Etten 763 

A.  C.  Boe 766 

Jonathan  Silllman 76» 

E.  P.  Boe 782 

Wm.  S.  Brown 783 

John'Orr 784 

William  Orr. 786 

ChailesH.  Mead 786 

B.  S.  Ketcham between  786,787 

Peter  Townsend 805 

Morgan  Shuit 806 

Peter  P.  Parrott 806 

Alexander  Thompson 807 

Peter  Turner.^j^ 807 

Peter  B.  BushTTT. 808 

JohnGotf 808 

Gilbert!.  Smith 808 

J.  H.  Thompson between  808,  809 

Isaac  H.  Thompson "        808,  809 

James  Wilkes 809 





Outline  Map  of  County between     8,9 

"  "       Land  Patents "        16,17 

Portrait  of  William  Silliman 98 

Store-House  of  Homer  Ramsdell  &  Co 107 

Portrait  of  George  Clinton 142 

S.J.Wilkin facing  148 

Jno.  G.Wilkin "      150 

Jos.  M.Wilkin "       152 

George  M.  Grier "      153 

Joseph  W.  Gott "       166 

David  F.  Geduey "      156 

James  N.  Pronk 157 

Oliver  Young facing  158 

Thomas  J.  Lyon "      159 

Abram  S.  Cassedy 159 

William  Yanamee 160 

Fredeiic  Bodiue 161 

Joseph  Whelan facing  16.3 

Increase  drosby *'      164 

Jamps  M.  Gardiner 166 

Isaac  Garrison facing  167 

David  C.  Winfield "       168 

BobertShaw "       169 

Harvey  Everett "       170 

Bartow  Wright "      171 

Thomas  S.  EdmoDston "      172 

S.  G.  Carpenter between  172, 173 

C.P.Smith "       172,17.3 

Solomon  Van  Etten facing  174 

JamesD.Johnston "       175 

George  Hunter "       176 

H.C.  Seely between  176, 177 

T.  Walsh "        176, 177 

H.  H.  Kobinson "        176, 177 

W.  C.  Terry facing  177 

P.M.  Barclay "      178 

Thoo.  Writer "      179 

DeWitt  C.  Jayne "      183 

J.  W.  Ostrom 184 

Wm.  A.  M.Culbert faoiug  185 

IraS.  Bradner between  186,187 

Chas.  M.  Lawrence   "        186,187 

v.  M.  Drake 190 

Chaa.  Mead facing  190 

E.  M.  Kuttenber "      194 

Lyditt  Sayer  Hitsbrouck between  196, 197 

J.  W.  Hasbrnuck "        196,197 

M.  D.  Stivers facing  198 

W.  H.  Nearpasa "      201 


Beaidence  of  Robert  Morison facing  222 

Portrait  of  Kobert  H.  Wallace "      231 

"         John  R.  Caldwell 240 

"         E.  D.  Drury facing  240 

"         Robert  Burnet "      241 

"         James  W.  Morrison ^..between  242,  243 

Residence  of  James  W.  Morrison -. "        242,243 

Portrait  of  Thomas  J.  Fulton facing  243 

"         John  B.  Kernochan 243 

"         Wm.  L.  MoGill 243 

"  John  S.  Bull ; 244 

"         John  Cromwell facing  244 


Diagram  of  Patents 245 

Newburgh  from  the  Northeast 246 

Diagram  of  German  Patent 248 

"         Township  of  Washington 266 


Washington's  Headquarters  from  the  East,  and  Ground  Plan 283 

Portrait  of  William  L.  F.  Warren facing  288 

"         ThomasC.Eing "       290 

"         John  R.  Wiltaie "       292 

Ringgold  Hose  House 299 

Portrait  of  John  Brown facing  302 

"         John  Johnston "       306 

Union  Presbyterian  Church 311 

J.  McCarrell facing  312 

Trinity  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 318 

Portrait  of  Thomas  Powell facing  351 

"         Homer  Ramsdell "      352 

"         Benjamin  Carpenter "      354 

"  David  Crawford "      355 

"  William  Walsh "      .366 

"         Henry  Walsh "      357 

"  D.B.St.  John "       358 

"         Jno.  Forsyth between  368,  359 

"  Charles  Downing 359 

"         J.  T.  Headley facing  360 

"         Thomas  Shaw 1 "      361 

"         James  Mackin "       362 

"         George  Clark "       303 

"         William  Wright "       364 

"  Peter  V.  B.  Fowler. "       366 

"  Daniel  Merritt "       366 

"         Jno.  L.Foster «       367 

"         B.  K.  Johnston 307 

"         W.  I.  Underbill between  308,  369 

"  Robert  Whitehill "        368, 369 

"  Nathaniel  Barnes "       368, 369 

"         Gilbert  Williams "       368,369 

"         Jacob  Gillies "       368,369 

*'         James  McCord facing370 


Portrait  of  Charles  Miller facing  408 

"         Joseph  H.  Decker 409 

"         Francis  C.  Decker 410 

*    "         George  Senior facing4l0 

"         James  Todd between  410,  411 

"         John  Kidd «       410, 411 

"         J.  R.  W.  Beattie "       410,411 

"  C.J.  Mould "       410,411 

"         M.  G.  Snyder. facing  412 


Portrait  of  John  H.  Leggett facing  420 

"  Daniel  Thompson between  426,  427 

"         Leander  Ci-awfurd "        426,427 

A.  K.  Taylor facing  427 

"  Horace  Bull 428 

"         Daniel  Bull '. between  428,429 

"         Augustus  Thompson "        428,429 


Map  of  Middletown 444 

Homoeopathic  Asylum  for  Insane 454 

Portrait  of  Selden  H.  Talcott facing  455 

"         William  B.  Royce **  473 

"  Robert  H.  Houston «  488 

"         E.  M.  Madden "  439 

"         S.  S.  WIckham "  491 

W.  C.  McNish "  492 

"  AlbertBull ; «•  493 

"  Elisha  P.  Wheeler 494 

*'         Oliver  P.  Reeve 490 

"  B.W.Shaw facing  497 

"         Horton  Vail "  498 


Portrait  of  Thomas  B.  Hnlse between  498,  499 

"  C.G.Sawyer "       498,499 

"  James  B.  Bell facing    600 

"  Alanson  Slaughter "        501 

"  JohnB.  Hulse "        502 

"  Virgil  Thompson between  502, 503 

"  Israel  H.  Wiclcham "       502,503 

"  Hiram  S.  Wilkison 603 

"  Hiram  B.  Webb 503 

U.  F.P.  Bliven 604 

"         H.  Bull between  604,  605 

A.  L.  Vail "       604,505 

H.  S.  LiDderman "      504,605 

H.B.Wilcox "       504,605 

"  Geo.  Wallace facing  605 

Portrait  of  Geo.  Smith 520 


Portrait  of  Nathaniel  Webb 532 

"  W.  D.  Suodgrass facing  634 

Goshen  Presbyterian  Church 535 

Portrait  of  A.  S.  Murray facing  641 

"  Wm.  Murray "      643 

Wm.  T.  Russell "      MS 

Alex.  Wright "      663 

"         Henry  Merrian "      654 

"  A.  H.  Sinsabaugh 555 

"         Jno.  J.  Smith facing  556 

"         C.  W.  Keevs between  556,  557 

"  William  Knapp "        556,567 

OliTor  B.  Tuthill "        656,567 

De  Witt  0.  Durland "        656,657 

Alfred  Wells facing  557 

"         ThomasXhurne "       568 

"  Jno.  C,  Walling between  558,  569 

"         Walter  H.  Sayer. "        568, 659 

"         Jno.  J.  Heard facing  659 

"  W.  B.  Tuthill 560 

"  G.  Thew ■. .-. facing  560 

"         Jas.  W.  Hoyt between  560,  561 

Stephen  Smith "        660, 561 

"  Eobert  Young "        660,561 

Jno.  N.  Ryerson "       660,161 

"  Johns.  Crane "        560,561 

Chas.  F.  Johnson "        560,661 

"  Edson  Coleman facing  661 

"  Geo.  Mapes 661 

"  John  T.  Ackley facing  662 

"  Adrian  Holbert between  662,  563 

Noah  Gregory "        562,563 

Richard  L.  Wood "        562,683 

N.C.Coleman "        582,563 

"         Jas.  M.  Bull facing  563 


Portrait  of  Wm.  H.  Seward 571 

"  Ezra  Sanford facing  604 

"  Benjamin  Sayer 605 

"  Edward  L.  Welling facing  606 

"  Jeffrey  Wisner between  606,  607 

"  James  Burt facing  607 

"  James  Wheeler "      608 

"  Gabriel  Wisner between  608,  609 

«  Gabriel  Housfem "       608,609 

"  Isaac  V.  Wheeler facing  609 

"  A.  J.  Burt '. between  610,  611 

"  JohnWilloox "       610,611 

'•  Thomas  Welling "       610,611 

"  William  H.  Houston "       610,611 

"  J.  E.  Waterbury facing  612 

"  Nathaniel  B.  Feagles between  612, 613 

"  Gardner  K.Nanny "       612,618 

"  Hezekiah  Hoyt facing  613 


Portrait  of  John  T.  Johnson '"''"6  *^ 

Jesse  Roe ■ 

James  Durland.. 

"       C23 

James  J.  Board between  624,  625 

Minard  Sutton "        624, 625 

Nathaniel  Roe "        624,025 

Ira  Bull "         624,  625 

John  W.King "        626,027 

R.  W.  Colfax between  626,627 

C.  B.Seely facing  627 

John  B.  Tuthill "       628 

Wm.  M.  Rysdyk between  628,629 

Abram  Demerest '*        628,629 

BliOOMING-GBOVE.  ,    . 

Portrait  of  J.  K.Oakley facing  643 

Thomas  N.  Hulse "        644 

N.  D.  Woodhull "        645 

Nathan  H.  White "        646 

Edmund  S.  Howell between  646,647 

Hezekiah  Howell "       046,647 

Aldeu  Goldsmith facing    648 

Silas  B.  Horton between  648,  649 

Anselm  Helme "       648,649 

C.  S.  Marvin "       648,  649 

Jesse  Bull facing  049 


Portrait  of  Charles  M.  Thompson facing  652 

Daniel  H.  Bull 

Vincent  Booth 

Solomon  T.  Smith.. 

"      054 

"      656 

"      658 


Hartwell's  School facing  667 

Portrait  of  Hulet  Clark ; "      673 

"  J.  C.  Wisner "      674 

"  Peter  Werry between  674,675 

"  Peter  Kimber "       674,676 

M.S.  Hayne facing  675 


Portrait  of  0.  B.  Carpenter facing  690 

"  George  W.  Horton "       691 


Reformed  Protestant  Dutch  Church  of  Deerpark 722 

Portrait  of  Edward  J.  Flyun , 728 

'•  H.  H.  Farnum facing  73S 

"  Eli  Van  Inwegen "       739 

"  Peter  P.  Swartwout "       750 

"  George  Cuddeback "       751 

*'  Moses  Van  Inwegen 4 751 

"  Nathan  Skinner ,. facing  752 

"  Levi  Van  Etteu "       753 


Portrait  of  Alfred  0.  Roe 

"         J.  Silliman 

"  Edward  P.  Roe , 

"  William  S.  Brown 

"         JohnOrr 

"  William  Orr __. 

Reeideuce  of  William  Orr '. facing 

Portrait  uf  B.  S.  Ketcham between  786, 

"  Charles  H.  Mead facing 




Portrait  of  Peter  Townsend facing  80B 

"  Morgan  Shuit 806 

"  Peter  P.  Parrott facing  806 

"  ^      Alex.  Thompson between  806,  SOT 

"  Peter  Turner. "        806,807 

"  Peter  B.  Bush facing  808 

"         John  Goff. between  808,  809 

"  Gilbert  T.  Smith "        808,808 

"  J.  Hortun  Thompson "        gQg  go9 

"  Isaac  H.  Thompson "        808,809 

"         James  Wilkes facing  809 


li-   '. 



fO   /S 



I    EirLonqj:-' 




^  kit-ei/ii-rJH 








The  aboriginal  history  of  Orange  County  may  be 
properly  dated  ftom  Sept.  15, 1609,  on  the  morning  of 
which  day  Henry  Hudson  rode  at  anchor  in  his  ship, 
the  "  Half-Moon,"  in  the  waters  of  the  river  now 
bearing  his  name,  immediately  above  the  Highlands. 
With  the  natives  of  the  country  which  he  was  ex- 
ploring his  experience  was  varied.  Below  the  High- 
lands he  made  captive  two  young  men,  intending 
to  take  them  to  Holland,  but  when  rounding  West 
Point  they  sprang  on  the  rocky  headland  and  called 
from  the  shore  to  their  captor  in  scorn.  Above  the 
Highlands  "  the  people  of  the  country,"  as  he  called 
them,  visited  his  ship  and  iarought  some  small  skins 
with  them,  which  were  "bought  for  knives  and 
trifles."  Subsequently,  when  anchored  off  Stony 
Point,  "the  people  of  the  mountains"  came  on  board, 
and  when  leaving  a  conflict  was  broi^ht  on  which 
resulted  in  the  death  of  two  of  their  number,  and 
before  reaching  the  Manhattan  islands  eight  of  the 
aboriginal  lords  had  fallen  under  the  power  of  Eu- 
ropean falcons. 

Through  the  early  Dutch  navigators  who  followed 
Hudson's  path  more  definite  information  is  obtained  of 
the  people  whom  he  visited,  and  also  the  names  which 
were  given  to  the  clans  or  chieftaincies  into  which 
they  were  divided.  At  "Haverstroo"  they  were 
called  Haveratroos ;  from  Stony  Point  to  the  Dans- 
Kammer  they  were  Waoranecka, — subsequently  called 
"the  Murderer's  Creek  Indians;"  from  the  Dans- 
Kammer  north  through  Ulster  County,  and  west 
through  the  valley  of  the  Wallkill,  they  were  War- 
ranawonhongs ;  in  the  district  drained  by  the  Dela- 
ware and  its  tributaries  they  were  Minsia  or  Minisinks. 
These  names  were  not  those  which  the  natives  had 
given  as  belonging  to  themselves,  but  were  those 
which  had  been  given  by  them  to  the  Dutch  as  the 
names  of  the  streams  on  which  they  lived.  The  War- 
ranawonhong  was  the  Wallkill;  the  Waoraneck,  the 
Murderer's  Creek. 

Later  the  tribal  and  national  organizations  of  this 

people  appeared.  It  would  be  no  violation  of  fact  to 
say  that  their  political  constitution  was  similar  to  our 
own.  They  had  villages  or  towns,  counties  or  en- 
larged cantons,  tribes  or  states,  nations  or  united 
tribes.  Each  in  its  sphere  was  independent,  yet  the 
whole  strongly  and  firmly  bound  together.  The  sub- 
tribes  or  villages  south  of  Stony  Point  were  Unulac- 
tos,  or  the  Turkey  tribe ;  those  north  were  Minsk,  or 
the  Wolf  tribe,  with  territorial  jurisdiction  extending 
through  the  Minisink  country  of  Pennsylvania  and 
New  Jersey ;  south  of  the  Minds  they  were  Vnamis, 
or  the  Turtle  tribe.*  The  tribes  named  constituted 
the  Lenni-Lenape  nation,  which  held  its  council-fire 
at  what  is  now  Philadelphia.  From  the  Unamis  was 
selected  invariably,  by  the  ruling  chiefs  of  the  other 
tribes,  the  king  or  sagamore  of  the  nation, — a  king 
both  with  and  without  power ;  a  sovereign  whose  rule 
was  perpetuated  only  through  the  love  of  his  people ; 
a  monarch  the  most  polished,  the  most  liberal,  the 
poorest  of  his  race ;  one  who  ruled  by  permission, 
who  received  no  salary,  who  was  not  permitted  to- 
own  the  cabin  in  which  he  lived  or  the  land  he  culti- 
vated, who  could  receive  no  presents  that  did  not  be- 
come the  property  of  the  nation,  yet  whose  larder  and 
treasure-chest  were  never  empty. 

The  history  of  the  Lenapes,  briefly  stated,  is,  that 
they  were  the  head  of  the  Algonquin  nations  at  the 
time  of  the  discovery,  but,  by  a  succession  of  wars 
with  the  Dutch,  the  English,  and  the  Iroquois,  were 
compelled  some  time  about  1670  to  yield  to  the  latter 
and  become  a  "  nation  of  women," — i.e.,  a  nation 
without  power  to  make  war  or  peace  on  their  own 
account,  or  to  sell  or  convey  lands.  In  this  condition 
they  remained  until  1755  (having  in  the  mean  time 
become  generally  known  as  the  Delawares),  when 
they  threw  ofi"  the  yoke  of  subjugation,  and  under 
alliances  with  the  Shawanoes,  Mingoes,  etc.,  were 
enabled  to  place  themselves  at  the  head  of  the  West- 
ern nations,  and  contest  every  inch  of  soil  east  of  the 

*  Tribal  organizatione  were  known  by  the  totems  or  emblems  which 
they  painted  on  their  cabins,  their  persons,  etc.,  as  the  turkey,  the 
wolf,  the  turtle. 




But  while  these  facts  were  being  ascertained, — 
years  before  many  of  them  were  known, — there  came 
the  hurrying  to  and  fro  of  armed  men,  and  the  terri- 
bly echoing  battle-cry  of  the  woodland  lords,  "  Woaoh, 
Woach,  Ha,  Ha,  Hack,  Woach  !"  with  which  the  set- 
tlers subsequently  became  familiar.  The  Dutch  be- 
gan their  settlement  at  New  Amsterdam  (now  New 
York)  in  1626.  A  few  years  later,  settlements  were 
commenced  at  Paulus'  Hook  (now  Jersey  City),  then 
called  Pavonia,  and  at  Breucklen,  now  the  city  of 
Brooklyn,  and  a  few  small  neighborhoods  were  scat- 
tered along  the  river  north  of  Paulus'  Hook.  These 
settlements  brought  with  them  frictions  of  opposing 
customs,  which,  in  1643,  resulted  in  conflicts  and 
massacres  in  the  vicinity  of  New  Amsterdam,  by  which 
the  Dutch  were  driven  from  every  foothold  outside  of 
their  fort,  and  the  whole  country  from  the  Neversink 
highlands  to  the  hills  and  valleys  of  the  Tappans  was 
again  in  the  possession  of  its  aboriginal  lords. 

Passing  from  these  fields  of  conflict  to  the  north  of 
the  Hudson  highlands,  from  1656  to  1664  the  territory 
of  the  Warranawonkongs  became  the  theatre  of  war, 
broken  by  occasional  periods  of  peace.  Whatever 
may  have  been  the  earlier  trading-posts,  permanent 
settlement  was  not  commenced  among  that  tribe  until 
1652,  and  may  be  said  to  have  been  soon  after  aban- 
doned until  1656.  As  in  other  places,  the  settlers  de- 
voted the  largest  portion  of  their  time  and  means  to 
the  purposes  of  trade,  and,  with  a  view  to  secure  the 
largest  amount  of  furs,  imprudently  made  free  with 
the  sale  of  brandy  and  other  liquors,  under  the  influ- 
ence of  which  the  Indians  became  troublesome  and 
resorted  to  violence.  Stirring  events  soon  clustered 
around  the  infant  colony  at  Atkarkarton  (now  Kings- 
ton). A  stockaded  village  and  a  fort  were  found 
necessary  for  protection;  but  even  these  proved  of 
little  avail,  for  on  the  7th  of  June,  1663,  the  Indians 
entered  the  gates  of  the  villages,  two  of  which,  known 
as  the  "  New"  and  the  "  Old,"  were  then  in  occupa- 
tion. Ostensibly  seeking  trade,  they  scattered  them- 
selves among  the  houses  of  the  Dutch,  until  at  a  given 
signal  their  vocation  was  changed  to  that  of  destruc- 
tion .  At  a  single  blow  the  New  Village  was  destroyed. 
"  Some  people  on  horseback  escaped  and  reached  the 
Old  Village,  but  their  arrival  was  the  signal  of  attack 
upon  the  latter,  for  scarce  had  the  alarm  been  given 
when  the  Indians  uttered  their  war-whoop  and  com- 
menced the  work  of  death.  The  people  were  mur- 
dered in  their  houses  with  axes  and  tomahawks,  and 
by  firing  on  them  with  guns  and  pistols."  Women 
and  children  were  seized  and  carried  ofi'  prisoners; 
houses  were  plundered,  and  men,  rushing  to  the  de- 
fense of  their  families,  were  shot  down  by  foes  con- 
cealed in  their  own  dwellings.  To  aid  in  the  work  of 
destruction,  the  Indians  set  fire  to  the  village  on  the 
windward  side.  The  flames  spread  rapidly,  but  when 
at  their  height  the  wind  suddenly  changed  to  the 
west  and  prevented  further  devastation.  The  panic 
occasioned  by  the  sudden  attack  having  subsided,  the 

settlers  rallied  and  drove  the  Indians  out.    By  even-  i 
ing  all  was  still  again,  and  the  bereaved  inhabitants 
kept  mournfiil  watch  during  the  night.    Twenty-on^J 
lives  were  lost,  nine  were  wounded,  and  forty-five 
carried  off" captive  ;  the  New  Village  was  annihilated, 
and  at  the  Old  Village  twelve  houses  were  burned.* 

Immediately  on  the  receipt  of  the  intelligencfe  of 
this  disaster,  Stuyvesant  dispatched  Col.  Martin  Kre- 
gier  with  a  company  of  soldiers  to  assist  the  settlers,  , 
Kregier  arrived  at  the  Eonduit  on  the  4th  of  July.  In 
a  few  days  five  Mohawk  and  Mohican  chiefs  arrived 
from  Fort  Orange,  and  by  their  mediation  some  of  the 
Dutch  captives  were  released ;  but  the  Warranawon- 
kongs would  not  listen  to  propositions  for  peace  unlaw 
the  Dutch  would  pay  "  for  the  land  named  the  Great 
Plot,"  and  reward  them  with  presents  within  ten 
days.  The  Dutch  commander  replied  by  sending  out 
scouting-parties,  who  succeeded  in  bringing  in  a  few 
prisoners,  from  whom  it  was  learned  that  the  Indians 
had  retreated  to  their  castle  ;  and  thither  it  was  deter- 
mined to  follow  them.  The  expedition  reached  its 
destination  on  the  evening  of  the  26th  of  July.  The 
castlef  was  a  formidable  structure.  It  was  "  defended 
by  three  rows  of  palisades,  and  the  houses  in  the  fort 
encircled  by  thick  cleft  palisades  with  port-holes  in 
them,  and  covered  with  bark  of  trees ;''  in  form  it  was 
quadrangular,  but  the  angles  were  "  constructed  be- 
tween the  first  and  second  rows  of  palisades,"  the 
third  row  of  palisades  standing  "  full  eight  feet  off 
from  the  others  towards  the  interior,"  the  whole  being 
"  on  the  brow  of  the  hill,"  surrounded  by  table-lani 
But  the  object  of  the  expedition  was  not  accom- 
plished. Warned  of  the  approach  of  their  enemy, 
the  Indians  retreated  to  the  Shawangunk  Mountains 
and  took  their  captives  with  them.  From  a  captured 
squaw  it  was  learned  that  the  Indians  were  some  four 
miles  distant,  and  a  force  was  sent  thither ;  but  when 
they  arrived  at  the  designated  place,  it  was  found  that 
they  had  again  retreated.  Kregier,  however,  de- 
stroyed the  Kahanksen  castle  by  (ah,  cut  down  the 
corn-fields  which  the  Indians  had  planted,  and  de- 
stroyed "  about  a  hundred  pits  full  of  corn  and 
beans,"  which  had  been  preserved  from  the  crop  of 
the  previous  year.  This  work  accomplished,  he  re- 
turned to  Wiltwyck.J 

The  settlers  now  engaged  in  harvesting  their  grain, 
and  the  soldiers  guarded  them  while  at  work.  Offen- 
sive operations  were  not  resumed  until  September, 
when  a  'force  of  fifty  men  was  sent  out  to  reduce  a 
new  castle  which  the  Indians  were  said  to  be  erecting. 

*  The  New  Village  was  about  three  miles  from  the  Old  Village,  and 
the  Ronduit  about  the  same  distance. 

t  The   location   of  this  fort,  or  palisaded  -village,  is  defined  in  tin    I 
boundary  lines  of  lands  conveyed  by  the  treaty  of  1665 :  "  Lying  and 
being  to  the  west  and  southwest  of  a  certain  creek  or  river  called  by 
name  of  Kahanksen,  and  so  up  to  the  head  thereof  where  the  old  i 

t  By  a  formal  charter  of  date  Uay  16, 1661,  the  settlement  was  orda^B 
to  be  called  "  Wiltwyck,"  or  Indian  Village.    The  English  changed  ft» 
name  to  Kingston. 



situated  "  about  four  hours  farther  than  their  first  fort," 
which  had  been  burned.  The  expedition  reached  its 
destination  on  the  5th  of  September.  The  Indians 
were  taken  by  surprise,  but  made  a  stout  resistance. 
They  were  busy  completing  their  fort,  and  had  left 
their  arms  at  their  houses,  "  about  a  stone's  throw  from 
the  fort."  Alarmed  by  a  squaw,  who  had  discovered 
the  approach  of  the  Dutch,  they  rushed  to  secure  their 
arms,  but  were  only  partially  successful  so  closely 
were  they  pursued.  Retreating  across  the  kill,  they 
threw  back  the  Dutch  fire  with  such  spirit  that  it  was 
found  necessary  to  send  a  strong  party  to  dislodge 
them.  "In  this  attack  the  Indians  lost  their  chief 
Fapequanaehan,  fourteen  warriors,  four  women,  and 
three  children."  On  the  part  of  the  Dutch  three  were 
killed  and  wounded.  Thirteen  Indians  were  taken 
prisoners,  and  twenty-three  Dutch  captives  released. 
The  Dutch  found  plunder  sufficient  to  "  well  fill  a 
sloop,"  but  were  obliged  to  leave  it.  Everything  was 
destroyed  that  could  be.  "The  fort  was  a  perfect 
square,  with  one  row  of  palisades  set  all  around,  being 
about  fifteen  feet  above  and  three  feet  below  ground," 
but  it  was  not  completed.  Two  angles  of  "  stout  pali- 
sades, all  of  them  about  as  thick  as  a  man's  body, 
having  two  rows  of  port-holes,  one  above  the  other," 
were  done,  and  when  surprised  the  Indians  were  "  busy 
at  the  other  angle.''  The  victorious  expedition  re- 
turned to  the  settlement  laden  with  spoil,  and  the 
Indians  fled  to  the  mountains  to  brood  over  their 
defeat  and  loss. 

On  the  1st  of  October  another  expedition  was  sent 
out  on  the  same  route,  and  arrived  at  the  fort  last  de- 
stroyed on  the  2d.  The  Indians  had  meanwhile  re 
turned  to  it  and  thrown  the  bodies  of  their  dead  com- 
rades into  five  pits,  from  which  "  the  wolves  had  rooted 
up  and  devoured  some  of  them.  Lower  down  on  the 
kill  four  other  pits  were  found  containing  bodies ;  and 
farther  on  three  Indians  with  a  squaw  and  child  lay 
unburied  and  almost  wholly  devoured  by  wolves.''  A 
terrible  picture  of  desolation  was  spread  out  on  either 
hand  where  but  a  few  days  before  the  native  lords 
had  exulted  in  their  strength,  but  who  now,  crushed 
and  broken,  had  retreated  southward  among  their 
kindred  Miosis.  The  Dutch  forces  completed  the  de- 
struction of  the  fort ;  the  palisades  were  pulled  down, 
the  wigwams  burned,  and  all  the  corn  cut  up  and  cast 
into  the  kill. 

The  Warranawonkongs,  upon  whom  this,  chastise- 
ment had  principally  fallen,  solicited  peace  in  the  fall, 
and  an  armistice  was  granted.  They  had  suffered 
severely ;  their  villages,  from  Wawayanda  to  Esopus, 
were  not  without  mourners ;  their  store-houses  were 
rifled,  and  their  crops  destroyed.  Nor  were  their  allies, 
the  Waoranecks,  more  fortunate.  Although  their 
territory  had  not  been  invaded  nor  their  villages 
burned,  they  were  not  the  less  subdued ;  the  embers 
of  their  forest  worship,  which  had  for  ages  been  lighted 
on  the  Dans-Kammer,  were  extinguished  forever.  In 
the  spring  following  Sewackenamo,  in  conference  at 

Fort  Amsterdam,  lifted  up  his  voice  in  prayer  to  his 
God — Bachtamo — that  "  something  good"  might  be 
concluded  with  the  Dutch,  and  there  executed  a  treaty, 
by  the  terms  of  which  all  that  had  passed  was  to  be  for- 
given and  forgotten ;  the  lands  claimed  by  the  Dutch, 
and  now  conquered  by  the  sword,  were  to  remain  the 
property  of  the  conquerors,  and  the  vanquished  were 
not  to  approach  the  Dutch  settlements  with  arms. 
This  treaty  was  ratified  (May  16, 1664)  amid  the  roar  of 
cannon,  and  was  celebrated  by  a  public  thanksgiving. 
With  its  conclusion  was  also  closed  the  struggle  of 
the  aboriginal  clans  for  the  possession  of  their  ancient 
seats  on  the  western  slope  of  the  valley  of  the  Hud- 
son, from  the  Katskills  to  the  sea.  The  retreating 
footsteps  of  some  of  their  warriors  were  yet  to  be 
marked  on  advancing  frontiers  by  blazing  torch  and 
branding  tomahawk,  but  those  who  remained  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  "  river  of  the  mountains"  awaited  in 
peace  the  granting  of  title-deeds  to  their  European 
successors.  Meanwhile,  however,  those  who  survived 
the  conflict  with  the  Dutch,  more  especially  the  Min- 
sis,  in  the  western  part  of  the  county  and  the  adjoining 
territory,  were  greatly  strengthened  by  additions  to 
their  number,  first  in  1692,  and  again  in  1694,  of  large 
colonies  of  Shawanoes  who  located  in  western  Ulster 
and  Orange.  It  is  not  impossible  that  these  immi- 
grants left  behind  them  in  their  western  march  names 
which  have  been  ascribed  to  earlier  periods.  How- 
ever this  may  be,  it  is  certain  that  from  the  nursery- 
beds  of  the  Shawanoes  in  Orange  went  forth  to  the 
West  some  of  the  most  able  chiefs  and  warriors  of 
that  tribe. 



"  The  lands  which  I  intend  shall  be  first  planted 
are  those  upon  the  west  side  of  Hudson's  River,  at  or 
adjoining  to  the  Sopes,"  wrote  Governor  Nicolls  in 
1664.  With  the  exception  of  the  "  Great  Plot,"  now 
occupied  by  the  city  of  Kingston,  embracing  about 
four  thousand  acres,  which  had  been  given  to  Gov- 
ernor Stuy vesant  by  the  Warranawonkong  chiefs  "  to 
grease  his  feet,"  the  lands  to  which  Governor  Nicolls 
refers  were  the  first  to  which  Europeans  had  a  title, 
and  were  "  conquered  by  the  sword."  They  are  de- 
scribed in  the  treaty  ofl665as"a  certain  parcel  of  land 
lying  and  being  to  the  west  and  southwest  of  a  certain 
creek  or  river  called  by  the  name  of  Kahanksen,  and 
so  up.  to  the  head  thereof,  where  the  old  fort  was ; 
and  so  with  a  direct  line  from  thence  through  the 
woods  and  across  the  meadows  to  the  Great  Hill,  lying 
and  being  to  the  west  or  southwest  thereof,  which 
Great  Hill  is  to  be  the  true  west  or  southwest  bounds 
of  the  said  lands,  and  the  creek  called  Kahanksen 
the  north  or  northeast  bounds  of  the  said  lands."  In 
other  words,  they  were  the  lands  that  Kregier  and  his 



Dutch  troops  had  ravaged  in  1663.  They  were  limited 
in  extent,  embracing  scarce  three  townships  in  south- 
western Ulster,  and  were  specially  designated  by  the 
Indians  as  Shawangunk,  "  the  white  man's  country, '•' 
as  distinguished  from  the  lands  to  which  they  retained 
the  title. 

From  this  extreme  position  on  the  northwest  bounds 
of  the  present  county  chronology  takes  us  to  the  ex- 
treme south  of  the  old  county  of  Orange,  "  the  Chris- 
tian patented  lands  of  Haverstraw.''  Here  Balthazer 
de  Hart  and  his  brother  Jacob,  immigrants  from 
Holland  at  an  earlier  date,  prior  to  July  31, 1666, 
purchased  from  the  Indians  "  all  that  tract  of  land 
lying  on  the  west  side  of  Hudson's  River  called  Hav- 
erstraw, being  on  the  north  side  of  the  hills  called 
Verdrietig  Hook,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Highlands, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  mountains,  so  that  the  same  is 
bounded  by  Hudson's  River  and  round  about  by  the 
high  mountains."  Presuming  that  the  tract  was  in- 
cluded in  the  boundaries  of  New  Jersey,  he  obtained 
from  Carteret  and  the  Council  of  that  province  a 
patent,*  and  transferred  his  interest  to  Nicholas  De- 
puy  and  Peter  Jacobs  Marius.  On  subsequent  pur- 
chase and  patent  he  acquired  (April  10,  1671)  the 
"  parcels  of  land  called  by  the  Indian  names  of  New- 
asink,  Yandakah,  Caquaney,  and  Aquamak,  bounded 
on  the  west  by  a  creek  called  Menisakcungue,  on  the 
east  and  north  by  Hudson's  River,  and  on  the  south 
by  the  mountains,"  which  became  the  property  of  his 
brother  Jacob ;  and  also  a  tract "  known  by  the  name 
of  Ahequerenoy,"  which,  with  a  portion  of  the  pre- 
vious purchase,  came  to  the  possession  of  Hendrick 
Eyker,  the  whole  becoming  the  basis  of  the  boun- 
daries of  all  subsequent  grants  in  the  district. 

Turning  again  to  the  north  of  the  district,  we  find 
that  Louis  Du  Bois,  a  Huguenot  pioneer,  driven 
thither  by  the  pending  persecutions  of  the  people  of 
his  faith  in  France,  located,  with  some  of  his  friends, 
at  Esopus  in  1660.  Contributing  the  captivity  of  his 
wife  and  children  to  the  Indian  war  of  1663,  he  sub- 
sequently induced  several  families  of  his  countrymen, 
who  were  more  recent  immigrants,  to  unite  with  him 
in  establishing  a  French  town.  Twelve  men,  known  as 
the  "  Twelve  Patentees,"  were  selected  to  obtain  title 
to  lands,  who,  after  an  examination  of  the  country,  pur- 
chased from  the  Indian  proprietors  (May  26, 1677)  a 
tract  of  thirty-six  thousand  acres,  lying  immediately 
south  of  the  "  Eedoute  Creek,"  as  the  Warranawon- 
kong  came  to  be  called.  On  the  29th  of  September 
following  a  patent  was  obtained  from  Governor  An- 
dres, in  the  name  of  "  Louis  du  Bois  and  his  partners, 
that  is.  Christian  Doyau,  Abraham  Hasbroucq,  Andrg 
le  Febvre,  Jean  Hasbroucq,  Pierre  Doyau,  Louis  Be- 
viere,  Anthoine  Crespel,  Abraham  du  Bois,  Hugue 
Frere,  Isaac  Du  Bois,  and  Simon  le  Febvre,  their 
heirs  and  others,"  men  whose  names  live  in  the 

*  The  grant  wafi  subsequently  confirmed  by  the  Governor  and  Council 
of  New  York.    The  patent  is  of  record  in  New  Jersey. 

annals  of  their  adopted  country.  On  this  patent  nine 
families  immediately  settled,  and  laid,  in  the  faith 
which  they  professed,  the  foundations  of  New  Paltz. 

Midway  between  the  Haverstraw  and  New  Paltz 
settlements,  Patrick  MacGregorie,  his  brother-in-law, 
David  Toshuck,  who  subscribed  his  name  "  Laird  of 
Minivard,"  and  twenty-five  others,  principally  Scotch 
Presbyterians,  entered  upon  lands  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Waoraneck.  It  was  their  original  intention  to  settle 
in  New  Jersey,  but  they  were  persuaded  by  Govemoi 
Dongan  to  take  up  lands  in  New  York.  Obtaining 
a  license  for  that  purpose,  MacGregorie,  acting  as 
their  representative,  purchased  for  his  people  a  tract 
of  four  thousand  acres,  embracing  lands  on  both  sides 
of  "  Murderer's  Creek,"  "  and  so  settled  themselvegj 
their  families  and  sundry  of  their  servants,  on  the 
land  so  purchased,  and  were  not  only  the  first  Chris- 
tians that  settled  and  improved  thereon,  but  also 
peaceably  and  quietly  possessed  and  enjoyed  them- 
selves during  the  term  of  their  natural  lives."  On 
what  is  now  known  as  Plum  Point,  but  which  was 
then  called,  from  its  aboriginal  owner,  Couwanham's 
Hill,  MacGregorie  reared  his  cabin ;  in  the  same 
vicinity  were  the  cabins  of  his  associates,  while  on 
the  south  side  of  the  creek  the  "  Laird  of  Minivard" 
and  his  servant,  Daniel  Maskrig,  established  a  trading- 
post.  Within  the  bounds  of  the  present  county  of  Oranga 
this  was  the  first  European  settlement,  as  Haverstraw 
was  the  first  in  the  original  county. 

Unfortunately,  MacGregorie  did  not  perfect  his 
title  by  patent.  Trusting  to  Governor  Dongan  to 
protect  his  interests,  he  entered  the  service  of  the 
State,  while  Dongan  obtained  by  purchase  on  his 
own  account  (Oct.  25,  1684),  from  "Mangenaett, 
Tsema,  Keghgekapowell,  alias  Joghem,  three  Indians, 
native  proprietors  and  principal  owners,  with  the 
consent  of  Pemeranaghin,  chief  sachem  of  Esopus 
Indians,"  a  tract  described  as  extending  from  "  the 
Paltz  along  Hudson's  River  to  the  land  belonging  to 
the  Indians  at  the  Murderer's  Kill,  thence  westward 
to  the  foot  of  the  high  hills  called  Pitkiskaker  and 
Aiaskawasting,  thence  southwesterly  all  along  the  said 
hills  and  the  river  called  Peakadasank  to  a  water- 
pond  lying  upon  said  hills  called  Meretange,  compre- 
hending all  those  lands,  meadows,  and  woods  called 
Nescotank,  Chawangon,  Memorasink,  Kakoghgetaw- 
narnuch,  and  Ghittatawagh.''  The  consideration  was 
the  sum  of  ninety  pounds  and  eleven  shillings,  in  the 
following  goods :  "  10  fathoms  blue  dufiels,  10  fathoms 
of  red  duffels,  200  fathoms  white  wampum,  10  fathoms 
Stroud  water  (red  cloth),  10  fathoms  blue  cloth,  10 
blankets,  10  guns,  10  kettles,  10  duffel  coats,  10  draw- 
ing-knives, 10  shirts,  10  tobacco-boxes,  10  children's 
duffel  coats,  10  children's  shirts,  10  pair  of  hose,  50 
lbs.  powder,  50  bars  lead,  10  pair  shoes,  10  cutlasses, 
10  hatchets,  10  hoes,  10  scissors,  10  tobacco  tongues, 
100  flints,  2  rolls  of  tobacco,  20'  gals,  rum,  2  vata 
strong  beer,  and  1  barrel  cider." 

To  this  purchase  he  added  (April  16, 1684),  by  deed 



from  Werekepea,  sachem,  Sackaghemeck,  Sewiskka- 
mock,  alias  Hans,  Apiskaeuw,  Cashoros,  Csquameck, 
Moringamaghan,  Poghghock,  and  Kaghtsikoos,  the 
lands  owned  by  "themselves  and  copartners," being  a 
tract  beginning  "  at  about  a  place  called  the  Dancing 
Chamber ;  thence  south  to  the  north  side  of  the  land 
called  Haverstraw ;  thence  northwest  along  the  hill 
called  Skoonnenoghky  to  the  bounds  of  his  purchase 
from  the  Esopus  Indians  aforesaid,  including  the 
Murderer's  Creek."  The  consideration  was  150 
fathoms  of  wampum,  120  royals,  20  fathoms  duf- 
fels, 6  guns,  7  brass  kettles,  8  blankets,  6  fathoms 
Btrouds,  2  cloth  coats,  2  broad  axes,  5  pair  shoes,  6 
jchildren's  shirts,  20  knives,  50  lbs.  powder,  30  bars 
lead,  25  lbs.  shot,  2  rolls  tobacco,  4  iron  pots,  10  to- 
bacco tongues,  10  tobacco-boxes,  4  lbs.  bood,  2  half- 
vats  single  beer,  2  half-vats  double  beer,  5  glass  bot- 
tles, 5  earthen  jugs,  2  pewter  dishes,  2  bottles,  with 
rum,  100  tobacco  pipes,  10  hatchets,  6  drawing-knives, 
4  addz,  10  hoes,  10  pair  stockings,  8  shirts,  6  pistols, 
10  children's  blankets,  2  boys'  cloth  coats,  6  boys' 
duffel  coate,  20  gallons  rum,  £2*  paid  Frederick 
Phillipse,  £2  paid  Stephanus  Van  Cortlandt. 

Not  only  had  the  Indians  previously  sold  to  Mac- 
Gregorie  a  portion  of  the  lands  which  by  this  sale 
they  conveyed  to  Dongan,  but  Stephanus  Van  Cort- 
landt held  their  deed  for  a  tract  opposite  Anthony's 
Nose.  The  purchase  was  made  July  13,  1683,  and 
the  tract  described  as  "  beginning  on  the  south  side 
of  a  creek  called  Sankapogh,  and  so  along  said  creek 
to  the  head  thereof,  and  then  northerly  along  the 
high  hills  as  the  river  runneth  to  another  creek  called 
Assinapink,  and  thence  along  the  said  creek  to  Hud- 
son's River  again,  together  with  a  certain  island  and 
parcel  of  meadow-land,  near  or  adjoining  the  same, 
called  Manahawaghkin,  and  by  the  Christians,  Salis- 
bury Island."  Sackaghemeck,  sachem  of  Haver- 
straw, Werekepes,  and  Kaghtsikoos  were  the  grantors. 
Luckily,  he  preserved  his  deed,  and  under  it  succeeded 
in  obtaining  a  patent  attaching  his  purchase  to  his 
manor,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river. 

But  the  MacGregorie  colonists  were  not  so  fortunate. 
Governor  Dongan  conveyed  his  two  purchases  to  Capt. 
John  Evans  by  patent  Sept.  12,  1694,  under  the  title 
of  the  Lordship  and  Manor  of  Fletcherdon.  Mac- 
Gregorie, after  serving  the  province  in  the  capacity 
of  muster-general  of  the  militia  and  as  its  agent 
among  the  northwestern  Indians  in  a  district  of 
country  which  had  not  been  previously  visited,  had 
yielded  up  his  life  in  the  Leslie  revolution  of  1691, 
and  a  peaceful  death  had  closed  the  earthly  cares  of 
David  Toshuck  in  the  bosom  of  his  family,  at  Plum 
Point.  To  dispossess  the  heirs  was  the  first  work  of 
Evans,  to  whose  shame  it  is  written  that  he  compelled 
MacGregorie's  widow,  Margaret,  to  sell  to  him  the 
house  in  which  she  lived  for  "  £30  or  £35,  to  the 

*  The  pounds  of  thii  period  were  of  alMQt  the  value  of  a  United  States 

ruin  of  herself  and  family."  To  her  and  to  her  sur- 
viving neighbors  he  then  granted  leases,  thus  preserv- 
ing title  and  possession,  as  well  as  the  continuity  of 
the  settlement.  The  Scotch  settlers  who  remained  in 
possession  under  these  leases  obtained  no  subsequent 
patent  titles,  except  in  the  case  of  the  heirs  of  Mac- 
Gregorie, to  whom,  some  years  later,  a  patent  was 
granted  for  the  Plum  Point  farm,  and  also  for  a 
mountain  tracts  in  consideration  of  their  claim. 

The  fourth  settlement,  and  by  far  the  most  consid- 
erable, was  made  adjoining  the  "  Christian  patented 
lands  of  Haverstraw."  It  was  composed  of  immi- 
grants from  Holland,  principally  members  of  the 
Reformed  Dutch  Church.  Among  them  were  de- 
scendants or  relatives  of  David  Pieterson  de  Vries, 
who  had  occupied  a  conspicuous  position  in  the 
earlier  history  of  the  province,  and  had  established 
a  plantation  which  he  called  Vriesendael,  situated 
"in  a  beautiful  valley  just  below  the  mountains." 
Driven  thence  during  the  war  of  1645,  he  had  taken 
to  Holland  a  memory  which  had  been  treasured  by 
his  family  and  neighbors,  who,  on  their  arrival, 
selected  a  location  in  the  vicinity,  if  not  embracing 
the  site,  of  his  ancient  "  little  bouwerie."  Obtaining, 
through  trustees  selected  for  that  purpose,  a  title  from 
"  the  native  Indian  proprietors,"  and  being  in  num- 
bers sufficient  to  demand  it,  they  were  granted 
(March  20,  1686)  a  township  patent,  "'under  the 
name  of  the  Town  of  Orange,"  with  all  the  powers 
"  practiced  or  belonging  unto  any  town  within  this 
Government."  The  trustees  of  the  grant  were  Cor- 
nells Claessen  Cuyper,  Daniel  de  Klercke,  Peter 
Harnich,  Cattis  Harnich,  Gerritt  Steumetts,  John  de 
Vries,  Sr.,  John  de  Vries,  Jr.,  Claes  Mannde,  Jan 
Stratemaker,  Staaes  de  Groot,  Arean  Lammeates, 
Lament  Arianuis,  Huybert  Gerryts,  Johannes  Gerrits, 
Eide  Van  Vorst,  and  Cornelius  Lammerts.  The 
boundaries  of  the  tract  were  defined  as  "beginning  at 
the  mouth  of  Tappan  Creek  where  it  falls  into  the 
meadow  and  running  from  thence  along  the  north 
side  of  the  said  creek  to  a  creeple  bush  and  falls  into 
Hackinsack  River,  northerly  to  a  place  called  the 
Greenbush,  and  from  thence  along  said  Greenbush 
easterly  to  the  lands  of  Class  Janse  and  Dowe  Har- 
manse,t  and  from  thence  southerly  along  said  land 
upon  the  top  of  the  hills  to  the  aforementioned  mouth 
of  Tappan  Creek  where  it  falls  into  the  meadow 
aforesaid."  The  centre  of  the  township  was  at  Tap- 
pan,  where  a  glebe  for  the  support  of  a  minister  was 
laid  out  and  a  church  organized.^ 

A  vacant  tract  of  land,  immediately  west  of  Hav- 
erstraw, was  conveyed  by  deed  and  patent  (the  latter, 
June  25, 1696)  to  Daniel  Honan  and  Michael  Hawdon. 
This  tract,  which  is  described  as  beirig  known  by  the 

t  Probably  Harman  Dowson,  who  had  taken  up  a  tract  called  Fessa- 
tinock,  on  Hackinsack  Biver. 

X  The  Reformed  Protestant  Dutch.  It  was  organized  Oct.  24, 1694. 
The  first  preacher  was  the  Rev.  Guilliam  Bartholf.  The  first  church 
edifice  was  erected  in  1716.    The  glebe  consisted  of  fifty-five  acres. 



name  of  Kuck-quaok-ta-wake  (Kakiate),  was  "  bounded 
on  the  east  by  the  Christian  patented  lands  of  Haver- 
atraw,  on  the  north  by  a  creek  called  Shamorack  or 
Peasqua,  which  runs  under  a  great  hill,  from  which  it 
continues  a  west  course  until  the  west-southwest  side 
of  a  barren  plain  called  Wishpegwrap  bears  south, 
thence  to  the  west-southwest  side  of  aforesaid  plain, 
from  thence  south-southwest  until  the  said  line  comes 
to  a  creek  that  runs  to  David  Demaree's  creek  to  the 
south  side  of  the  land  called  Marranchaw,  and  thence 
down  the  said  creek  to  the  Christian  patented  lands." 
Adjoining  this  tract  on  the  south,  Samuel  Bayard 
was  granted  certain  tracts  called  Whorinims,  Perseck, 
Gemackie,  and  Narrashunck,  "  bounded  north  by  the 
land  of  Daniel  Honan  and  Michael  Hawdon,  south 
by  the  parting  line  of  this  Province  and  the  Jerseys, 
west  by  Saddle  River,  and  east  by  Demaree's  Creek," 
containing  two  thousand  acres.  The  Indian  deed  for 
this  and  several  other  purchases  was  covered  by  one 
to  Lucas  Tienhoven,  embracing  by  survey  one  hun- 
dred thousand  acres,  but  for  which  no  patent  was 

Between  the  township  of  Orange  and  the  Haver- 
straw  lands  the  rocky  bluff  known  as  Verdrietig 
Hook,  by  the  Indians  called  Quaspeeck,  including 
Rockland  Lake,  became  the  subject  of  controversy 
between  "John  Hutchins  and  Company"  and  •' Jarvis 
Marshall  and  Company."  Both  parties  obtained 
deeds,  but  the  latter  apparently  had  priority  in  date 
of  purchase  and  were  granted  (Sept.  27,  1694)  the 
patent,  the  patentees  being  Jarvis  Marshall  and  Wil- 
liam Welch.  At  a  l3,ter  period  (April  23,  1708)  a 
patent  to  Lancaster  Syms,  Robert  Walter,  and  Hen- 
drick  Ten  Eycke  covered  the  vacant  river-front,  de- 
scribed as  "  beginning  by  the  south  bounds  of  Hav- 
erstraw,  thence  west  to  the  northermost  end  of  the 
land  or  island  called  Mattasink  or  Welch's  Island, 
thence  southerly  to  the  southermost  end  of  said 
island,  then  east  to  the  creek  that  runs  out  of  the 
pond  upon  Verdrietig  Hook  and  along  the  same  to 
the  Hudson,  then  north  to  the  place  of  beginning, 
except  the  grant  to  Honan  and  Hawdon." 

The  patents  described  covered  the  entire  district  on 
the  Hudson  from  the  New  Jersey  line  to  New  Paltz, 
and  extended  west  to  the  line  of  the  Shawangunk 
Mountains.  While  they  were  being  taken  up,  some 
entries  had  also  been  made  on  the  Delaware  River. 
Arent  Schuyler,  employed  by  the  government  as  an 
interpreter  of  the  Indian  language  and  as  an  agent 
among  the  Indian  tribes,  obtained  (May  20, 1697),  on 
previous  deed  from  the  Minisinks,  a  patent  for  one 
thousand  acres,  more  particularly  described  as  a  "  tract 
of  land  in  the  Minisink  countrj  called  by  the  native 
Indians  Sankhekeneck,  otherwise  Mayhawaem ;  also 
another  tract,  called  Warinsayskmeck,  situated  upon 
a  river  called  Mennessincks  before  a  certain  island 
called  Menagnock,  which  tract  is  adjacent  or  near  to 
a  tract  of  land  called  Maghaghkemek."  In  the  same 
year  (October  14th)  a  patent  was  granted  to  Jacob 

Codebec,  Thomas  Swartwout,  Anthony  Swartwout, 
Bernardus  Swartwout,  Jan  Tyse,  Peter  Gimar,  and 
David  Jamison,  for  "  a  certain  quantity  of  land  at  a 
place  called  Maghaghkemek,  being  the  quantity  of 
one  thousand  two  hundred  acres;  beginning  at  the 
western  bounds  of  the  lands  called  Nepeneck,  to  a 
small  stream  of  water  called  by  the  Indian  name  of 
Assawagkemeck,  and  so  along  said  run  of  water  and 
the  lands  of  Mansjoor  the  Indian." 

It  has  been  claimed  that  there  was  a  settlement  fn 
the  vicinity  of  the  Swartwout  Patent  some  time  prior  to 
the  date  of  that  instrument.  At  an  early  period  what 
was  known  as  "  the  old  mine  road"  was  opened  be- 
tween Esopus  and  the  Delaware,  constructed,  it  is 
said,  by  a  company  of  Dutch  miners.  This  road  ran 
through  the  Mamakating  Valley,  north  of  the  Shaw- 
angunk Mountains,  was  continued  in  the  valley  of 
the  Maghaghkemek  branch  of  the  Delaware,  and  pen- 
etrated the  Minisinks  proper  east  of  that  river.  Here, 
it  is  added,  the  company  discovered  copper,  worked 
a  mine,  and  transported  its  product  over  the  road 
which  they  had  constructed  to  the  Esopus  settlement. 
Unfortunately  for  the  value  of  the  tradition,  the  road 
was  simply  the  enlargement  of  an  Indian  trail  which 
had  been  followed  for  ages,  while  the  mine  referred  to 
was  in  what  is  now  the  town  of  Warren,  Sussex  Co., 
N.  J.  The  boundaries  of  the  question  are  still  fur- 
ther circumscribed  by  the  fact  that  the  Dutch  at  Esopus, 
during  the  war  of  1660-63,  had  little  knowledge  of 
the  country  even  east  of  the  Shawangunk  Mountains, 
and  that  the  Minisink  country  was  penetrated,  if  at 
a  much  earlier  period,  by  the  way  of  the  Delaware 

Nor  is  it  true  that  the  first  settlement  was  on  the 
Swartwout  Patent.  At  the  date  of  issue  of  that  patent, 
Jacob  Codebec,  Thomas  Swartwout,  Anthony  Swart- 
wout, and  Peter  Guimar*  were  residents  of  New  Paltz 
or  of  Kingston.  They  certainly  had  not  made  set- 
tlement on  the  Delaware  in  1690.  But  there  was  set- 
tlement there,  about  that  time,  by  one  William  Tiet- 
soort,  a  blacksmith,  who  in  a  petition  to  the  Governor 
and  Council  of  New  York,  dated  April  10, 1708,  states 
that  he  was  formerly  a  resident  of  Schenectady,  and 
that  from  the  massacre  at  that  place,  in  1689,  he 
barely  escaped  with  his  life ;  that  having  friends  in 
the  Esopus  country  he  removed  thither,  where,  being 
known  by  the  friendly  Indians,  he  was  invited  by 
them  to  take  up  his  residence  in  the  Minisink  country, 
the  Indians  voluntarily  granting  unto  him  a  tract  of 
land  situate  and  being  at  Maghaghkemek,  named  and 

t  Peter  Guimar,  a  native  or  Molr  Saintonge,  vraa  married  to  Esther 
Hasbroiicq,  native  of  tlie  Palatinate,  at  New  Paltz,  April  18, 1692.  He 
left  his  native  place  in  company  with  Codebec  in  1685,  or  rather  the 
families  of  Abraham  Gnimar  and  Jamee  Codebec,  of  which  he  and  Jacob 
Codebec  were  minor  membetis,  came  out  together.  That  Codebec,  Swart* 
wont,  and  Guimar  were  what  may  be  regarded  as  the  first  permanent  se^ 
tiers  on  the  patent  will  not  be  disputed,  but  there  were  three  settiV 
ments  in  the  ancient  precinct,—"  Big"  and  "  Little  Minisink,"  and  the 
"  neighborhood  of  Maghaghkemek,"  and  were  recognized  by  the  law  of 



known  by  the  name  of  Schaikaeckamick,  in  an  elbow  ; 
that  he  obtained  license  to  purchase  Oct.  15,  1698, 
that  he  so  purchased,*  and  that  his  possessions  were 
subsequently  assumed  to  be  included  in  a  purchase 
by  and  patent  to  Matthew  Ling,  against  which  he 
asked  protection.  There  is  very  little  room  to  doubt 
that  he  was  the  first  settler  on  the  western  border. 
His  deed  from  the  Indians  was  obtained  subsequently, 
as  his  gift-title  could  not  be  regarded  as  strictly  legal. 
It  bears  date  June  3, 1700,  and  is  duly  recorded  in 
Ulster  records. 

Active  competition  in  the  extinguishment  of  In- 
dian titles  by  purchase  and  obtaining  patents  sprung 
up  at  the  opening  of  the  succeeding  century.  Asso- 
ciations were  formed,  not  unfrequently  mainly  com- 
posed of  those  holding  ofBcial  positions  under  the 
government,  and  large  grants  obtained.  Three  prin- 
cipal patents  of  this  class  necessarily  require  notice 
in  this  connection.  The  first,  the  Chesekook  Patent, 
was  included  in  a  purchase  from  "  Moringamaghan, 
Skawgus,  Ughquaw,  Onickotapp,  and  Aioqhquaherae, 
native  Indians,  proprietors,"  Dec.  30, 1702,  by  "  Doc- 
tor John  Bridges,  Hendrick  Ten  Eycke,  Derick  Van- 
denburgh,  John  Cholwell,  Christopher  Denn,  Lan- 
caster Syms,  and  John  Merritt,"  of  a  "  certain  tract 
of  upland  and  meadow  called  Chesekook,  bounded 
north  by  the  patent  line  of  Capt.  John  Evans,  to  the 
west  by  the  high  hills  of  the  Highlands,  to  the  south 
by  Honan  and  Hawdon's  Patent,  and  to  the  east  by 
the  lands  of  the  bounds  of  Haverstraw  and  Hudson's 
Kiver,"  and  for  which  they  received  a  patent  March 
25,  1707.  The  second,  the  Wawayanda  Patent,  was 
on  a  purchase  {March  5,  1703)  from  "  Rapingonick, 
Wawastawa,  Moghopuck,  Cornelawaw,  Nanawitt,  Ar- 
awinack,  Rombout,  Claus,  Chouckhass,  Chingapaw, 
Oshasquememus,  and  Quilapaw,  native  Indians  and 
proprietors,"  by  "Doctor  John  Bridges,  Hendrick 
Ten  Ey.cke,  Derick  Vandenburgh,  John  Cholwell, 
Christopher  Denn,  Lancaster  Syms,  Daniel  Honan, 
Philip  Rokeby,  John  Merritt,  Benjamin  Aske,  Peter 
Mathews,  and  Cornelius  Christianse,"  for  a  "  certain 
sum  of  money  and  goods,"  of  "  certain  tracts  or  par- 
cels of  vacant  lands  named  Wawayanda,  and  some 

*  From  a  Joint  afildavit  made  by  him  and  his  son  Jacob,  in  1717,  it  ap- 
peals that  he  sold  two  parcels  of  land  at  Maghaghkemek,  in  17L3,  to  Jan 
Decker,  who,  with  his  cousin, "  young  Jan  Decker,"  were  to  occupy  one  of 
the  parcels,  and  hia  brother,  Hendrick  Decker,  the  other.  He  was  then  a 
resident  of  Dacheas  Connty,  to  which  he  prolnbly  removed  immediately 
after  his  sale  to  Decker,  In  a  list  of  residents  of  Duchess  County  in  1714 
is  the  following  entry :  "  William  Tetsort,  number  of  male  persona  above 
sixty  years,  one ;  number  of  male  persons  from  sixteen  to  sixty,  two ;  num- 
ber of  females  from  sixteen  to  sixty,  two ;  number  of  females  under  sixteen, 
tme.^*  From  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  he  was  then  over  sixty  years 
of  age,  and  that  bis  family  was  composed  of  himself,  hia  wife,  two  sons, 
and  two  daughters.  His  wife  is  said  to  have  been  Sarah  Decker,  and  that 
her  name,  with  his  own,  is  recorded  in  the  records  of  Magbaghkemek 
Church  in  1739,  at  the  baptism  of  their  son  Bemardus,  The  truth  of 
this  statement  may  be  doubted,  however,  unless  Bernardua  was  a  very 
old  boy,  or  Sarah  Decker  was  a  second  wife,  for  Tietsoort  himself  must 
have  been  over  eighty-two  years  of  age  at  the  time.  The  family  subse- 
quently settled  in  Wantage,  N,  J.,  where  the  name  is  now  written  Tits- 

other  small  tracts  or  parcels  of  land,  being  bounded 
on  the  eastward  by  the  high  hills  of  the  Highlands 
and  the  patent  of  Capt.  John  Evans,  on  the  north  by 
the  division  line  of  the  counties  of  Orange  and  Ulster, 
on  the  westward  by  the  high  hills  to  the  eastward  of 
Minisinks,  and  on  the  south  by  the  division  line  of 
the  provinces  of  New  York  and  East  Jersey."  The 
patent  was  granted  April  29,  1703. 

The  third  grant,  the  Minisink  Patent,  was  still  more 
extensive.  It  was  issued  Aug.  28, 1704,  to  Matthew 
Ling,  Ebenezer  Wilson,  Philip  French,  Derick  Van- 
denburgh, Stephen  de  Lancey,  Philip  Eokeby,  John 
Corbett,  Daniel  Honan,  Caleb  Cooper,  William 
Sharpas,  Robert  Milward,  Thomas  Wenham,  Lan- 
caster Syms,  John  Person,  Benjamin  Aske,  Petrus 
Bayard,  John  Cholwell,  Peter  Fanconier,  Henry 
Swift,  Hendrick  Ten  Eycke,  Jarvis  Marshall,  Ann 
Bridges  (widow  of  John  Bridges),  and  George  Clark, 
and  conveyed  to  them  "  all  that  part  of  Orange  and 
Ulster  Counties,  beginning  at  a  place  in  Ulster  County 
called  Hunting  House,  or  Yagh  House,  lying  to  the 
northeast  of  land  called  Bashe's  land,  thence  to  run 
west  by  north  until  it  meets  the  Fishkill  or  main  branch 
of  Delaware  River,  thence  to  run  southerly  to  the  south 
end  of  Great  Minisink  Island,  thence  due  south  to  the 
land  lately  granted  to  John  Bridges  and  Company 
(Wawayanda),  and  so  along  that  patent  as  it  runs 
northward  and  the  patent  of  Capt.  John  Evans,  and 
thence  to  the  place  of  beginning."  The  grant  con- 
solidated two  grants,  one  to  Philip  French  and  Com- 
pany, and  one  to  Ebenezer  Wilson  and  Company,  and 
only  excepted  from  its  sweeping  boundaries  the  tract 
called  Sankhekeneck  or  Mayhawaem,  with  a  parcel  of 
meadow  called  Warinsayskmeck,  previously  granted 
to  Arent  Schuyler,  and  a  tract  called  Magbaghkemek, 
near  Nepeneck,  granted  to  Jacob  Codebec  and  others. 

Had  the  purchasers  a  deed  from  the  Indiana?  Not 
only  is  there  none  on  record,  but  Sir  William  Johnson 
writes,  "  An  elderly  man  who  lived  in  the  Highlands, 
and  at  whose  house  I  dined  on  my  way  from  New 
York  some  years  ago,  told  me  that  he  lived  with  or 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Depuy,  and  was  present  when 
the  said  Depnyt  purchased  the  Minisink  lands  from 
the  Indians ;  that  when  they  were  to  sign  the  deed  of 
sale  he  made  them  drunk,  and  never  paid  them  the 
money  agreed  upon.  He  heard  the  Indians  fre- 
quently complain  of  the  fraud,  and  declare  that  they 
would  never  be  easy  until  they  had  satisfaction  for 
their  lands."!  When  in  1757  the  wronged  red  men 
swept  the  western  border  with  devastation,  it  was 
their  declaration  that  they  would  never  "leave  off 
killing  the  English  until  they  were  paid  for  their 
lands,  mentioning  Minisink  almost  to  the  Hudson 

t  Samuel  Depuy  was  settled  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Delaware,  three 
miles  above  the  Water  Gap.  He  was  one  of  the  Walloons  who  came  to 
New  York  about  1697.  He  became  a  large  land-owner  in  Pennsylvania, 
and  was  well  known  to  all  who  traveled  "the  mine  road."  It  is  possible 
that  he  is  referred  to  in  the  text, 

X  MSS.  of  Sir  William  Johnson,  xxiv.  U. 



The  boundary  lines  of  the  Chesekook,  Wawayanda, 
Minisink,  and  Evans  Patents  were  for  a  long  time  a 
disturbing  element.  They  were  entirely  undefined, 
except  in  general  terms.  The  west  line  of  Chese- 
kook and  the  east  line  of  Wawayanda  was  designated 
by  a  mountain  range ;  the  east  line  of  Minisink  and 
the  west  line  of  Wawayanda  was  also  a  mountain 
range,  and  so  in  part  was  the  north  line  of  both  the 
Chesekook  and  the  AVawayanda,  or  rather  the  south- 
west line  of  the  Evans  Patent,  to  which  they  ran.  In 
the  subsequent  adjustment  of  the  latter,  together  with 
that  of  the  county  line,  a  portion  of  the  territory 
claimed  by  the  Wawayanda  patentees  was  cut  off, 
while  on  the  west  an  angle  was  formed,  known  as  the 
Minisink  Angle,  embracing  a  tract  of  one  hundred 
and  thirty  thousand  acres. 

The  granting  of  immense  tracts,  of  land  aroused 
the  attention  of  the  English  government  in  1698. 
Investigation  followed  and  resulted  in  annulling  the 
patent  to  Capt.  Evans,  by  act  of  the  Assembly,  May  12, 
1699.  Notwithstanding  the  policy  of  issuing  patents 
for  small  tracts,  upon  which  the  repeal  of  the  Evans 
Patent  was  predicated,  was  abandoned  in  the  almost 
immediately  following  issue  of  the  Wawayanda,  Mini- 
sink,  and  similar  large  grants,  the  territory  which  the 
Evans  Patent  covered  was  conveyed  in  small  tracts 
by  patents  issued  at  different  periods  from  1701  to 
1775,  but  principally  prior  to  1750,  and  were — exclu- 
sive of  those  not  included  in  the  present  boundaries 
of  the  county — as  follows : 

1.  Roger  and  FiDhorne  Mompesson,  1000  acres,  March  4, 1709. 

2.  Ebenezer  Wilson  and  Benjamin  Aslte,  2000  acres,  Marcli  7, 1709. 

3.  Bip  Van   Dam,  Adolph  PhilHpse,  David  Provost,  Jr.,  Lancaster 
Symes,  and  Thomas  Jones,  8000  acres,  March  23, 1709. 

4.  Gerardus  Beekman,  Rip  Van  Dam,  Adolph  Pbillipse,  Garrett  Brass, 
Servas  Vleerborne,  and  Daniel  Van  Vore,  3000  acres,  March  24, 1709. 

,      5.  Peter  Matthews,  Williiim  Sharpas,  and  William  Davis,  2000  acres, 
Sept.  8, 1709. 

6.  William  Chambers  and  William  Southerland,  1000  acres,  Sept.  22, 

7.  Samuel  Staats,  June  5, 1712. 

8.  Henry  Wileman  and  Henry  Van  Bael,  300(1  acres,  June  30, 1712. 

9.  Archibald  Kennedy,  1200  acres,  Aug.  11, 1719. 

10.  Alexander  Baird,  Abuer  Van  Ylacque,  and  Hermanus  Johnson, 
6000  acres,  Feb.  28, 1716. 

11.  Jeremiah  Schuyler.  Jacobus  Van  Courlandt,  Frederick  Pbillipse, 
William  Sharpas,  and  Isaac  Bobbin,  10,000  acres,  Jan.  22, 1719. 

12.  Edward  Gatehouse,  1000  acres,  Jan.  22, 1719. 

13.  Cornelius  Low,  Gerard  Schuyler,  and  John  Schuyler,  3292  acres, 
March  17, 1719. 

14.  Thomas  Brazier,  2000  acres,  March  17,  1719. 

15.  Phineas  Mcintosh,  2000  acres,  April  9, 1719. 

16.  John  Lawrence,  2772  acres,  April  9, 1719. 

17.  John  Haskell,  2000  acres,  April  9,  1719. 

18.  James  Alexander,  2000  acres,  April  9, 1719. 

19.  Cadwallader  Golden,  2000  acres,  April  9, 1719. 

20.  David  Galatian,  1000  acres,  June  4, 1719. 

21.  Patrick  McKnight,  2000  acres,  July  7, 1719. 

22.  Andrew  Johnston,  2000  acres,  July  7, 1719. 

23.  Melchoir  Gilles,  300  acres,  Oct.  8, 1719. 

24.  German  Patent,  2190  acres,  Dec.  18, 1719. 

^   25.  John  Johnston,  Jr.,  two  tracts,  Feb.  3, 1720. 

26.  Thomas  Noxon,  2000  acres.  May  28, 1720. 

27.  William  Huddleston,  200O  acres,  June  2, 1720. 

28.  Vincent  Matthews,  800  acres,  June  17, 1720. 

29.  Richard  Van  Dam,  1000  acres,  June  30, 1720. 

30.  Francis  Harrison,  Oliver  Schuyler,  and  Allen  Jarratt,  5000  acres, 
July  7, 1720. 

31.  Philip  Schuyler,  Johannes  Lansing,  Jr.,  Henry  Wileraan,  and 
Jacobus  Bruyn,  8000  acres,  July  7, 1720. 

32.  Patrick  MacGregorie,  two  tracts,  660  acres,  Aug.  6, 1720. 

33.  Mary  Ingoldsby  and  her  daughter,  Mary  Pinhorne,  and  Mary 
Pinhorne  and  Wm.  Pinhorne,  her  children,  two  tracts,  5:i60  acres,  Aug. 

11.1720.  ' 

34.  Jacobus  Kipp,  John  Cniger,  Philip  Cortland,  David  Provost,  Oli- 
ver Schuyler,  and  John  Schuyler,  7000  acres,  Oct.  17, 1720. 

35.  Lewis  Morris  and  Vincent  Pearce,  two  tracts,  1000  acres  each,  July 

21. 1721.  " 

36.  John  Haskell,  2000  acres,  Aug.  24, 1721. 

37.  Patrick  Hume,  2000  acres,  Nov.  29, 1721. 

38.  James  Henderson,  two  tracts,  one  not  located,  1600  acres,  Feb.  12, 

39.  Jacobus  Bruyn  and  Henry  Wileman,  2500  acres,  April  25, 1722. 

40.  James  Smith,  2000  acres,  Dec.  15, 1722. 

41.  Charles  Congreve,  800  acres.  May  17, 1722. 

42.  Ann  Hoaglandt,*  2000  acres,  May  24, 1723. 

43.  Francis  Harrison,  Maiy  Tatbam,  Thomas  Brazier,  James  Graham, 
and  John  Haskell,  5600  acres,  July  10,  1714. 

44.  William  Bull  and  Richard  Gerrard,  26C0  acres,*  Aug.  10, 1723. 

45.  William  Bull  and  Richard  Gerrard,  two  tracts,  1500  acres,  Dec.  14, 

46.  Isaac  Bobbin,  600  acres,  March  28, 1726. 

47.  Edward  Blagg  and  Johannes  Hey,  two  tracts,  2000  acres  each, 
March  28, 1726. 

48.  Nathaniel  Hazard  and  Joseph  Sackett,  two  tracts,  4000  acres,  Jan. 
11, 1727. 

49.  William  Bradford,  2000  acres,  Sept.  1, 1727.  ' 

50.  John  Spratt  and  Andriee  Maischalk,  2000  acres,  April  12, 1728. 

51.  James  Wallace,  2000  acres,  March  2, 1731. 

52.  Gabriel  and  William  Ludlow,  six  tracts,  4000  acres,  Oct.  18, 1731. 
,    53.  Thomas  Smitb,  1000  acres.  May  8,  1732. 

54.  Daniel  Everett  and  James  Stringham,  3850  acres,  Jan.  17, 1736. 

55.  Elizabeth  Denne,  1140  acres,*  Dec.  12, 1734. 

V  56.  Joseph  Sackett  and  Joseph  Sackett,  Jr.,  two  tracts,  2000  acres,  Jnly 

7,  1736. 

^'57.  Nathaniel  Hazard,  Jr.,  2000  acres,  Aug.  12, 1736. 

58.  Thomas  Ellison,  three  tracts,  2000  acres.  May  13, 1737. 
"  59.  Joseph  Sackett,  five  tracts,  2000  acres,  Sept.  1, 1737. 

60.  Ann,  Sarab,  Catharine,  George,  Elizabeth,  and  Mary  Bradley,  two 
tracts,  4690  acres,  Oct.  14, 1749. 

61.  Cornelius  DuBois,  two  tracts,  one  not  located,  July  2, 1739. 
02.  Richard  Bradley,  800  acres.  May  17, 1743. 

'  63.  Jane  and  Alice  Golden,  two  tracts,  4000  acres,  Oct.  30, 1749. 

64.  John  Moor^  280  acres,  Oct  30, 1749. 

65.  Peter  Van  Burgb  Livingston  and  John  Provost,  3000  acres.  May 
26, 1750. 

66.  George  Harrison,  three  tracts,  2000  acres,  July  20, 1750. 

67.  Jacobus -Bruyn  and  George  Murray,  4000  acres,  Sept.  26, 1750. 

68.  Thomas  Ellison  and  Lawrence  Roome,  six  tracts,  4000  acres,  Nov. 
12, 1750. 

69.  Alexander  Phoenix  and  Abraham  Bockel,  1000  acres,  July  13, 

70.  Thomas  Ellison,  1080  acres,  Dec.  1, 1758. 

71.  John  Nelson,  550  acres,  Oct.  4, 1754. 

72.  James  Crawford,  Jr.,  Samuel  Crawford,  James  White,  and  David 
Crawford,  4000  acres,  May  17, 1761. 

73.  Cadwallader  Golden,  Jr.,  and  Daniel  Golden,  720  acres,  June  20, 

74.  Vincent  and  David  Matthews,  1800  acres,  Nov.  26, 1761. 

75.  John  Nelson,  1266  acres,  Oct.  4, 1762. 

78.  Thomas  Moore  and  Lewis  Pintard,  2000  acres,  Dec.  23, 1762. 

77.  Peter  Hassenclever,  March  25,  1767. 

78.  William  Smith  and  Edward  Wilkin,  2000  acres,  April  17, 1768. 

79.  William  Arisen  and  Archibald  Breckenridge,  400  acres,  1770. 

80.  Daniel  Horsemanden,  Miles  Sherbrook,  Samuel  Camfleld  and  Wil- 
liam Sidney,  3210  acres,  1772. 

81.  Thomas  Moore  and  John  Osborne,  2000  acres,  March  14  1775. 

82.  Henry  Townsend,  2000  acres.t 

»  Cut  off  ftom  Wawayanda  by  boundary  line.  Other  patents  of  this 
class  are  similarly  designated. 

t  It  is  not  claimed  that  this  list  has  no  omissions,  but  that  it  contains 
substantially  all  the  pHtents  granted.    There  are  traces  of  small  lots. 



X  from 


M  by 





The  precise  location  of  these  several  patents  will 
not  be  attempted.  Some  of  them  became  centres  of 
population ;  especially  is  this  true  of  the  German 
Patent  of  1719,  which  was  issued  to  fiigitives  from 
the  Palatinate  of  the  Rhine,  who  had  been  settled 
thereon  in  1709,  and  is  now  embraced  in  the  city  of 
Newburgh.  A  comparatively  small  portion  of  the 
Minisink  Patent  extended  over  the  present  county. 
The  Wawayanda  and  Chesekook  Patents  were  wholly 
within  its  limits,  the  former  being  the  largest,  and 
embracing  its  most  fertile  sections.  The  progress  of 
settlement  of  the  district  during  the  century  suc- 
ceeding the  discovery,  aside  from  the  extinction  of  the 
aboriginal  title  and  the  issue  of  patents,  is  approxi- 
mately conveyed  in  the  census  of  1702,  by  which  it 
appears  that  the  population  at  that  time,  exclusive  of 
the  MacGregorie  settlement,  consisted  of  forty-nine 
men  between  the  ages  of  sixteen  and  sixty,  forty  mar- 
ried women,  fifty-seven  male  and  eighty-four  female 
children,  thirteen  male  negroes,  seven  negresses,  and 
thirteen  negro  children. 

Adverting  more  particularly  to  the  Wawayanda 
Patent,  we  find  it  an  undefined  district  both  in  pur- 
chase and  in  grant.  The  Indian  deed  of  March  6, 
1702-3,  to  Dr.  John  Bridges,  Hendrick  Ten  Eyck, 
Derrick  Vandenburgh,  John  Cholwell,  Christopher 
Denne,  Lancaster  Symes,  Daniel  Honan,  Philip 
Eokeby,  John  Merritt,  Benjamin  Aske,  Peter  Mat- 
thews, and  Cornelius  Christianse,  described  the  con- 
veyance as  of  "certain  tracts  and  parcels  of  vacant 
lands  in  the  county  of  Orange,  named  Wawayanda, 
and  some  other  small  tracts  and  parcels  of  land,  being 
bounded  eastward  by  the  high  hills  of  the  Highlands 
and  the  patent  of  Capt.  John  Evans,  on  the  north  by 
the  division  line  of  the  counties  of  Orange  and  Ul- 
ster, on  the  westward  by  the  high  hills  to  the  east- 
ward of  Minisink,  and  on  the  south  by  the  division 
line  of  the  province  of  New  York  and  East  Jersey ;'' 
and  the  patent  of  April  29, 1703,  repeats  these  boun- 
daries literally.  Standing  on  one  of  "  the  high  hills 
of  the  Highlands,"  on  the  east,  the  eye  could  sweep 
the  outline  of  the  valley  below  and  trace  the  circling 
line  of  "the  high  hills  to  the  eastward  of  Minisink" 
until  they  faded  away  in  the  south,  but  no  eye  could 
estimate  its  actual  surface,  and  its  proprietors  were 
themselves  surprised  at  the  extent  of  their  grant.  It 
was  held  by  deed  in  common  until  1705,  when  it  was 
agreed  to  divide  it  in  twelve  parts  and  release  sur- 
vivorship rights.  This  release  was  executed  Sept.  23, 
1706,  at  which  time  the  number  of  original  holders 
had  been  reduced  to  eight,  viz. :  Derrick  Vanden- 
burgh, bricklayer ;  John  Cholwell,  merchant ;  Chris- 
topher Denne,  merchant;  Lancaster  Symes,  gentle- 
man;  Daniel  Honan,  gentleman;  Benjamin  Aske, 

priDcipally  overplna  in  Burreye  of  other  patenta,  obtained  at  later 
periods,  but  the  acreage  in  them  Is  not  sufflciently  large  to  justify  ex- 
tended reeearch.  It  may  be  well  to  add  that,  through  heirs  and  devisees 
of  the  original  grantees,  some  of  the  patented  lands  becume  known  by 
the  names  of  other  parties. 

merchant ;  Peter  Matthews,  gentleman ;  and  John 
Merritt,  gentleman,  all  of  the  city  of  New  York. 
The  remaining  four  of  the  patentee  interests  were 
held  as  follows :  the  Bridges  share  by  Ann  Bridges, 
the  Eokeby  share  by  Daniel  Cromeline  and  others, 
the  Christianse  share  by  Derrick  Vandenburgh,  and 
the  Ten  Eyck  share  by  Daniel  Cromeline.  In  1713 
the  number  of  shares  was  increased  to  thirteen  by 
the  admission  of  Dr.  Samuel  Staats,  each  of  the 
twelve  proprietors  yielding  to  him  a  twelfth  share  of 
their  respective  interests,  in  satisfaction  of  a  claim 
which  he  had  set  up  to  a  portion  of  the  tract  by  virtue 
of  prior  purchase  (1702). 

The  sale  and  settlement  of  the  patent  made  little 
progress  prior  to  1714.  The  several  shares  were  sur- 
veyed, at  least  partially,  and  located,  and  the  general 
fact  ascertained  that  it  would  be  perhaps  prudent  to 
conceal  the  actual  acreage.  To  do  this  more  eflFect- 
ually  it  was  assumed  that  each  share  was  two  thousand 
acres,  and  so  published  it,  when  in  reality  they  were 
over  five  times  that  number,  as  appears  by  a  subse- 
quent or  "second  division,"  which  was  maSe  some 
years  later.  Of  the  "  first  division"  maps  were  made 
and  exposed  at  the  land-oflSces  in  New  York,  accom- 
panied by  a  description  of  the  soil,  rivers,  ponds,  etc., 
as  shown  by  the  partial  surveys  ;  but  purchasers  either 
came  not  or  were  better  pleased  with  offers  elsewhere. 

In  March,  1706,  the  patentees  agreed  to  add  six 
hundred  acres  to  the  share  of  that  one  of  their 
number  who  should  make  settlement  on  the  patent 
before  the  end  of  May,  1709,  or,  as  we  understand  it, 
that  six  hundred  acres  should  be  given  to  the  first 
settler ;  but  the  offer  was  not  taken.  In  September, 
1706,  they  constituted  and  appointed  "  any  number  of 
themselves"  who 'might  be  conveniently  got  together, 
"  with  full  power  to  convey,  bargain,  sell,  or  devise 
one  full  fourth  part  of  all  the  said  tracts"  to  any 
person  or  persons  who  should  erect  thereon,  prior  to 
1716,  "saw-mills,  grist-mills,  or  other  water-mills," 
the  "  runs,  creeks,  and  rivers"  not  to  be'  disposed  of, 
however,  in  fee  simple,  but "  leased  or  devised  for  a 
term  of  years  or  life;"  but  it  does  not  appear  that 
this  proposition  was  received  with  more  favor  than 
that  first  made. 

The  patent  stood  unoccupied  until  1712,  when  the 
active  surviving  share-holders  determined  to  make 
settlements  themselves.  These  were  Christopher 
Denne,  Daniel  Cromeline,  and  Benjamin  Aske,  who 
were  made  justices  of  the  peace  of  Orange  County  to 
facilitate  the  end  in  view.  In  their  effort  they  were 
joined  by  at  least  one  person  who  had  obtained  an 
interest  in  the  patent,  Christian  Snedeker,  of  Long 
Island.  Laborers  were  hired  and  supplies  procured, 
and  in  person  or  by  proxy  they  simultaneously  entered 
the  patent, — Christopher  Denne  preceded,  it  is  said, 
by  Sarah  Wells ;  Daniel  Cromeline  by  William  Bull ; 
Benjamin  Aske  by  Lawrence  Decker ;  and  Snedeker 
by  Johannes  Wisner,  his  wife,  and  sons  Hendrick  and 
Adam.    It  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  discuss  the  ques- 



tion  of  priority  in  actual  occupation.  Wisner's  deed 
from  Snedeker  for  two  hundred  acres  bears  date  June 
23,  1714,  he  then  being  in  "possession  and  occu- 
pation," and  clearly  so  at  a  prior  date,  while  tradition 
asserts  that  Sarah  Wells  was  the  first  white  woman — 
and  a  remarkable  woman  she  was  in  her  age  and  in 
her  descendants — on  the  patent,*  and  that  she  came 
in  1712.  Whatever  may  be  the  facts  of  the  case,  the 
record  is  clear  that  the  settlement  of  Goshen,  War- 
wick, and  Chester  was  commenced  simultaneously  by 
parties  sent  out  by  the  proprietors  named.  Soon  after 
this  John  Everett  and  Samuel  Clowes,  of  Jamaica, 
L.  I.,  were  induced  to  take  charge  of  the  settlement 
of  the  patent.  They  appear  to  have  been  land  specu- 
lators, but  were  nevertheless  the  direct  agents  in  in- 
ducing immigration  and  in  founding  prosperous 

Strictly  in  the  line  of  this  chapter,  as  relating  to 
land  titles,  may  be  here  enumerated  the  recorded  sales 
by  the  proprietors  to  actual  settlers  and  others,  as  well 
as  to  Everett  and  Clowes,  prior  to  1721.  They  were 
as  follows : 

1.  Philip  Eokeby  sold  his  undivided  twelfth  part 
to  Daniel  Cromeline,  John  Merritt,  and'Elias  Boudi- 
not,  June  10,  1704.  Merritt  sold  his  third  to  Crome- 
line in  1705.  Boudinot  sold  his  third  to  George  Mc- 
Nish,  who  sold  to  Clowes,  Feb.  5,  1714,  for  ^150. 

2.  Cornelius  Christianse  sold  to  Derrick  Vanden- 
burgh,  Sept.  8, 1704,  all  his  twelfth  part.  Vandenburgh 
sold  to  Elias  Boudinot,  and  the  latter  sold  one-sixth 
of  same  to  Everett  and  Clowes,  July  20, 1714,  for  £66 
13«.  Boudinot's  heirs  subsequently  sold  five-sixths  to 
Everett  and  Clowes  for  £41  13«.  4c?.  This  tract  em- 
braced New  Milford,  in  the  present  town  of  Warwick. 

3.  Hendrick  Ten  Eyck  sold  his  twelfth  part  to 
Daniel  Cromeline,  Dec.  8, 1704.  Cromeline,  who  also 
owned  two-thirds  of  the  Eokeby  share,  sold  to  Everett 
and  Clowes,  Jan.  1, 1714,  the  sixth  part  of  his  interest 
for  £83  6a.,  excepting  two  tracts,  one  of  which  con- 
tained three  thousand  seven  hundred  and  six  acres. 
This  tract  was  principally  in  the  present  town  of 
Chester,  and  embraced  the  site  on  which  he  had  made 
settlement  and  erected  a  stone  dwelling,  and  to  which 
he  had  given  the  name  of  "  Gray  Court." 

4.  Ann  Bridges  sold  to  John  Van  Home,  merchant, 
of  New  York,  July  4,  1705,  all  the  equal  undivided 
twelfth  part  held  by  her  husband.  Dr.  John  Bridges, 
for  the  sum  of  £250.  Van  Home  was  also  the  pur- 
chaser of  a  part  or  the  whole  of  another  share,  and 
sold  to  Everett  and  Clowes  one-sixth  part  of  one-sixth 
of  one-thirteenth  part  for  £58  6s.  8d.  Amity  was  in 
Bridges'  parcel. 

5.  Daniel  Honan  sold  to  John  Merritt,  1705,  all  his 
twelfth  part.  Margery  Merritt,  widow,  and  John 
Merritt,  son,  sold  to  Adrian  Hoaglandt  one-half,  and 
to  Anthony  Eutgers  one-half.    Eutgers  sold  to  Ever- 

*  Or  ill  the  township  of  Goshen.  The  claim  is  not  miide  that  she  was 
the  ilrst  white  woman  on  the  patent,  although  there  is  no  record  of  a 
predecessor  even  on  the  patent,  unless  it  may  have  been  Mre.  Wiener. 

ett  and  Clowes  one-twelfth  of  his  half,  and  Anna, 
widow  of  Hoaglandt,  sold  to  the  same  parties  one- 
twelfth,  the  latter,  April  12,  1714,  for  £75. 

6.  Derrick  Vandenburgh  died  holding  his  original 
share,  and  his  wife  Eymerich,  and  his  son  Henry,  his 
heirs,  sold  the  same  to  Elias  Boudinot,  Aug.  8,  1707. 
Boudinot  sold  this  entire  share  to  Clowes,  Oct.  27, 
1713,  for  £355.  This  parcel  embraced  what  is  called 
in  the  old  deeds  the  "Florida  tract;"  the  name 
"  Florida"  is  still  retained. 

7.  John  Cholwell  sold  his  twelfth  part  to  Adrian 
Hoaglandt,  Oct.  5, 1706,  for  £350.  Anna  Hoaglandt, 
his  widow,  sold  to  Everett  and  Clowes  one-sixth  of 
the  share,  and  the  remainder  descended  to  Christopher 
Banker  and  Elizabeth  his  wife,  James  Eenanst  and 
Bertilje  his  wife,  and  Petrus  Rutgers  and  Helena  his 
wife,  her  heirs. 

8.  John  Merritt  held  his  share  at  the  time  of  his 
death,  and  his  heirs,  Margery  Merritt,  widow,  and 
John  Merritt,  eldest  son,  sold  one-half  to  Adrian 
Hoaglandt.  John  (then  a  resident  of  New  London] 
sold  to  John  Everett,  Feb.  25,  1714,  the  remaining 
half  for  £120. 

9.  Benjamin  Aske  sold  to  Everett  and  Clowes,  July 
20,  1714,  one-sixth  of  his  thirteenth  part  for  £50. 
He  subsequently  sold  a  portion  to  Lawrence  Decker, 
Feb.  28,  1719;  another  to  Thomas  Blain,  May  20, 
1721 ;  and  another  to  Thomas  De  Kay,  Dec.  8, 1724. 
In  all  cases  the  land  conveyed  is  described  as  part  of 
his  farm,  "  called  Warwick,"  and  in  all  cases  the  par- 
ties to  whom  the  deeds  were  made  were  described  as 
residents  of  the  county  and  upon  the  land  conveyed. 

10.  Lancaster  Symes  sold  to  Everett  and  Clowes, 
July  20, 1714,  one-sixth  of  his  thirteenth  part  for  £50. 

11.  Peter  Matthews,  then  living  in  Albany,  sold  all 
his  thirteenth  part  to  Clowes,  Feb.  11, 1713,  for  £200. 

12.  Christopher  Denne  sold,  July  20,  1714,  to 
Clowes  and  Everett  one-sixth  of  his  share  for  £50. 
He  also  sold  to  Robert  Brown  three  hundred  and  ten 
acres,  Sept.  3, 1721.  Elizabeth  Denne  sold  to  William 
Mapes,  Joseph  Allison,  John  Yelverton,  Ebenezer 
Holly,  Joseph  Sears,  John  Green,  and  John  Worley, 
the  Mapes  deed  bearing  date  March  1,  1729.  The 
remainder  of  her  interest  in  the  patent  passed  by  her 
will  to  Sarah  Jones,  spinster,  of  New  York,  and 
Vincent  Matthews.  Sarah  Jones  afterwards  married 
Thomas  Brown. 

13.  Dr.  Samuel  Staats'  thirteenth  part  descended 
to  his  children,  Gertury,  wife  of  Andries  Codymus ; 
Sarah,  wife  of  Isaac  Gouverneur ;  Catlyria,  wife  of 
Stevanus  Van  Cortlandt ;  Anna,  wife  of  Philip  Schuy- 
ler ;  Johanna  White,  widow ;  and  Tryntie  Staats,  who 
sold  to  Clowes  and  Everett  one-sixth  of  said  part  for 
£50,  Sept.  2,  1720. 

John  Everett  and  Samuel  Clowes,  by  these  deeds, 
came  into  possession  of  one-third  of  the  Eokeby,  one- 
half  of  the  Christianse,  all  of  the  Vandenburgh,  one- 
half  of  the  Merritt,  all  of  the  Matthews,  two-twelfths 
of  the  Honan,  and  one-sixth  of  each  of  the  shares 



held  by  the  other  patentees,  in  all  equaling  four  of  the 
thirteen  parts.  Obliged  thereto  by  the  terms  of  the 
deeds  to  them,  they  laid  out  as  early  as  1714  the 
township  of  Goshen.  This  township  plot  was  divided 
into  farms  of  varying  quantities,  and  roads  opened  and 
reserved.  The  roads  ran  north  and  south  and  east  and 
west,  and  divided  the  plot  into  what  became  known  as 
the  East  Division,  West  Division,  North  Division,  and 
South  Division.  Everett  and  Clowes  were  also  obli- 
gated to  assign  two  hundred  acres  of  land  to  a  minis- 
ter, whenever  the  owners  and  occupants  of  the  plat 
should  agree  in  the  selection  of  one.  It  would  per- 
haps be  impossible  to  certainly  determine  who  the 
first  settlers  were,  the  deeds  on  record  being  the  only 
guide  to  dates,  which  may  be  anterior  to  or  after  set- 
tlement was  made.    They  are : 

Jan.  8, 1714,  to  Michael  Dunning,  of  Jamaica,  L.  I. 

June  23,  1714,  to  Johannes  Weasner,  late  of  the 
Swiss  contingent. 

July  21,  1714,  to  Solomon  Carpenter,  of  Jamaica, 

July  31,  1714,  to  Abraham  Finch,  of  Stamford, 

July  81, 1714,  to  Samuel  Seeley,  of  Stamford,  Conn. 

July  31,  1714,  to  John  Holly,  of  Stamford,  Conn. 

Oct.  7, 1715,  to  John  Yelverton,  of  Jamaica,  L.  I. 

Oct.  31,  1718,  to  William  Jackson. 

April  25,  1719,  to  Daniel  Coole. 

April  15,  1720,  to  William  Burch,  of  Hempstead, 
L.  I.,  who  sold  to  John  Yelverton,  July  16,  1723. 

May  22,  1721,  to  Joseph  Allison,  of  Southold,  L.  I. 

That  there  were  deeds  which  were  not  recorded  is 
apparent  from  the  names  attached  to  one  which  was 
given  to  the  first  blacksmith.  This  deed  is  dated  July 
21,  1721,  and  recites  that  the  proprietors  had  "lately 
caused  two  small  lots  to  be  laid  out  in  the  south  di- 
vision of  the  township  for  the  encouragement  of  a 
blacksmith,  which  was  much  needed ;"  that "  William 
Thompson  is  lately  settled  there,"  and  in  considera- 
tion thereof  the  lands  were  bargained  and  sold  to 
him.  The  proprietors  and  resident  owners  appearing 
as  grantors  were : 

John  Everett. 
Samael  Clowea. 
John  Carpenter. 
Thomas  Watson. 
Hope  Khodea. 
John  Holly. 
Charlea  Williaoison. 
Solomon  Carpenter. 
Michael  Dunning. 
Samuel  Webb. 

James  Jackson. 
Isaac  Finch. 
John  Bears. 
Samuel  Seeley. 
George  McNlsh. 
James  Sands. 
John  Knapp. 
John  Alsop. 
Samuel  Gilston. 
Cornelins  Jones. 

In  1722,  April  17th,  a  deed  was  executed  "  designed 
as  an  encouragement  to  the  first  minister."  The  re- 
cipient was  John  Bradner,  who  had  been  "  lately 
settled  and  established  the  first  minister  of  the  said 
precinct  of  Goshen.''  Lands  "  for  a  parsonage  and 
other  public  uses,"  and  "  for  a  burying-ground  and 
whereon  to  build  the  minister's  house,"  then  being 
erected,  were  also  deeded.    In  the  execution  of  these 

deeds  we  have  in  the  first  instance  the  names  of  the 
holders  of  lots  in  the  patent  at  that  time,  and  in  the 
second  the  names  of  proprietors  of  the  township.  The 
former  were : 

Lancaster  Symes. 
Gbristopher  Denne. 
Sei^amin  Aske. 
Daniel  Cromeline. 
John  Van  Home. 
Anthony  Butgers. 
Michael  Dunning. 
William  Jackson. 
Richard  Halstead. 

John  Everett. 
'Samuel  Clowes. 
Solomon  Carpenter. 
John  Carpenter. 
Wait  Smith. 
Samuel  Seeley. 
John  Gale. 
Isaac  Ludlum. 
Hendrick  Weasner. 

Isaac  Finch. 

The  proprietors  in  the  township  were  : 

John  Everett. 
John  Gale. 
Nathaniel  Higby. 
G.  McHish. 
Thomas  Watson. 
John  Holly 
>  Isaac  Finch. 
John  Bears. 
Samuel  Seeley. 
William  Jackson. 
John  Knapp. 
John  Alsop. 

John  Carpenter. 
■William  Ludlum. 
John  Carpenter,  Jr. 
James  Sandys. 
Hope  Rhodes. 
James  Jackson. 
Solomon  Carpenter. 
Michael  Dunning. 
John  Nicolls. 
Alexander  MdDre. 
Samuel  Webb. 
Bichard  Halstead. 

In  this  connection  may  be  recapitulated  facts 
already  stated  in  regard  to  settlements  on  other  parts 
of  the  patent.  The  house  erected  by  Cromeline  was 
completed  in  1716  and  occupied ;  that  of  Christopher 
Denne  was  also  completed  and  occupied,  as  well  as 
that  of  Benjamin  Aske,  at  Warwick,  at  about  the 
same  time.  William  Bull,  the  mason  and  architect 
of  Cromeline's  house,  married  Sarah  Wells,  who  had 
been  sent  out  by  Denne  with  the  men  in  his  employ, 
in  1718,  and  put  up  a  cabin  near  Denne's  (now  in 
Hamptonburgh),  on  a  farm  given  to  Sarah.  Johan- 
nes Weasner  was  certainly  in  the  township  in  1714 
with  his  family,  and  it  is  safe  to  say  that  Lawrence 
Decker  was  in  Warwick,  under  Aske,  at  as  early  a 
date.  The  written  record  cannot  be  successfully  con- 
troverted by  tradition  upon  any  point,  no  matter  with 
what  attraction  the  tradition  may  be  recited,  or  how- 
ever honestly  it  may  be  believed. 

The  settlement  of  other  patents  may  be  more  satis- 
factorily treated  in  connection  with  the  towns  in  which 
they  were  located.  As  a  general  guide  to  determine 
the  question  of  priority  of  settlement  in  the  patents 
composing  the  .northeastern  and  western  portions  of 
the  present  county,  the  following  ofiicial  lists  are 
given.  Further  approximative  dates  may  be  obtained 
from  the  military  rolls  hereinafter  quoted : 

"  The  freeholders,  inhabitants,  residents,  and  sojourners  in  the  county 
of  Ulster,  their  real  and  personal  estates,  are  rated  and  assessed  by  the 
Assessors  (on  their  death)  chosen  for  the  same  on  the  26th  day  of  Janu- 
ary, 1714-5,  and  are  to  pay  at  the  rate  of  one  penny  half-pence  fi  £  to 
discharge  this  year's  payment  of  said  county's  quota,  levyd  by  an  act  of 
the  Assembly,  entitled  an  act  for  levying  the  sum  of  ten  thousand 
pounds,"*  viz.  • 

*  The  pounds  of  that  pexiod  were  only  about  equivalent  of  one  dollar 
each  of  the  present  United  States  issue.  Some  of  the  parties  were  rich 
in  uncleared  acres  of  land,  however. 



Pfecitul  of  SJiawangotictr.* 

Amt.  Tax. 

Severgn  Tenhout £240  £01  10«.  OOd. 

ZacharlM  Hoff.uan 130  00  14  03 

Jacobus  Brujn 120  00  16  00 

Benjamin  Smedes 150  00  10  09 

John  MacKlane 5  00  00  07U 

Kichard  Windfleld 5  00  00  07V| 

Jacob  Decker,  Sen J5  00  01  lOU 

Abraham  Schutt 35  00  04  04}^ 

Jacob  Gerritsen  Decker 60  00  06  63 

LeendertCool.Jun 10  00  01  03 

Evert  Terwillege 60  00  07  06 

Col.  Peter  MattheWB  &  Compy 15  00  01  lOU 

Johannes  Terwillege 3  00  00  04}J. 

Phillip  Miller 10  00  01  03 

Total  Bum 840  05    06     00 

Neig}iborkood  of  WagacTtemeek. 

Amt.  Tax. 

Thomas  Swartwout £25  £00  0»«.  OlUd. 

Harmon  Barentsen 10  00  01    lOJ^ 

Jacob  Coddebecq 10  00  01    03 

Peter  Guymard 50  00  06    04 

Jacobus  Swartwout. 6  00  00    07^ 

Total  sum 105  00  13  OlJ^ 

Precinct  of  EighlaniU, 

Amt.  Tax. 

Peter  Magregotyt £30  £00  03«.  OOd. 

Swervert 6  00  On  071^ 

William  Southerlandf 46  00  06  07V|        i 

Michael  Wynantt 15  dO  01  10J| 

Burger  MyndertaenJ 10  00  01  03 

Jacob  Webert 18  00  01  lOJ^ 

Peter  La  Kosel 10  00  01  03 

John  risAert 10  00  01  03 

Andres  Volckt 12  00  01  06 

George  Lockste.'kA 10  00  01  OS  , 

Pieter  .lansent..-. ; 10  00  01  (8 

Henry  Eennaut 25  00  03  Oil. 

William  Ellsworth's  widow  t 6  00  00  07 

Dennis  BeUe.t 3  00  00  04] 

Alexander  Griggs B  00  00  07 

Thomas  Harris 6  00  00  07 

Capt.  Bondt 15  00  01  10] 

Melgert,  the  joyner 16  00  01  10 

Christian  Hennecke 3  00  00  04; 

Jacob  Decker,  J  r 10  00  01  03 

Cornelia  Decker 6  00  00  07J^ 

Total  sum 293  01    16    07}^ 

**  Pursuant  aud  by  order  to  me  directed  out  the  Supreme  Court,  re- 
quiring me  to  make  a  General  List  of  the  Freeholders  within  my  Bayli- 
wick,  soe  that  a  Special  Jury  be  struck  thereout  to  trey  the  cause  be- 
tween Major  Hardenbergh  and  the  Corporation  of  Kingston,  wherefore 
I  have  accordingly  taken  all  the  care  to  not  forgitt  any  of  the  Free- 
holders to  the  best  of  my  Nollege,  and  hereof  I  Doe  make  my  returne 
this  7th  day  of  July,  1728.  Jacobus  Van  Dick,  Sheriff." 

Freeholders  for  Bhawengongh. 
Capt.  Jacobus  Bruyn.  James  Spennik. 

Capt  Zagharias  Hoffman.  Cornelius  Cool.g 

Benjamin  Smedes.  Henry  Wileman,  attomey-at- 

Abraham  Schutt.  law.g 

Jacob  Decker.  John  North. 

Evert  ter  Willige.  George  Andrew. 

Josua  Smedes.  John  MacKneel.g 

John  ter  Willige.  Jeronimus  Miogus.g 

Cornelius  Schoonmaker.  Thomas  Mackolm. 

Hendrik  Decker.  Cbristoffel  Moul.g 

Mattys  Slimmer.g  Samuel  Neely.g 

Hendrik  Newkerk.g  Israel  Rogers.§ 

Bendrick  Krans.g  John  Neely.g 

Edward  OatebouBe.g  John  Williams. 

Galatie.g  Caleb  Knapp,  Senr. 

Jeronimus  Weller,g  Caleb  Knapp,  Junr. 

JohannlB  Decker.  Alexander  Neely.g 

John  Howard.  Coll.  Cortlandt. 

*  Although  a  repetition  of  facts  elsewhere  stated,  it  is  perhaps  well  to 
say  here  that  this  tax-list  covered  Shuwangunk,  Montgomery,  Crawford, 
Wallkfll,  and  part  of  Hamptonburgh.    The  "  neighborhood  of  Wagac- 
kemeck '  was  probably  wholly  confined  to  the  Swartwout  Patent,  and 
did  not  include  the  whole  of  Deerpark,  nor  of  original  Minisink. 
t  Besidents  of  district  now  embraced  in  New  Windsor. 
X  Besidents  of  district  now  embraced  in  town  and  city  of  Newburgh. 
g  Names  marked  thus  (§)  are  known  to  have  been  freeholders  in  the 
present  town  of  Montgomery,  which  was  then  and  until  1743  included 
in  the  precinct  of  Shawangunk. 

Freeholders  of  WagaghJtemek, 
Harme  barentse  Van  Emwee-  Samuel  Swartwout.fl 

gen.  Barnardus  Swartwout,  Jr.| 

Peter  Gomar.)  Jacob 

John  Van  Vliet,  Junr. 

Freeholders  of  the 
William  Chambers,  Esqr.lf 
Phineas  MacKentosh,  Esqr.f 
Thomas  Ellison.Tl 
James  Ellsworth.** 
Juris  Quick. 
William  Bond.** 
Burger  Mynderse.** 
John  Alsop,  Keqr.U 
William  Ward. 
John  Haskell.V 
John  Van  Tien. 
George  Wayagont.** 
Burger  Mynderse,  Junr. 
William  Sanders. 
Doct.  Colden,  Esqr. 
George  Ebina. 
Tobias  Wayagont.** 
Bobert  Kirkland. 

John  Umphry.lT 
Peter  Long. 
David  Sutherland.^ 
John  Davis.lf 
Melgert  GiUi.** 
Henry  Haskell.lf 
Beujamin  Ellsworth.** 
Nathaniel  Foster.** 
Francis  Harrison,  Esqr.** 
James  MacKneel,  Junr.f 
James  Gamwell.^ 
Stephen  Bedford.** 
Thomas  Shaw.^f 
Joseph  Gale.^ 
George  Speedwell. 
John  Monte. 
Christian  Chervis. 



Until  the  conquest  of  the  province  by  the  Eng- 
lish in  1664,  its  civil  government  was  an  extension  of 
the  laws  and  customs  of  Holland,  in  which  local  gov- 
ernment was  the  prerogative  of  towns.  The  English 
system  difiFered  from  this  in  many  respects,  but  in  the 
nature  of  the  situation  in  which  the  province  came  to 
their  hands,  they  were  compelled  to  combine  their 
own  with  that  of  Holland.  Without  disturbing  the 
Dutch  towns  of  New  York,  Albany,  Kingston,  and 
Esopus,  further  than  in  a  change  of  names,  courts 
and  sheriffs  were  introduced  in  the  English  counties 
by  what  was  known  as  "  the  Duke's  Laws,"  in  1665. 
In  this  crude  condition — th'e  sparcity  of  population 
scarcely  requiring  that  which  was  more  complete — 
the  government  remained  until  1682,  when  Col. 
Thomas  Dongan  was  appointed  Governor  of  the  prov- 
ince with  instructions  to  organize  a  Council,  to  be 
composed  of  not  exceeding  ten  of  "  the  most  eminent 
inhabitants,"  and  to  issue  writs  to  the  proper  officers 
for  the  election  of  "  a  General  Assembly  of  all  the 
freeholders  by  the  persons  who  they  shall  choose  to 
represent  them,"  in  order  to  consult  with  him  and  his 
Council  "  what  laws  are  fit  and  necessary  to  be  made 
and  established"  for  the  good  government  of  the  prov- 
ince "  and  all  the  inhabitants  thereof."  On  the  17th 
of  October,  1683,  the  Assembly  thus  authorized  met 
at  Fort  James  in  New  York.  It  was  composed  of 
delegates  from  all  parts  of  the  province,  and  during 

II  In  the  present  town  of  Deerpark. 
If  In  present  town  of  New  Windsoi;. 

**  In  present  town  and  city  of  Newburgh.  Francis  Harrison  was  a  fires- 
holder,  but  not  a  resident. 



its  session  of  three  weeks  passed  fourteen  several  acts, 
which  were  assented  to  by  the  Governor  and  his 
Council.  Among  these  laws  was  one  "  to  divide  this 
province  and  dependencies  into  shires  and  counties," 
and  one  "  to  settle  courts  of  justice."  Twelve  coun- 
ties were  established  by  the  former:  New  York, 
Kings,  Queens,  Suffolk,  Richmond,  Westchester, 
Albany,  Ulster,  Duchess,  Orange,  Duke's,  and  Corn- 
wall, which,  with  the  exception  of  Duchess,  which 
was  placed  under  the  care  of  Ulster,  and  Orange, 
which  was  similarly  associated  with  New  York,  were 
to  be  entitled  to  representation  in  future  General  As- 
semblies. The  law  relating  to  courts  established  four 
distinct  tribunals :  Town  Courts,  for  the  trial  of  small 
causes,  to  be  held  each  month ;  County  Courts,  or 
Courts  of  Sessions,  to  be  held  at  certain  times,  quar- 
terly or  half  yearly ;  a  General  Court  of  Oyer  and 
Terminer,  with  original  and  appellate  jurisdiction,  to 
sit  twice  in  every  year  in  each  county,  and  a  Court 
of  Chancery,  to  be  the  "  Supreme  Court  of  the  Prov- 
ince,'' composed  of  the  Governor  and  Council,  with 
power  in  the  Governor  to  depute  a  Chancellor  in  his 
stead,  and  appoint  clerks  and  other  oflBcers.  The  old 
Court  of  Assizes  was  replaced  by  the  Court  of  Oyer 
and  Terminer.  This  system  continued  until  1691, 
when  courts  of  justices  of  the  peace  were  organized 
in  every  town,  and  one  of  Common  Pleas  for  every 

One  of  the  leading  features  in  the  early  civil  divi- 
sions established  by  the  English  was  the  organization 
of  precincts.  Cities  and  towns  had  been  established 
by  the  Dutch  prior  to  the  English  occupation ;  a  few 
English  towns  existed  on  Long  Island,  and  a  few  town 
charters  were  subsequently  granted  by  the  Governor 
and  Council  to  companies  or  associated  colonists; 
but  precincts  were  entirely  different  in  their  constitu- 
tion and  government,  and  of  necessity  became  more 
numerous.  Primarily,  they  were  composed  of  the 
scattered  settlements  of  contiguous  territory,  organ- 
ized by  the  courts  as  court  districts,  and  attached  to 
some  adjoining  town  for  assessment  and  local  govern- 
ment. Their  boundaries  were  crude;  their  popula- 
tion small ;  their  officers  such  as  were  known  only  to 
the  county  at  large.  Subsequently,  as  population  in- 
creased, their  boundaries  were  more  clearly  defined, ' 
and  officers  assigned  to  them.  So  numerous  did  these 
divisions  ultimately  become  that  towns  were  almost 
entirely  lost  sight  of  until  after  the  Revolution,  when 
the  distinction,  which  then  existed  only  in  name,  was 

In  1701  the  Assembly,  by  act  of  October  18th,  pro- 
vided that  the  justices  of  the  peace  of  the  several 
counties,  "  or  any  five  or  more  of  them,  two  whereof 
to  be  a  quorum,"  should,  once  in  the  year,  at  a  court 
of  general  or  special  sessions,  supervise,  examine, 
and  allow  the  public  and  necessary  charge  of  their 
respective  county,  and  of  every  town  thereof,"  in- 
cluding the  "  allowance  made  by  law  to  their  repre- 
-sentative  or  representatives."    For  the   assessment 

and  collection  of  the  accounts  allowed  by  them, 

they  were  "  empowered  to  issue  their  warrant  to  the 

several  towns  for  the  election  of  two  assessors  and 


one  collector  in  each  town."  The  act  further  pro- 
vided that  the  "justices  at  the  respective  general 
sessions"  should,  "  once  in  the  year,  make  provision 
for  maintenance  and  support  of  the  poor"  of  their 
several  towns  or  precincts. 

This  law  continued  in  force  until  June,  1703,  when 
it  was  enacted  that  there  should  be  "  elected  and 
chosen,  once  every  year,  in  each  town,  by  the  free- 
holders and  inhabitants  thereof,  one  of  their  free- 
holders and  inhabitants,  to  compute,  ascertain,  ex- 
amine, oversee,  and  allow  the  contingent,  public,  and 
necessary  charge  of  each  county,  and  that  each  and 
every  inhabitant,  being  a  freeholder  in  any  manor, 
liberty,  jurisdiction,  precinct,  and  out-plantation,  shall 
have  liberty  to  join  his  or  their  vote  with  the  next 
adjacent  town  in  the  county,  where  such  inhabitants 
shall  dwell,  for  the  choice  of  a  supervisor."  The  law 
also  provided  that  there  should  be  annually  chosen 
"in  each  town,  ward,  manor,  and  precinct,  by  the 
freeholders  and  inhabitants  thereof,  two  assessors  and 
one  collector."  The  elections  were  to  be  held  "  on 
the  first  Tuesday  in  April,"  or  on  such  other  days  as 
were  "  appointed  by  their  charters  and  patents."  The 
supervisors  were  required  to  meet  annually,  "  at  the 
county  town  in  each  respective  county,  on  the  first 
Tuesday  in  October,"  and  at  such  other  time  and 
times  as  they  should  "judge  and  find  necessary.and 
convenient,"  and  then  and  there  "  compute  the  public 
necessary  contingent  charges  against  their  respective 
counties,"  together  with  "  such  other  sum  and  sums 
of  money"  as  should  be  "  brought  and  exhibited  to  or 
before  them,"  to  be  levied  on  their  respective  "  coun- 
ties by  the  laws  of  the  colony."  When  the  computa- 
tion was  "  perfected,  and  the  proportion  of  each  town, 
manor,  liberty,  jurisdiction,  and  precinct  ascertained 
and  appointed,"  it  was  to  be  transmitted  to  the  asses- 
sors, who  were  "  required,  equally,  duly,  and  impar- 
tially, to  assess  and  make  a  rate  for  their  respective 
proportions,"  being  first  sworn  to  make  such  assess- 
ment equally  and  impartially.  The  assessment,  when 
completed,  was  to  be  delivered  to  the  collectors,  who 
were  empowered  to  collect  and  pay  the  same  to  the 
county  treasurer,  who  was  to  be  "  annually  chosen 
in  each  county  by  the  supervisors." 

The  changes  which  up  to  this  time  had  been  made 
in  the  civil  government,  it  will  be  observed,  consisted 
in  substituting  courts  of  justices  of  the  peace  for  the 
courts  held  by  overseers  under  the  law  of  1665.  Con- 
stables were  continued  in  each  town,  and  in  addition 
the  towns  were  authorized  to  elect  supervisors,  asses- 
sors, and  collectors.  Officers  equivalent  to  the  present 
commissioners  of  highways  were  given  to  the  towns  in 
1691,  by  an  act  "impowering"  the  freeholders  "to 
nominate  and  make  choice  in  each  of  their  respective 
towns,  annually,  three  persons  to  be  surveyors  and 
orderers  of  the  work  for  laying  out  and  the  amend- 



ment  of  the  highways  and  fence?  within  the  bounds 
and  limits  of  their  respective  towns."  This  law  also 
gave  power  to  the  freeholders  of  the  towns,  when  as- 
sembled for  the  election  of  the  officers  to  which  they 
were  entitled,  "  to  make,  establish,  constitute,  and 
ordain  such  prudential  orders  and  rules,  for  the  better 
improvement  of  their  lands  in  tillage,  pasturage,  or 
any  other  reasonable  way,"  as  the  majority  should 
deem  "  good  and  convenient." 

It  was  under  these  general  laws  that  the  district  of 
country  now  forming  the  county  of  Orange,  as  a  part 
of  the  original  counties  from  which  it  was  taken,  had 
its  organization  and  early  development.  The  act  of 
1683,  dividing  the  province  into  shires  and  counties, 
provided :  "  The  County  of  Ulster  to  contain  the  towns 
of  Kingston,  Hurley,  and  Marbletown,  and  all  the  vil- 
lages, neighborhoods,  and  Christian  habitations  on  the 
west  side  of  Hudson's  River,  from  the  Murderer's 
Creeke,  near  the  Highlands,  to  Sawyer's  Creeke.  The 
County  of  Orange*  to  beginne  from  the  limitts  or 
bounds  of  East  and  West  Jersey,  on  the  west  side  of 
Hudson's  River;  along  the  said  river  to  Murderer's 
Creeke,  or  bounds  of  the  county  of  Ulster ;  and  west- 
ward into  the  woods  as  far  as  Delaware  River."  These 
boundaries,  though  crude  and  illustrative  of  the  im- 
perfect knowledge  of  the  country  which  then  prevailed, 
were  destined  to  be  substantially  maintained  for  over 
one  hundred  years. 

The  organization  of  the  towns  and  precincts  in  the 
origpal  county  of  Orange  began  with  that  of  the 
town  of  Orange  in  1686.  Soon  after  its  organization 
the  inhabitants  of  the  adjoining  patents,  including 
Haverstraw,  were  attached  to  it  for  court  jurisdiction 
and  assessment.  By  act  of  Assembly,  June  24,  1719, 
— in  response  to  a  petition  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Haverstraw,  reciting  the  inconveniences  of  associa- 
tion with  Orangetown, — the  northern  settlements 
were  included  in  a  precinct  under  the  title  of  the 
Precinct  of  Haverstraw,  thereby  creating  two  pre- 
cincts, viz. :  Orangetown,  with  Tappan  as  its  centre, 
and  Haverstraw,  with  the  "  Christian  patented  lands 
of  Haverstraw"  as  its  centre.  The  boundaries  of  the 
latter  were  "  from  the  northernmost  bounds  of  Tap- 
pan  to  the  northernmost  bounds  of  Haverstraw."  Its 
inhabitants  were  authorized  to  elect  on  the  first  Tues- 
day in  April  annually  the  officers  common  to  a  town, 
viz. :  "  One  supervisor,  one  collector,  two  assessors, 
one  constable,  and  two  overseers  of  highways,"  who 
should  be  "  invested  with  all  the  powers,  and  be 
obliged  to  perform  such  services  and  duties"  as  per- 
tained to  similar  officers. 

The  settlements  of  Goshen,  Warwick,  Gray  Court, 
etc.,  on  the  Wawayanda  Patent,  were  given  organ- 
ization as  the  Precinct  of  Goshen  some  time  about 
1714,  the  township  of  Goshen  becoming  the  political 

*  "  So  called  in  compliment  to  the  Dutch  sun-in-law  of  James  II." — 
JBrodhead.  Known  tie  the  Prince  of  Orange,  subsequently  William  III., 
of  England. 

centre.t  Under  the  general  law  of  1703,  it  was  entitled 
to  two  assessors,  a  collector,  overseers  of  highways,  and 
a  constable.  It  remained  without  change  until  1743, 
when  it  was  empowered  to'  elect,  in  addition  to  its  other 
officers,  two  constables,  one  of  whom  should  be  "  from 
and  out  of  such  of  the  inhabitants"  as  had  their  res- 
idence in  the  south  part  of  the  precinct  "  commonly 
called  Wawayanda,"  and  the  other  from  "the  inhabi- 
tants to  the  northward,  near  the  meeting-house  com- 
monly called  the  water-side  meeting-house.''  The 
territory  embraced  in  the  precinct  included  the  entire 
county,  with  the  exception  of  the  Haverstraw  and 
Orangetown  districts,  and  extended  from  the  Dela- 
ware to  Hudson's  River.  J  By  act  of  Assembly,  Oct. 
20,  1764,  it  was  divided  by  "  a  straight  line  to  be  run, 
beginning  at  the  borders  or  verge  of  the  county  of 
Ulster,  near  the  new  dwelling-house  of  John  Manno, 
thence  on  a  course  which  will  leave  the  house  of  Bar- 
nabas Horton,  Jr.,  ten  chains  to  the  westward  to  the 
most  extreme  parts  of  said  precinct;?  all  the  lands- 
lying  to  the  west  of  said  line  to  be  Goshen  Precinct, 
and  all  eastward  to  be  called  New  Cornwall  Precinct. 
These  two  precincts,  with  the  precincts  of  Haver- 
straw and  Orangetown,  constituted  the  political  divi- 
sions of  the  county  until  after  the  Revolution.  Sub- 
sequently, and  prior  to  1797-98,  the  following  changes 
were  made :  The  title  of  precinct  was  changed  to  that 
of  town  in  the  cases  of  Orangetown,  Haverstraw, 
Goshen,  and  New  Cornway,  in  1788,  ||  at  which  time 
the  towns  of  Warwick  and  Minisink  were  erected 
from  Goshen ;  from  Haverstraw  the  towns  of  Clarks- 
town  and  Ramapo  were  erected  in  1791 ;  New  Corn- 

t  Goshen  was  founded  as  a  township,  precisely  as  was  OrangetowjQ,. 
and  was  similarly  included  in  the  subsequent  precinct  organization  with 
other  settlements.  It  should  be  observed,  however,  that  in  these  and- 
other  cases  of  prior  township  organizations  the  adjoining  settlements- 
were  the  jirecincta  of  the  town  to  which  they  were  attached. 

t  That  portion  of  the  precinct  lying  west  of  the  Minisink  Mountains- 
was  subjected  to  several  political  changes :  By  act  of  Oct.  M,  1701,  "  for 
the  more  regular  proceedings  in  election  of  Kepresentativcs,"the  inhab- 
itants of  "  Wagachemeck  and  Great  and  Little  Minisink"  were  "  impow- 
ered  to  give  their  votes  in  the  county  of  Ulster."  By  act  of  Nov.  14, 
1Y09,  "  to  determine,  settle,  and  ascertain  the  bounds  and  limits  of  the- 
county  of  Orange,"  the  act  of  Oct.  18,  1701,  was  repealed  so  far  as  it  re- 
lated to  the  settlements  named,  which  were  in  effect  declared  to  be  a  part 
of  Orange  County.  By  subsequent  survey  Maghaghkemek  (puddeback- 
ville)  was  found  to  be  north  of  the  line  of  Orange,  and  hence  passed  to 
the  jurisdiction  of  Ulster,  appearing  on  the  tax-roll  as  the  "  Neighbor- 
hood of  Maghaghkemek."  It  remained  in  this  political  relation  until 
1799,  when  the  town  of  Deerpark  was  erected  as  one  of  the  consequences 
of  the  reorganization  of  Orange  County,  of  which  it  became  part.  The 
other  settlements  were  included  (after  1709)  in  the-precinct  of  Goshenj 
subsequently  that  portion  lying  north  of  the  New  Jersey  line  became 
part  of  the  town  of  Minisink  (1788),  from  which  they  were  taken  (1798) 
and  included  in  the  boundaries  of  Deerpark.  It  may  be  added  that  a 
portion  of  the  district,  embracing  what  subsequenHy  fell  to  New  Jersey, 
appears  to  have  had  organization  as  the  precinct  of  Minisink,  and  as  such, 
through  its  assessors,  raised  its  quota  of  the  tax  for  the  erection  of  the 
court-house  at  Goshen  in  1739.  Its  constitution,  as  a  precinct  was  no 
doubt  by  order  of  the  court  j  it  has  no  record  of  that  character  in  the 
acts  of  the  General  Assembly. 

8  This  line  is  said  to  have  been  parallel  with  the  west  Hue  of  the  pres- 
ent town  of  Monroe. 

I  The  erection  of  towns  at  this  date,  wherever  situated  in  the  State, 
was  under  a  general  law  passed  March  7, 1788,  entitled  "  An  act  for 
dividing  the  counties  of  this  State  into  towns»" 



wall  changed  its  title  to  Cornwall  in  1797.  These 
changes  gave  to  the  county,  in  1798,  the  towns  of 
Orangetown,  Haverstraw,  Clarkstown,  Bamapo, 
Goshen,  Warwick,  Minisink,  and  Cornwall. 

From  this  survey  of  the  original  county  of  Orange 
we  pass  to  notice  the  civil  divisions  of  Ulster  County 
so  far  as  they  were  embraced  in  the  district  which  we 
are  considering.  Immediately  north  of  Murderer's 
Creek  there  was  no  civil  organization  until  the  advent 
of  the  Palatines  in  1709,*  when  the  precinct  of  the 
Highlands  was  erected  and  attached  to  New  Paltz. 
The  boundaries  of  the  precinct  are  not  stated,  but 
the  order  is  understood  to  have  applied  more  espe- 
cially to  the  territory  extending  from  New  Paltz  to 
Murderer's  Creek,  in  which  district  the  Palatines  at 
Quassaick  were  then  the  principal  settlers.  At  the 
same  time  or  soon  after,  the  constitution  of  the  Pre- 
cinct of  the  Highlands,  and  evidently  by  order  of  the 
court,  the  Precinct  of  Maghaghkemek,t  and  the  Pre- 
cinct of  Shawangunk  were  constituted,  the  latter  at- 
tached to  New  Paltz.  As  in  the  case  of  the  Precinct 
of  the  Highlands,  no  boundaries  are  given ;  but  from 
deeds,  tax-rolls,  and  other  papers  of  record,  it  is  clear 
that  the  present  towns  of  Montgomery,  Crawford,  and 
Wallkill  were  embraced  in  the  limits  of  this  precinct. 
Under  this  limited  organization  the  territory  which 
these  precincts  covered  remained  until  1743,  when,  by 
act  of  Dec.  17,  three  full  precincts,  having  all  the 
officers  of  towns  and  exercising  all  their  duties,  were 
established  by  act  of  the  Assembly.  These  precincts 
were  to  be  known  and  called  "  by  the  name  of  the 
Wallkill  Precinct,  Shawangunk  Precinct,  and  High- 
land Precinct."  The  first,  the  Precinct  of  Wallkill, 
was  bounded  on  the  north  "by  the  north  bounds  of 
ten  thousand  acres  of  land  granted  to  Jeremiah 
Schuyler  and  others,  by  the  south  bounds  of  four 
thousand  acres  of  land  granted  to  Gerardus  Beekman 
and  others,  by  the  north  bounds  of  three  thousand 
acres  of  land  granted  to  Henry  Wileman  and  others, 
by  the  east  bounds  of  three  thousand  acres  of  land 
granted  to  John  Johnson,  and  by  the  east  bounds  of 
two  thousand  acres  of  land  granted  to  Cadwaliader 
Colden ;"  on  the  south  "  by  the  north  bounds  of  two 
thousand  acres  of  land  granted  to  Patrick  Hume,  by 
the  north  and  west  bounds  of  the  land  granted  to . 
Cornelius  Low  and  others,  and  by  the  northwest  and 
southwest  bounds  of  two  thousand  acres  of  land 
granted  to  Phineas  Mcintosh,  and  by  the  line  di- 
viding the  counties  of  Orange  and  Ulster  to  Shawan- 

*  So  mnch  of  the  dietrict  as  was  embraced  in  the  Evans  Patent  was,  by 
the  terms  of  tha^  instrument,  erected  into  the  "  Manor  and  Lordship  of 
Fietcherdon,"  with  tlie  usual  authority  conferred  in  manorial  grants, 
hut,  in  the  absence  of  other  population  than  that  included  iu  the  Mac- 
Gregorie  settlement,  it  is  not  probable  that  even  the  civil  jurisdiction  of 
a  manorial  court  was  established  during  the  few  years  the  grant  was 

t  The  correctness  of  this  statement  having  been  questioned,  we  quote 
from  the  act  of  Dec,  17, 1743 :  "And  whereas  Shawangunk,  Highlands, 
and  Maghaghkemek  have  formerly  been  deemed  and  esteemed  three 
precincts,  and  have  been  assessed  by  their  own  assessors,^'  etc.  Mag- 
haghkemek was  subsequently  included  in  the  Precinct  of  Maniakating. 

gunk  Mountains."  In  more  general  terms,  the  district 
was  defined  as  "bounded  westerly  by  the  Shawan- 
gunk Mountains  as  they  run  from  the  county  of 
Orange  to  a  creek  or  river  called  the  Plattekill,  then 
along  the  Plattekill  to  Shawangunk  Eiver,  then  all 
along  Shawangunk  River  to  the  north  bounds  of  the 
ten  thousand  acres  granted  to  Jeremiah  Schuyler 
aforesaid."  The  freeholders  were  required  to  "  meet 
at  the  house  of  Matties  Millspaught  on  the  first  Tues- 
day of  April  yearly,"  or  at  such  other  place  as  should 
be  selected  by  the  inhabitants  after  the  first  meeting, 
and  elect  one  supervisor,  two  assessors,  a  collector,  a 
constable,  and  an  overseer  of  the  poor.  One  of  the 
assessors  was  to  be  located  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Wallkill,  "and  because  the  said  Wallkill  Eiver, 
which  crosses  the  said  precinct,  is  sometimes  danger- 
ous to  pass,"  one  collector  and  one  constable  were 
added  to  the  officers  of  the  precinct  "for  that  part 
thereof  which  lieth  to  the  westward  of  said  river.'' 

The  second,  the  Precinct  of  Shawangunk,  was 
bounded  on  the  west  "  by  the  foot  of  Shawangunk 
Mountains  ;  on  the  south  and  west  by  the  precinct  of 
Wallkill ;  on  the  east  by  the  line  or  bounds  of  three 
thousand  five  hundred  acres  granted  to  Rip  Van  Dam 
and  others,  by  the  east  bounds  of  two  thousand  acres 
of  land  granted  to  Barbaric,  and  by  the  east  bounds  or 
line  of  two  thousand  acres  of  land  granted  to  Huddles- 
ton;  and  on  the  north  by  the  north  bounds  or  line  of 
the  said  two  thousand  acres  granted  to  Huddleston, 
by  the  north  bounds  of  two  thousand  acres  granted  to 
Peter  Matthews  and  others ;"  on  the  south  by  a  line 
"  crossing  the  said  Wallkill  River  to  the  mouth  of 
Shawangunk  River,  and  running  thence  southwest- 
erly all  along  the  northwest  side  of  said  Shawangunk 
River  to  the  southwest  corner  of  the  land  granted  to 
Col.  Jacob  Rutzen ;"  and  on  the  west  by  the  "  west- 
erly bounds  or  line  of  said  land  granted  to  Rutzen  to  a 
salt  pond,  called  '  the  great  salt  pond,'  and  from  thence 
upon  a  west  line  to  the  foot  of  Shawangunk  Moun- 
tains aforesaid."  The  first  precinct  meeting  was  to  be 
held  at  the  house  of  Benjamin  Smedes,  Jr.,  at  which 
a  supervisor,  two  assessors,  and  the  usual  precinct 
officers  were  to  be  chosen,  and  the  place  of  subse- 
quent meetings  designated. 

The  Precinct  of  the  Highlands  embraced  the  patents- 
lying  along  the  Hudson  from  Murderer's  Creek  to 
New  Paltz,  and  was  more  particularly  described  as 
"bounded  on  the  east  by  Hudson's  River;  on  the 
south  by  the  line  dividing  the  counties  of  Ulster  and 
Orange ;  on  the  west  by  the  precincts  of  Wallkill  and. 
Shawangunk  and  the  neighborhoods  annexed  to  the 
New  Paltz,?  and  on  the  north  by  the  bounds  or  line 

X  Millspaugb  was  a  very  early  settler  in  the  present  town  of  Mont- 
gomery. He  married  the  widow  of  Johannes  Mingus,  who  erected  the 
first  grist-mill  in  the  town  (1721-22),  and  through  this  marriage  obtained 
the  Mingus  mill  and  farm. 

g  The  "  neighborhoods  annexed  to  New  Paltz"  were  "  Guilford  and 
several  otlier  patents,  from  the  south  bounds  of  New  Paltz  to  the  north 
bounds  of  Shawangunk  precinct,  and  from  the  foot  of  the  high  moun- 
tains eastward  to  the  east  line  of  the  patent  granted  to  Thomas  Garland, . 



of  New  Paltz  town."  The  precinct  meetings  were  to 
be  held  "at  the  house  of  John  Humphrey,  Jr.,"  who 
resided  in  the  present  town  of  New  Windsor,  "  on  the 
first  Tuesday  of  April  annually,"  for  the  election  of 
precinct  officers. 

The  same  act  gave  primary  constitution  to  the  Pre- 
cinct of  Mamakating,  in  which  was  included  "  all  the 
land  to  the  southward  of  the  town  of  Rochester  as  far 
as  the  county  of  Ulster  extends,  and  to  the  westward 
of  the  precincts  of  Wallkill  and  Shawangunk  as  far  as 
the  county  extends."  ■  The  first  precinct  meeting  was 
to  be  held  at  the  dwelling-house  of  Samuel  Swartwout, 
at  which  one  constable,  two  assessors,  two  overseers  of 
the  poor,  and  two  surveyors  of  highways  were  to  be 
elected.  In  the  election  of  supervisor  the  fireeholders 
were  associated  with  the  town  of  Rochester.  Under 
the  law  of  1798,  the  northern  part  of  the  territory  in- 
cluded in  the  then  town  of  Deerpark  was  taken  from 
this  precinct. 

The  Precinct  of  the  Highlands  continued  in  exist- 
ence until  1762,  when  it  was  divided  into  the  Precincts 
of  Newburgh  and  New  Windsor,  "  by  a  line  begin- 
ning at  the  mouth  of  Quassaick  Creek,  and  running 
thence  along  the  south  bounds  of  a  tract  of  land  com- 
monly called  the  German  Patent  to  another  tract 
granted  to  Alexander  Baird,  and  then  along  the 
southerly  bounds  of  the  said  last  mentioned  tract  to 
the  Wallkill  Precinct ;  all  the  lands  heretofore  com- 
prehended within  the  said  Higliland  Precinct  lying 
to  the  southward  of  the  aforesaid  dividing  line  to 
be  called  by  the  name  of  New  Windsor  Precinct,  and 
all  the  lands  heretofore  comprehended  within  the  said 
Highland  Precinct  lying  to  the  northward  of  the  said 
line  to  be  called  by  the  name  of  Newburgh  Precinct." 
The  latter  was  divided  in  1772  by  a  line  running 
along  the  north  bounds  of  the  Harrison,  Bradley, 
Wallace,  Kip  and  Cruger,  and  Jamison  Patents,  to 
the  Precinct  of  Shawangunk,  "  all  the  land  lying  to 
the  northward  of  said  line  to  be  called  and  known  by 
the  name  of  New  Marlborough  Precinct,  and  all  the 
land  south  of  said  line  to  continue  to  be  called  New- 
burgh Precinct." 

The  same  law  divided  the  Precinct  of  Wallkill  by 
a  line  beginning  at  the  southwest  corner  of  the  Mcin- 
tosh Patent  and  the  southeast  corner  of  McKnight's, 
"  thence  along  the  southwest  bounds  of  Thomas  Noxon, 
the  southwest  bounds  of  Harrison  and  Company,  the 
southwest  bounds  of  Philip  Schuyler,  to  the  Pakada- 
sink  River  or  Shawangunk  Kill ;"  all  northeast  of  this 
line  "  to  be  called  the  Precinct  of  Hanover,  and  all 
the  land  southwest  of  said  line,  heretofore  compre- 
hended in  the  Precinct  of  Wallkill,  to  continue  to  be 
called  the  Precinct  of  Wallkill." 

The  precincts  named  carried  with  them  their  desig- 

and  by  the  south  and  east  by  the  land  granted  to  Hugh  Freer  and  others, 
And  to  the  eastward  by  an  east  line  from  the  said  Hugh  Freer's  bounds 
to  the  bounds  or  line  of  New  Paltz."  The  freeholders  were  to  vote  with 
the  freeholders  of  Kew  Paltz,  and  in  all  respects  to  be  considered  a  part 
of  that  town. 

native  titles  in  their  organization  as  towns  under  the 
act  of  1788,  with  the  exception  of  Hanover,  whos6 
inhabitants,  for  the  purpose  of  attesting  their  detestiS 
tion  of  the  English  go.vernment,  as  well  as  their  appre- 
ciation of  the  heroic  services  of  Gen.  Richard  Mont- 
gomery, obtained  consent  from  the  Provincial  Con- 
vention of  the  State  in  1782  to  change  the  precinct 
name  to  Montgomery.*  By  the  act  of  1788  they  were 
severally  erected  as  the  towns  of  Newburgh,  New 
Windsor,  New  Marlborough,  Shawangunk,  Montgom- ' 
ery,  and  Wallkill.  ^ 

Incident  to  the  history  of  the  original  county,  it  is 
proper  to  remark,  in  this  connection,  that,  although 
organized  in  1683,  it  was  only  a  county  in  name, — i 
district  in  the  wilderness  with  boundaries  upon  paper. 
It  was  not  until  nearly  twenty  years  later  that  it  be- 
came a  county  de  facto.  True,  it  was  assigned  a 
sheriff  and  a  clerk,  and  had  a  jail,  but  it  was  attached 
to  New  York  in  other  respects  in  the  character  of  d 
borough.  Governor  Leisler,  in  his  ill-starred  rebel- 
lion, attempted  to  use  it  (1691)  by  appointing  as  one 
of  his  Council  William  Lawrence,  of  New  York,  as 
representing  Orailge,  aild  when  it  was  given  repre- 
sentation in  the  Assembly  (1699),  it  was  not  as  a  right 
due  to  population,  but  to  serve  another  purpose. 

Aside  from  their  town  and  precinct  officers  and  rep- 
resentatives in  the  Assembly,  the  people  had  no  voice 
in  the  selection  of  their  "rulers.  The  sheriffs  held  the 
elections  for  representatives,  and  the  choice  was  de- 
termined by  the  viva  voce\  vote  of  the  freeholders^ 
who  were  required  to  be  twenty-one  years  of  age,  and 
to  be  possessed  of  "  land  or  tenements  improved  to 
the  value  of  forty  pounds  free  from  all  incumbrances." 
Freeholders  having  property  in  more  than  one  county 
could  vote  in  as  many  counties  as  they  had  property 
liable  to  taxation,  and  for  their  accommodation  the 
elections  were  so  ordered  that  opportunity  was  given 
them  to  cast  the  full  number  of  votes  to  which  they 
were  entitled.  It  could  scarcely  be  called  a  represen- 
tative system,  so  far  as  representative  systems  are  un- 
derstood to  express  the  popular  will ;  it  was  more 
properly  a  property  representation,  under  which  power 
was  given  to  a  few  persons.  The  districts  were  large  ; 
the  population  was  scattered ;  the  elections  were  held 
at  the  "  county  towns ;"  the  polls  were  kept  open 
several  days  to  enable  all  to  vote  who  might  wish  to 
do  so.  Where  the  conveniences  existed  for  transit 
from  point  to  point,  as  they  did  along  the  Hudson,  a 
freeholder  residing  in  New  York  was  enabled  to  vote 
in  half  a  dozen  counties  if  holding  property  therein, 
while  those  occupying  more  inland  locations  were  in 
most  cases  necessarily  deprived  of  a  voice  in  elections. 

Until  1699  the  freeholders  of  the  county  were  asso- 

*  This  is  the  fact,  as  it  appeai-s  from  the  proceedings  of  a  public  meet- 
ing held  in  the  precinct  to  petition  for  the  change.  The  name  selected, 
howevet,  bad  been  applied  to  a  township  plot,  now  the  village,  or  part  of 
the  village,  of  Montgomery,  by  Gen.  James  Clinton,  several  years  bofora 
the. Revolution,  as  appears  by  deeds  of  record  conveying  township  lots. 

t  Until  after  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1777.  Voting  by  bal- 
lot was  regarded  by  the  framers  of  that  Instrument  as  an  experiment. 



ciated  with  those  of  New  York  in  the  selection  of 
representatives,  but  were  not  obliged  to  visit  New 
York  in  order  to  give  their  votes.  The  sheriff  of  the 
county  held  the  election  at  Orangetown,  and  made 
return  to  the  sheriflF  of  New  York,  who  declared  the 
result.  In  1699  the  county  was  given  representation 
in  the  Assembly.  At  this  and  subsequent  elections 
until  1749,  the  poll  was  held  exclusively  at  Orange- 
town,  and  those  who  wished  to  vote  were  compelled 
to  visit  that  place.  This  was  in  part  remedied  by  the 
law  of  1748,  by  which  it  was  provided,  "  for  the  time 
to  come,  all  elections  for  representatives"  should  be 
opened  "either  at  the  court-house  or  some  conve- 
nient place  in  Orangetown,  or  at  the  court-house  or 
some  convenient  place  in  Goshen,"  and  after  being 
held  for  a  certain  time  at  the  place  where  first  opened, 
should  be  adjourned  "to  the  other  court-house  or 
place  of  election,  so  that  all  the  freeholders  may,  if 
they  please,  be  polled  at  such  elections."* 

That  the  system  was  corrupt,  especially  in  the 
earlier  years  of  its  administration,  is  a  fact  revealed 
on  every  page  of  the  history  of  that  period.  Frauds 
upon  the  revenue  pervaded  all  departments  of  the 
public  service ;  piratical  expeditions,  including  that 
of  the  notorious  Capt.  Kidd,  were  fitted  out  by  men 
high  in  public  aflfairs ;  land-grants  were  obtained  for 
considerations  paid  to  the  Governor  ;  there  was  noth- 
ing, apparently,  that  had  money  in  it  that  was  not 
prospered  by  official  connivance.  In  one  instance 
only  is  it  written  that  the  Governor's  Council  "  was 
ashamed  to  consent"  to  one  of  his  grants,  and  that 
not  because  of  its  magnitude,  but  that  it  proposed  to 
give  his  footman  a  lease  for  "  a  little  island  called 
Nutten  Island,"  which  had  hitherto  been  "  convenient 
for  grazing  a  few  coach-horses  and  cows  for  the  Gov- 
ernor's family."!  Sectarianism  was  the  cloak  for  all 
kinds  of  peculation ;  to-write  against  another  at  one 
time  that  he  was  a  Protestant,  or  at  another  that  he 
was  "a  Popish  tailor,"  or  similar  epithet,  was  the 
stepping-stone  to  official  promotion.  Indeed,  it  would 
seem  that  more  modern  political  partisans  have  not 
learned  much  that  is  new,  or  that  many  who  have 
since  held  official  station  have  special  claim  to  origi- 
nality in  methods  of  abusing  public  trusts. 

It  was  when  this  era  of  corruption  was  at  its  height 
that  the  people  of  Orange  County  appear  distinctly 
in  the  politics  of  the  province.  Governor  Bellomont, 
who  succeeded  Governor  Fletcher  in  1698,  was  clothed 
with  power  to  correct  the  abuses  which  had  grown  up, 
for  which  purpose  he  was  given  "  a  negative  voice  in 
the  making  and  passing  of  all  laws,  statutes,  and  ordi- 
nances, and  could  "  adjourn,  prorogue,  and  dissolve 
the  Assembly"  whenever-  he  deemed  it  necessary.J 
Issuing  a  warrant  for  the  election  of  a  new  Assembly, 
he  cautioned  the  sheriffs,  by  whom  it  was  to  be  held, 

•  The  old  story  of  caiT7iDg  the  ballot-box  around  the  country  origi- 
nated in  this.  Unfortnnately  for  the  story,  there  was  no  ballot-box,  the 
vote  of  the  freeholders  being  simply  registered, 

t  Col.  Hist,  It.  384,  393.  I  Ibid.,  i.  266. 


against "  undue  elections  and  returns ;"  but  the  latter 
were  themselves  creatures  of  the  corrupt  combination 
which  had  been  formed,  or,  as  the  record  states,  "were 
for  the  most  part  men  of  mean  rank,"  who  "  had  been 
continued  in.  their  places  from  year  to  year  by  Gov- 
ernor Fletcher,"  and  who,  "  instead  of  complying" 
with  their  instructions,  "  carried  themselves  most 
unfairly,  in  so  much  that  one  of  them  made  return 
for  a  county  (viz..  Orange  County),  in  which  he  suf- 
fered not  any  one  freeholder  to  vote."§  Other  dis- 
tricts shared  in  the  "  corruption  of  the  franchise"  to 
such  an  extent  that  when  the  Assembly  convened, 
eleven  of  the  nineteen  members  of  which  it  was  com- 
posed, it  is  said,  "sat  by  controverted  elections,"  and, 
having  the  majority,  "  established  themselves  and 
brought  all  things  into  the  greatest  confusion." 

Finding  that  nothing  could  be  done  with  such  a 
body  of  men,  Bellomont  dissolved  the  Assembly  and 
ordered  a  new  election,  taking  care  that  Governor 
Fletcher's  sheriffs  were  retired  from  the  management. 
The  result  was  satisfactory  to  him,  but  not  to  those 
who  were  defeated,  who  complained  to  the  king  that 
"  the  election  was  appointed  to  be  upon  the  same  day 
in  all  places  except  the  two  most  remote  counties, 
whereby  the  best  freeholders,  who  had  estates  in  sev- 
eral counties,  were  deprived  of  giving  their  votes  at 
several  elections  ;  that  "the  sheriffs  performed  the 
business  they  were  appointed  for  by  admitting  some 
for  freeholders  who  were  not  so,  and  rejecting  others 
who  were  really  so,  as  they  voted  for  or  against  their 
party,  and  by  nominating  and  appointing  inspectors 
of  the  poll  who,  upon  any  complaint  of  unfair  deal- 
ing, gave  this  general  answer :  '  If  you  are  aggrieved 
complain  to  my  lord  Bellomont,  and  the  same  prac- 
tice in  all  places  gives  just  reason  to  believe  the 
orders  for  it  came  from  his  excellency." 

"  To  secure  a  majority  of  such  men  as  he  desired," 
continues  this  remonstrance,  "his  lordship,  without 
any  instruction  from  England,  added  two  to  the  former 
number,  viz. :  one  more  to  be  chosen  for  the  city  and 
county  of  Albany,  and  one  for  the  county  of  Orange, 
which  last  is  by  act  of  Assembly  made  a  part  of  the 
county  of  New  York,  and  has  not  twenty  inhabitants 
freeholders  in  it,  and  never  before  had  a  distinct 
representation  in  Assembly.  By  this  means  one 
Abraham  Gouverneur,  a  Dutchman, — so  indigent  as 
never  to  be  assessed  in  the  public  taxes,  and  who,  as 
is  reasonably  to  be  supposed,  had  a  deed  of  some  land 
made  to  him  of  purpose  to  qualify  him  for  it,  because 
he  never  had  any  land  before, — was  chosen  an  Assem- 
blyman, and  is  since  made  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Representatives.  This  fellow  was  formerly  convicted 
of  murther  and  pardoned,  ||  and  soon  after  the  Revo- 

g  Stanley  Handcock  appears  as  sheriff  of  Orange  County  at  this  time. 
He  was  also  sherifT  of  New  York. 

II  Uouverneur  vfas  attached  to  the  administration  of  Governor  Leisler, 
and  was  tried  and  condemned,  with  others,  for  his  participation  in  the 
resistance  to  Governor  Sloughter,  during  which  several  of  the  king*s 
troops  were  killed,  including  Capt.  MacGregorie.  He  was  subsequently 
pardoned  by  the  king.    It  is  to  these  facta  the  text  refers. 



lution  publicly  declared  that  Jacob  Leisler  had 
carried  the  government  of  New  York  by  the  sword, 
and  had  the  same  right  to  it  as  King  William  had  to 
the  crown,  having  conquered  the  kingdom  of  Eng- 
land. At  the  meeting  of  the  Assembly  it  appeared 
of  the  twenty-one  representatives  there  were  but 
seven  Englishmen,  the  remainder  being  all  Dutch 
and  of  the  meanest  sort,  half  of  whom  do  not  under- 
stand English,  which  can  conduce  little  to  the  honor 
of  the  English  interest  there."* 

Notwithstanding  this  bitter  complaint,  the  Assem- 
bly instituted  some  important  reforms.  Grants  of 
large  tracts  of  lands  were  set  aside,  the  elections  for 
representatives  were  regulated,  and  provision  made 
for  the  severe  punishment  (if  frauds  upon  the  revenue. 
Had  Bellomont  lived,  perhaps  more  general  reforms 
would  have  been  secured ;  but  his  death,  in  1701,  was 
followed,  after  a  short  administration  under  the  Coun- 
cil, by  the  appointment  of  Lord  Cornbury,  who  not 
only  restored  the  unscrupulous  officials  that  had  been 
removed  by  Bellomont,  but  earned  for  himself  the 
"  unenviable  distinction  of  being  the  worst  of  all  the 
Governors  under  the  English  crown."  "Rapacious 
without  a  parallel,  he  hesitated  not,"  says  one  of  his 
biographers,  "  to  apply  the  public  money  to  his  own 
private  purposes ;  and  though  notoriously  vicious,  yet 
he  was  so  intolerant  that  he  sought  to  establish  the 
Episcopacy  at  all  hazards,  imprisoning  and  prohibit- 
ing ministers  of  other  denominations  from  exercising 
their  functions  without  his  special  license.  He  was, 
moreover,  as  destitute  of  gratitude  as  of  courtesy,  in- 
juring those  most  from  whom  he  had  received  the 
greatest  benefits.  His  manners  were  as  ignoble  and 
undignified  as  his  conduct  was  base,  and  when  this 
hopefiil  scion  of  royalty  wandered  about  the  streets 
clothed  as  a  woman  (which  was  a  common  practice 
with  him),  the  people  felt  that  he  had  taken  Caligula 
for  a  model." 

But  a  better  state  of  affairs  was  born  of  the  excesses 
which  Cornbury  committed.  While  at  Chear  Hall, 
his  country-seat  in  Haverstraw,  he  surrounded  him- 
self with  such  men  as  Daniel  Honan,  the  freeholders 
looked  upon  his  extravagance  with  alarm,  andj  through 
the  Assembly,  refused  the  grants  of  money  which  he 
asked.  The  rights  of  the  people  with  regard  to  taxa- 
tion, to  courts  of  law,  to  ofiS^cers  of  the  crown,  were 
speedily  asserted  and  increased  in  strength  with  the 
political  education  of  the  people.  When  Cornbury 
was  succeeded  by  Lovelace  (1709),  the  Assembly 
began  the  contest  that  was  never  to  cease  but  with  in- 
dependence. The  crown  demanded  a  permanent  rev- 
enue, without  appropriation;  the  Assembly  would 
only  grant  an  annual  revenue  and  appropriate  it  spe- 
cifically. The  power  lodged  in  the  Governor  to  dis- 
solve the  Assembly  was  invoked  in  vain ;  the  people 
were  mainly  of  one  mind  that  they  had  an  "  inherent 
right"  to  legislation,  springing  "  not  from  any  com- 

*  Col.  Hist.,  iv.  621. 

mission  or  grant  from  the  crown,  but  from  the  free 
choice  and  election  of  the  people,  who  ought  not,  nor 
justly  can,  be  divested  of  their  property  without  their 
consent."  In  all  the  long  struggle  which  followed 
and  which  culminated  in  the  war  for  independeno^a 
the  representatives  of  original  Orange  were  found  in 
the  interest  of  freedom,  and  gave  to  the  final  issue 
its  most  consistent  advocates,  its  most  devoted  adher- 

Practically,  the  organization  of  the  county  began  in 
1703,  when  the  first  session  of  the  court  and  the  first 
meeting  of  justices  acting  as  aboard  of  supervisors 
was  held.f  Such  local  administration  as  it  had,  aside 
from  the  officers  of  its  precincts,  may  be  briefly  stated, 
Minnie  Johannes  was  its  first  sheriflf,  1685 ;  Floris 
Willemse  Crom  in  1690,  Stanley  Handcock  in  1694, 
John  Patersen  in  1699,  and  Theunis  Toleman  in  1701, 
The  latter  was  not  held  in  very  high  esteem  by  Gov- 
ernor Cornbury,  who  apparently  regarded  the  ability 
of  a  man  to  write  his  own  name  as  a  qualification. 
Dirck  Storm  was  the  county  clerk,  or  clerk  of  the 
court,  in  1691,  and  William  Huddleston  in  1703, 
Judges  of  the  Common  Pleas  came  in  in  1701,  Wil- 
liam Merritt  being  the  first  judge.  The  first  session 
of  the  court  was  held  at  Orangetown,  April  28,  1703; 
present,  William  Merritt  and  John  Merritt,  judges. 
The  first  recorded  sessions  of  justices  of  the  peace, 
acting  as  a  board  of  supervisors,  was  held  April  27, 
1703 ;  present,  William  Merritt,  John  Merritt,  Corne- 
lius Cuyper,  Tunis  Van  Houton,  Thomas  Burroughs, 
Michael  Hawdon,  justices ;  John  Perry,  sheriff;  Wil- 
liam Huddleston,  clerk ;  and  Conradt  Hauson,  con- 
stable.   From  this  time  the  record  is  continuous. 

Many  franchises  were  dependent  upon  population. 
Of  this  character  were  surrogate's  courts.  The  first 
law  of  the  province  relating  to  estates  gave  to  courts 
of  Common  Pleas  power  to  take  proof  of  wills  and 
grant  letters  of  administration  in  remote  counties. 
Other  counties,  including  Orange  and  Ulster,  were 
required  to  transact  such  business  in  New  York. 
This  was  changed  by  act  of  Nov.  24,  1750,  which  re- 
lates that  whereas,  at  the  time  of  the  enactment  of  the 
law  providing  that  in  remote  counties  courts  of  Com- 
mon Pleas  should  be  authorized  to  take  the  examina- 
tion of  witnesses  to  any  will,  on  oath,  and  to  grant 
letters  of  administa-ation,  the  "  county  of  Orange  was 
not  considered  and  esteemed  one  of  the  remote  coun- 
ties," but  that  since  the  passage  of  the  said  act  "the 
northwest  parts  of  the  said  county,  being  nearly  one 
hundred  miles  distance  from  the  city  of  New  York," 
had  "  increased  greatly  in  number  of  inhabitants,  as . 
well  by  families  removed  to  those  parts  as  otherwise,!"^ 
who  were  laboring  under  "the  like  inconveniences  as 
those  of  said  remote  counties;"  that  therefore  the 
judges  and  justices  of  the  said  Court  of  Common 

t  The  record  book  contains  this  entry :  "  Kegister  kept  for  Omnge 
County,  begun  y«  6th  day  of  April,  Anno  Domini  170S."  The  earlier 
records  were  probably  kept  In  New  York,  to  which  the  county  vr* 



Pleas,  and  the  clerk  of  the  said  county,  be  vested  with 
authority  to  take  such  examinations  and  issue  such 
letters  of  administration.  This  arrangement  was  con- 
tinued until  1754,  when  William  Finn  was  appointed 
surrogate  and  a  Surrogate's  Court  established. 

The  judicial  history  of  the  county  properly  begins 
with  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  (1691),  the  first 
session  of  which  was  held  at  Orangetown,  April  28, 
1703.  Prior  to  that  time,  and  for  several  years  subse- 
quent, in  some  cases,  as  has  been  already  stated,  its 
primary  settlements  were  attached  to  New  York  or 
were  included  in  the  county  of  Ulster.  The  Court  of 
Common  Pleas  was  continued  until  1847,  when  it  gave 
place  to  the  present  County  Court.  The  Supreme 
Court  (also  established  in  1691)  held  circuits  in  the 
county  after  1703.  Its  bench  was  composed  of  the 
best  legal  talent  of  the  province  and  of  the  State. 
Its  circuits  were  succeeded  by  the  Circuit  Courts, 
established  by  the  constitution  of  1821,  and  the  latter 
by  the  judicial  system  of  1846,  when  a  new  Supreme 
Court  was  organized  having  general  jurisdiction  of 
law  and  equity,  and  holding  at  least  two  terms  annu- 
ally of  the  Circuit  Cburt  and  Court  of  Oyer  and  Ter- 
miner in  each  county.  Surrogate's  Courts  have  been 
held  in  the  county  since  1754.  The  original  county 
was  divided  into  two  court  districts  in  1727,  when 
courts  were  held  at  Orangetown  and  at  Goshen  alter- 
nately, the  former  being  the  shire-town.  A  similar 
division  was  made  in  the  present  county  in  1798, 
when  Goshen  was  established  as  the  shiretown,  and 
court  terms  alternated  with  Newburgh.  This  division 
is  still  preserved,  and  is  the  only  practical  surviving 
link  between  the  past  and  the  present,  but  without 
other  use  than  to  serve  as  a  reminder  of  the  wilder- 
ness era,  with  its  log  court-houses,  dreary  forest  roads, 
pioneer  jurors  and  pioneer  justice,  and  of  the  changes 
in  the  modes  of  transit,  which  now  render  what  is 
vulgarly  called  "half-shire  towns"  unnecessary. 

The  changes  which  had  been  made  from  time  to 
time  in  the  precinct  organizations  of  the  district, 
which  have  been  already  stated,  were  the  outgrowth 
of  increasing  population  and  the  necessary  conve- 
nience of  local  administration.  But  their  subdivision, 
especially  after  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  did  not 
entirely  meet  the  emergencies  which  the  rapid  in- 
crease of  population  demanded.  The  people  of  New- 
burgh and  the  neighboring  southern  towns  of  Ulster 
County  were  required  to  transact  their  county  busi- 
ness at  Kingston,  while  those  of  ComwalL  and  the 
northeastern  part  of  Orange  we»e  compelled  to  attend 
courts  and  enter  their  records  at  Orangetown.  In 
either  case  the  county-seat  was  thirty  miles  or  more 
distant,  and  in  precisely  opposite  directions,  while 
the  facilities  for  communication,  for  a  large  portion  of 
the  time,  were  most  exceptionable.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  western  part  of  Orange  were  better  accommo- 
dated, Goshen  being  made  a  half-shire  district^  still, 
their  records  were  kept  at  Orangetolvn,  and  a  consid- 
able  portion  of  their  court  business  was  necessarily 

transacted  there.  To  inaugurate  the  correction  of 
these  inconveniences  a  convention  of  delegates  from 
the  several  towns  interested  was  held  at  Ward's 
Bridge*  on  the  6th  of  April,  1793,  but  without  other 
result  than  "the  agitation  of  the  question,  and  the 
half-expressed  willingnpss  of  the  delegates  from  Go- 
shen to  a  union  of  the  northern  towns  of  Orange  and 
the  southern  towns  of  Ulster  in  a  new  county  organi- 
zation, with  courts  alternately  at  Newburgh  and  Go- 
shen. A  second  convention  was  held  at  the  hpuse  of 
John  Decker,  at  Otterkill,  in  February,  1794,  with  no 
better  result,  the  delegates  from  Newburgh  being  in- 
structed to  decline  "  any  union  at  all"  unless  it  should 
be  agreed  that  a  court-house  be  erected  and  courts 
held  at  Newburgh  and  Goshen  alternately,!  a  propo- 
sition which  the  Goshen  delegates  were  not  fully 
disposed  to  concede. 

Here  the  matter  rested  until  1797,  when  a  third 
convention  assembled,  similarly  composed,  at  Kerr's 
hotel,  in  Little  Britain.  At  this  convention.  Gen. 
Wilkin  and  Gen.  Hopkins,  from  Orange,  and  Daniel 
Niven  and  Isaac  Belknap,  Sr.,  irom  Ulster,  appointed 
a  committee  to  report  terms  upon  which  a  union 
should  be  formed,  agreed  to  a  stipulation  that  the 
courts  should  be  held  at  Newburgh  and  Goshen 
alternately,  and  the  convention  ratified  it.  The  sub- 
ject came  before  the  Legislature  in  the  winter  of  1797 
-98.  Two  bills  were  presented, — one  entitled  "An 
Act  for  Dividing  the  County  of  Orange,"  the  other, 
"An  Act  for  Altering  the  Bounds  of  the  Counties  of 
Orange  and  Ulster."  The  first  was  passed  on  the 
23d  of  February,  and  enacted  "  That  all  that  tract  of 
land  in  the  county  of  Orange,  lying  northwest  of  a 
line  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Poplopen's  Kill,  on 
Hudson's  River,  and  running  from  thence  to  the 
southeastermost  comer  of  the  farm  of  Stephen  Sloat, 
and  then  along  the  south  bounds  of  his  farm  to  the 
southwest  corner  thereof,  and  then  on  the  same  course 
to  the  bounds  of  the  State  of  New  Jersey ,J  shall  be 
and  hereby  is  erected  into  a  separate  county,  and 
shall  be  called  and  known  by  the  name  of  Orange ;" 
and  "  That  all  that  part  of  the  said  county  of  Orange 
lying  southward  of  the  above  described  line  shall  be 
erected  into  a  separate  county,  and  shall  be  called  and 
known  by  the  name  of  Rockland."  The  act  also  made 
provision  for  holding  courts,  fixed  the  number  of 
members  of  Assembly,  etc.  The  second  act  was  passed 
on  the  5th  of  April  following.  It  enacted  "That  the 
towns  of  New  Windsor,  Newburgh,  Wallkill,  Mont- 
gomery, and  Deerpark,  now  in  the  county  of  Ulster, 
shall  be  and  hereby  are  annexed  to  the  county  of 
Orange,"  and  made  provision  for  holding  courts  al- 

*  Now  the  village  of  Montgomeiy. 

t  Newburgh  Town  RecordB,  Feb.  1, 1794. 

X  Act  of  April  3, 1801,  gives  this  line  as  from  the  middle  of  Hudson's 
Kiver  "  west  to  the  month  of  Poplopen's  Kill,  and  from  thence  on  a  di- 
rect course  to  the  east  end  of  the  mill-dam  now  or  late  of  Michael  Wei- 
man  across  the  Ramapough  Biver,  and  from  thence  a  direct  course  to 
the  twenty-mile  stone  standing  in  the  said  division  line  between  this 
State  and  the  State  of  New  Jersey." 



ternately  at  Newburgh  and  Goshen,  the  latter  being 
the  county -seat. 

With  these  enactments  the  records  of  the  original 
county  were  closed,  and  from  the  heart  of  the  patents 
and  precincts  covering  the  district  was  erected  the 
present  county,  bearing,  under  the  title  of  Orange, 
the  colonial  and  Revolutionary  history  of  the  territory 
which  it  embraced,  the  most  populous*  and  fertile  of 
the  lands  of  the  original  district,  and  more  than  two- 
thirds  of  its  wealth,— elements  which  gave  to  it  imme- 
diate prominence  in  State  and  national  politics,  and 
which,  under  subsequent  and  progressive  development, 
have  maintained  its  rank  among  the  first  counties  of 
the  State.  The  boundary  lines  of  the  new  county 
were  definitely  fixed  by  the  general  law  of  April  3, 
1801,  entitled  "  An  Act  to  divide  this  State  into 
Counties,"  as  follows:  "The  county  of  Orange  to 
contain  all  that  part  of  this  State  bounded  east- 
erly by  the  middle  of  Hudson's  River,  southerly 
by  the  said  county  ol  Rockland  and  the  division 
line  between  this  State  and  the  State  of  New  Jersey, 
westerly  by  the  river  Mongaapt  and  the  division 
line  between  this  State  and  the  Commonwealth  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  northerly  by  a  line  drawn  from 
a  point  in  the  middle  of  said  Hudson's  River  oppo- 
site the  northeast  corner  of  a  tract  of  land  granted 
to  Francis  Harrison  and  Company,  called  the  five- 
thousand-acre  tract,  to  the  said  northeast  corner,  and 
running  from  thence  westerly  along  the  north  bounds 
of  the  said  tract  and  the  north  bounds  of  another 
tract  granted  to  the  said  Francis  Harrison  to  the  tract 
of  land  commonly  called  Wallace's  tract,  then  along 
the  lines  of  the  same  northerly  and  westerly  to  the 
northeasterly  bounds  of  a  tract  of  land  granted  to 
Jacobus  Kip,  John  Cruger,  and  others,  commonly 
called  Kip  and  Cruger's  tract,  then  westerly  along  the 
northeasterly  and  northerly  bounds  thereof,  and  then 

*  The  population  of  the  original  county  of  Orange,  and  that  part  of 
Ulster  included  in  the  dlBtrict,  was  (1790)  aa  follows : 


Cornwall 4,225     Mamakating 1,763 

Goshen 2,448     Montgomery 3,563 

Haverstraw 4,826      Newburgh 2,366 

Mlnisink 2,215     New  Windsor 1,819 

Orangetown 1,175     New  Marlborough 2,241 

Warwick 3,603     Shawangunk 2,128 

Wallkill 2,571 

Total 18,492  Total 16,460 

The  following  were  the  towns  included  in  the  new  county,  under  the 

same  census : 


Cornwall 4,225  Montgomery 3,663 

Goshen 2,448  Newburgh 2,365 

Minisink 2,215  New  Windsor 1,819 

Warwick 3,603  Wallkill 2  57t 

Total 12,491  Total 10,318 

The  census  of  1800,  immediately  following  the  erection  of  the  new 
county,  gave  its  population  as  29,368,  and  that  of  the  towns  not  included 
as  14,807, — showing  the  population  of  the  district  at  that  time  to  be 

f  Originally  known  as  the  Miuigwing.  Mongaap  is  presumed  to  be 
Butch.  It  is  entered  on  Southier's  map,  "  Mangawping."  While  the 
old  county  line  ran  to  the  Delaware  Biver,  the  new  line  stopped  at  the 
Mongaap ;  it  was  also  farther  north  than  the  old  line. 

westerly  to  the  northeast  corner  of  a  tract  of  three 
thousand  acres  granted  to  Rip  Van  Dam  and  others, 
thence  southerly  along  the  same  to  the  northeast 
corner  of  a  tract  of  three  thousand  acres  granted  to 
Henry  Wileman,  and  running  thence  along  the  north 
bounds  tiereof  to  the  Paltz  River,  commonly  called 
the  Wallkill,  then  southerly  up  the  said  river  to  the 
southeast  corner  of  a  tract  of  four  thousand  acres  of 
land  granted  to  Gerardus  Beekman  and  others,  then 
westerly  and  northerly  along  the  southerly  and  west- 
erly bounds  thereof  to  the  northeast  corner  thereof, 
and  then  northwesterly  along  the  north  bounds  of  the 
land  granted  to  Jeremiah  Schuyler  and  Company  to 
the  Shawangunk  Kill,  thence  southerly  along  said 
kill  to  the  north. part  of  the  farm  now  or  late  in  the 
occupation  of  Joseph  Wood,  Jr.,  thence  west  to  the 
river  Mongaap.  By  act  of  the  7th  of  April  of  the 
same  year  definite  [boundary  lines  were  given  to 
the  towns  composing  the  newly-constructed  county, 
namely :  Blooming-Grove,  Chesekook,  Cornwall, 
Deerpark,  Goshen,  Minisink,  Montgomery,  New 
Windsor,  Newburgh,  Wallkill,  and  Warwick.! 

The  first  buildings  of  the  original  county  were 
erected  at  Orangetown  some  time  about  1703.  At 
the  first  court  of  sessions  held  by  justices  of  the  peace, 
April  5, 1703,  an  examination  of  the  "common  goal 
of  the  county"  was  ordered  and  directions  given  to 
complete  the  same.  By  act  of  the  Assembly,  Dec.  16, 
1737,  "  the  justices  of  the  peace  of  that  part  of  Orange 
County  lying  to  the  northward  of  the  Highlands" 
were  "  authorized  to  build  a  court-house  and  goal  for 
the  said  county  at  Goshen."g  This  building  was 
completed  under  act  of  Nov.  8,  1740,  by  which  one 
hundred  pounds  were  authorized  to  be  raised  for  the 
purpose  on  the  portion  of  the  county  already  named. 
It  was  a  structure  of  wood  and  stone ;  was  repaired  in 
1754,  and  was  torn  down  in  1775  or  1776,  ||  a  new  stone 
court-house  having  been  erected.  The  latter  was  on 
the  site  now  occupied  by  the  office  of  the  county  clerk 
in  Goshen.  Its  erection  was  provided  for  under  an 
act  of  the  Assembly,  March  12,  1773,  by  which  one 
thousand  pounds  were  raised  for  the  purpose  on  the 
precincts  of  Goshen  and  Cornwall.  Four  hundred 
pounds  additional  were  raised  in  1774  to  finish  it, 
and  prisoners  were  removed  to  it  under  act  of  April 
1,  1775.  Meanwhile  the  old  court-house  at  Orange- 
town was  replaced  by  a  new  structure  in  1704,  the 

X  From  the  territory  embraced  in  the  towns  named  the  following  ad* 
ditional  towns  were  erected:  Chester,  1846,  from  Goshen,  Warwick, 
Blooming-Grove,  and  Monroe;  Crawford,  1823,  fh>m  Montgomety; 
Greenville,  1853,  from  Minisink ;  Hamptonburgh,  1830,  n-om  Goshen, 
Blooming-Grove,  Montgomery,  New  Windsor,  and  Wallkill;  Mount 
Hope,  1833,  from  Wallkill,  Minisink,  and  Deerpark  ;  Wawayanda,  13W, 
from  Minisink ;  Highlands,  fh>m  Cornwall,  1872 ;  the  city  of  Newburgh, 
1866,  from  Newburgh.  The  county  now  embraces  eighteen  towns,  one 
city,  and  six  incorporated  villages. 

g  The  courts  in  Newburgh  were  held  in  the  academy  building,  the 
upper  floor  having  been  specially  fitted  up  for  the  purpofle. 

Q  Fart  of  the  dungeon  wall  of  this  structure  now  forms  the  south  end 
wall  of  the  building  known  as  the  Orange  Hotel  at  Goshen,  and  is  the 
only  portion  that  was  not  removed  from  its  original  foundation. 



expense  being  borne  by  the  "  southern  part  of  the 
county."    It  was  subsequently  destroyed  by  fire. 

The  court-house  and  jail  erected  at  Goshen  under 
the  act  of  March  12,  1773,  came  into  the  present 
county  on  its  reorganization  under  the  act  of  1795, 
and  with  its  history,  and  that  of  other  public  buildings 
erected  since  that  time,  we  are  more  immediately  in- 
terested than  in  those  of  the  original  county.  The 
court-house  of  1773  stood  on  the  site  now  occupied 
by  the  office  of  the  county  clerk,  the  well  on  the  west 
side  of  the  latter  building  having  stood  about  ten 
feet  from  the  rear  of  the  centre  of  the  court-house. 
There  were  two  periods  in  its  architecture.  As  orig- 
inally constructed  it  was  two  stories  high ;  its  first 
floor  contained  a  hall  in  the  centre,  with  sheriff's 
office  and  dwelling-rooms  on  the  west,  a  dungeon  on 
the  southeast,  and  a  staircase  on  the  northeast.  The 
court-room  was  at  the  west  end  of  the  second  floor, 
the  judges'  bench  facing  the  entrance ;  on  the  south- 
east were  cells  for  minor  offenders.  The  building  was 
plain,  and  without  belfry;  its  only  ornamental  fea- 
tures were  two  windows  larger  than  the  others  and 
arched,  one  over  the  front  door  on  the  north  side,  its 
mate  directly  opposite  on  the  south  side,  and  the  date 
"  1773"  worked  conspicuously  in  brick  on  the  east 
wall  in  lieu  of  the  British  crown-stone  which  had 
been  obtained  for  the  place,  but  which  Gabriel  Wisner 
demolished  with  a  hammer.*  Here  were  confined 
during  the  Revolution  political  offender*  or  Tories, 
and  prisoners  of  all  grades;  among  others  Joshua 
Hett  Smith,  who  was  arrested  for  complicity  in  the 
treason  of  Arnold,  and  who  presents  in  his  narrative 
an  inside  view  of  the  prison  at  that  time.  He  writes  : 
"  The  jail  was  filled  with  those  who  professed  to  be 
the  king's  friends :  Tories,  and  those  who  were  pris- 
oners of  war;  felons,  and  characters  of  all  colors  and 
descriptions.  I  was  challenged  to  know  if  I  had  any 
hand  in  the  business  of  aiding  the  Tory  prisoners  to 
effect  their  escape  from  the  dungeon.  These  were  a 
number  of  persons  who  were  taken  in  ^rms  while 
going  to  join  the  king's  troops  in  Canada ;  they  were 
residents  of  western  settlements  where,  the  country 
being  thinly  inhabited,  they  had  no  jails,  or  at  least 
none  that  were  large  and  strong  enough  to  contain  the 
number  of  persons  who  were  captured,  and  who  were 
therefore  brought  to  this  place  for  greater  security. 
Among  them  were  some  of  the  most  daring  and  hardy 
people,  belonging  to  Col.  Brant  and  Butler's  corps  of 
whites  and  Indians.  Fifty  of  these  were  crowded  in 
a  small  cell,  which  had  a  window  grated  with  strong 
bars  of  iron,  and  a  sentinel  to  watch  it.f  Notwith- 
standing his  vigilance,  however,  some  implements 
were  conveyed  to  the  prisoners,  who,  in  the  night,  by 

*  The  tradition  is  that  a  controveny  arose  in  regard  to  the  place  where 
the  stone  shoDld  be  fixed,  Wisner,  who  was  a  jnstice  of  the  peace,  asked 
that  it  be  handed  to  him  and  be  would  place  it  where  no  one  would  ob- 
ject. Holding  the  stone  in  the  wall,  as  if  to  adjust  it,  he  suddenly  struck 
it  with  a  sledge  and  broke  it  In  fragments.  He  was  snbsequently  killed 
in  the  battle  of  Iftlinisink. 

t  The  original  dungeon  of  this  bnildiug. 

gentle  degrees,  picked  away  the  mortar  from  the 
heavy  foundation  walls,  and  in  the  course  of  one 
night  made  an  aperture  large  enough  to  admit  a  man 
of  almost  any  size  to  pass  through,  which  they  all  did 
and  effected  their  escape.  Fortunately  a  few  days 
after,  several  persons  came  to  see  me,  as  well  on  busi- 
ness as  from  friendship,  and  they  having  interest  with 
the  deputy  sheriff,  persuaded  him  to  suffer  me  to  come 
out  of  my  place  of  confinement,  and  sit  with  them  in 
the  open  court-room."  As  evening  approached,  he  took 
occasion  to  ask  to  visit  his  room  a  moment ;  but  in- 
stead of  doing  so,  "  when  I  came  near  the  door  of  my 
prison,  I  suddenly  turned,  and  from  a  wink  of  my 
servant  went  down  a  staircase  that  was  at  the  side  of 
it,  and  without  delay  made  to  the  outer  door  of  the 
jail,  which  not  being  bolted,  I  went  out." 

The  building  was  changed  by  the  addition  of  a 
third  story,  cupola  and  bell,  about  the  commence- 
ment of  the  present  century.  On  the  new  floor  was  a 
large  or  main  jail-room  at  the  southeast  corner,  and 
adjoining  it  on  the  northeast  was  a  dungeon  with  one 
grated  window  so  arranged  that  it  could  be  completely 
darkened.  Immediately  west  of  these  was  a  large 
hall  separating  the  rooms  on  the  east  side  from  a  jail- 
room  on  the  west  and  three  other  rooms,  one  occupied 
by  the  county  clerk  and  the  surrogate,  the  others  by 
a  jailer,  and  used  as  occasion  required  for  prisoners. 
The  arrangement  of  the  court-room  was  changed,  the 
bench  being  placed  on  the  northerly  side,  with  the 
prisoners'  dock  on  the  right,  and  seats  for  jurors  on 
both  left  and  right.  The  building  had  no  basement. 
When  prisoners  died  in  it  who  were  confined  for 
debt,  they  were  buried  under  the  floor ;  or,  if  on  the 
limits,  in  the  prison-yard.J  The  death  penalty  was 
inflicted  publicly,  outside  the  court-house  walls.? 
The  building  was  without  special  architecture.  Its 
length  exceeded  its  depth ;  its  walls  were  stone ;  its 
roof  was  hipped ;  its  ceilings  quite  high  for  a  struc- 
ture of  that  period.  Its  little  bell  now  calls  the  fire- 
men of  Goshen  to  their  duties ;  the  old  stones  in  its 
walls  are  incorporated  in  the  walls  of  the  present 
jail ;  its  historical  associations  embrace  all  that  is 
now  regarded  as  barbarous  in  the  old  judicial  system. 

The  court-houses  now  in  use  at  Newburgh  and 
Goshen  were  erected  by  the  present  county  in  1842, 
and  were  the  result  of  a  compromise  on  the  question 
of  erecting  a  new  county,  which  had  been  agitated  at 

I  Among  those  who  were  buried  under  the  floor  of  the  building  was 
Major  Antill,  an  Englishman  of  high  social  rank,  who  had  been  im- 
prisoned for  debt.  Under  the  law,  the  body  was  held  until  tbe  debt  was 
paid.  In  1876  tbe  remains  of  several  persons  who  had  been  buried  in 
tbe  yard  were  exhumed,  in  digging  a  trench,  and  removed  elsewhere, 
giuDiug  their  final  release  from  the  old  "  limits"  through  the  mercy  of  a 
laborer's  shovel.    The  remains  were  not  identified. 

g  Claudius  Smith  was  executed  a  few  rods  in  the  rear  of  the  court- 
house, at  about  the  point  now  formed  by  the  southwest  angle  of  the 
Presbyterian  church  grounds.  Teed  and  Dunning  were  executed  io  a 
field  just  out  of  town,  a  mile  or  so  south  of  the  court-house,  near  what 
is  known  as  Stewart's  woods.  Peter  Crine  was  hanged  in  the  court. 
I  room,  and  his  execution  was  the  first  in  Orange  County  under  the  statute 
decreeing  that  capital  punishment  should  be  more  privately  admiuistered 



different  periods*  by  the  people  of  Newburgh  and  the 
northeastern  towns.  Their  erection  was  inaugurated 
in  1839  by  an  application  to  the  Legislature,  on  the 
part  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  for  authority  to  build 
a  new  court-house  at  Goshen.  This  proposition  was 
opposed  by  Newburgh,  and  the  passage  of  the  act  de- 
feated. In  December  following  the  supervisors  at  an 
extra  session  (December  7th)  adopted,  by  a  vote  of  ten 
to  four,  a  resolution  to  apply  to  the  Legislature  for 
power  to  levy  a  tax  of  thirty  thousand  dollars  on  the 
county  for  the  building  of  a  court-house  and  jail  at 
Goshen  and  a  court-house  and  cells  at  Newburgh, — 
seventeen  thousand  dollars  to  be  expended  in  the 
former  and  thirteen  thousand  dollars  in  the  latter 
town.  The  act  applied  for  was  passed  by  the  Legis- 
lature in  April,  1841,  and  the  erection  of  the  build- 
ings begun  soon  after.  In  their  external  appearance 
they  are  alike,  and  were  from  plans  furnished  by  T. 
M.  Niven,  architect.  The  basement  of  that  at  New- 
burgh is  occupied  in  part  by  cells,  which  are  not 
necessary  at  Goshen,  the  county  jail  being  a  separate 
building  at  that  place.  The  site  of  the  Newburgh 
building  was  enlarged  to  an  open  square  by  private 
subscriptions  of  citizens. 

Originally. the  county  clerk  and  the  surrogate  had 
their  offices  at  their  dwellings ;  subsequently  in  the 
reconstructed  court-house.  At  a  later  period  a  clerk's 
and  surrogate's  office  was  erected  on  the  west  side  of 
.  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  court-house  at  Goshen. 
It  was  a  small  building  of  brick,  and.  was  moved  a 
short  distance  south  in  1842,  but  in  moving  its  walls 
were  cracked,  which  gave  rise  to  the  necessity  for  the 
erection  of  the  present  clerk's  office,  which  was  built 
in  1851  and  occupied  in  the  fall  of  that  year.f  It  is 
a  brick  structure  of  one  story,  fireproof,  and  was  oc- 
cupied for  some  years  by  the  clerk  and  the  surrogate. 
At  the  annual  session  of  the  supervisors  in  1873,  the 
erection  of  a  building  for  the  use  of  the  surrogate 
and  the  supervisors  was  authorized,  from  plans  sub- 
mitted by  Cornelius  Ackerman,  architect,  and  C.  M. 
Thompson  and  J.  H.  Vail,  appointed  as  building  com- 
mittee. The  contract  was  awarded  to  Thomas  Dob- 
bin, of  Newburgh,  and  the  building  completed  in  the 
summer  of  1874,  at  a  cost  of  seven  thousand  four  hun- 
dred and  seven  dollars  and  eighty-five  cents.  The 
structure  is  of  brick,  two  stories  high,  and  presumed 
to  be  fireproof. 

The  support  of  the  poor  of  the  county  and  of  its 
several  towns,  with  the  exception  of  the  town  and 

*  The  first  effort  for  a  new  county  wajs  made  in  1822,  when  it  was  pro- 
posed to  give  it  the  nameof"  Jackson  ;'*  the  second  in  1832,  when  "New- 
burgh" was  fixed  upon  as  the  name.  The  third  effort  was  made  in  1858, 
— the  Dew  county  to  be  called  "  Highland."  The  two  former  were  pre- 
dicated upon  the  refusal  of  the  western  towns  to  consent  to  the  erection 
of  a  court-house  at  Newburgh. 

t  The  resolution  for  its  construction  was  introduced  in  the  board  of 
supervisors  in  the  fall  of  1850,  by  R  M,  Vail.  The  contract  was  awarded 
to  Francis  Boyd,  of  Newburgh,  architect.  The  building  committee  was 
composed  of  B.  M.  Vail,  of  Goshen ;  James  R.  Dickson,  of  Newburgh  ; 
and  Daniel  Fullerton,  of  Wawayanda.  The  coat  of  the  building  and 
furniture  was  six  thousand  two  hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 

city  of  Newburgh,!  is  provided  for  by  a  county  house 
and  farm  situated  about  four  miles  south  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Goshen,  on  the  road  leading  to  Florida.  In 
the  early  years  of  the  settlement  of  the  county,  this 
support  devolved,  under  the  law  of  1701,  upon  the 
several  towns  and  precincts.  The  relief  provided  was 
of  two  kinds :  temporary  or  special  assistance  to  the 
poor,  and  absolute  support  where  the  latter  was  neces- 
sary. In  most  cases  those  of  the  latter  class  were 
given  out  to  board  with  the  person  who,  at  the  annual 
town-meeting,  should  propose  the  lowest  rate  of  com- 
pensation; although  in  some  cases  tenements  were 
rented  for  families.  Newburgh  and  Monroe  pur- 
chased lands  and  erected  town  poor-houses,  but  they 
were  the  exception.?  As  population  increased  and 
the  number  of  paupers  became  greater,  the  distinction 
between  town  and  county  poor  was  established, — the 
latter  being  provided  for  by  general  tax  upon  the 
county,  and  the  former,  which  was  administered  in 
the  form  of  temporary  relief,  by  tax  upon  the  town  in 
which  it  was  afforded.  Various  methods  were  from 
time  to  time  considered  for  administering  the  support 
required  for  permanent  paupers,  resulting  ultimately 
in  the  passage  by  the  Legislature  (Nov.  27, 1824)  of 
an  act  to  provide  for  the  establishment  of  county 
houses  for  both  town  and  county  poor.  This  act  was 
amended  (April  4, 1828)  by  providing  for  the  submis- 
sion to  the  people  of  the  towns,  at  an  annual  town- 
meeting,  of  the  question  of  adopting  the  county  sys- 
tem, and,  if  approving,  to  so  instruct  their  supervisors 
and  file  their  action  with  the  county  clerk.  The  peo- 
ple of  Blooming-Grove  were  the  first  to  move  for  the 
adoption  of  the  system  in  Orange,  by  appointing,  at 
their  town-meeting  in  1828,  a  committee  to  make  in- 
quiry in  regard  to  it,  and  the  probable  expense  of  its 
establishment.  This  committee — composed  of  Joseph 
McLaughlin,  Joseph  Moffat,  and  Robert  Denniston — 
made  a  lengthy  report  (Feb.  19, 1829),  in  which  the 
results  of  the  system  in  the  county  of  Ontario  were 
presented,  and  the  rapidly  increasing  poor  rates  of  the 
county  dwelt  upon, — the  expense  of  supporting  the 
town  and  county  poor  during  the  previous  year  hav- 
ing been  as  follows : 

Tax  for  Tax  for 

County  Poor.  Town  Poor. 

Walkill $10«3.08  JIOOO 

Deerpark „.  359.59 

Hioisink _ 332.25  400 

Warwick 122.84  900 

Monroe 321.65  350 

Blooming-OroTe 185.54  700 

Cornwall 262.16  450 

New  Windsor 119.48  700 

Montgomery 167.82  1000 

Crawford 119.39  400 

Calhoun  (Mount  Hope) 208.42  250 

Newburgh ™ 263.24  500 

Goshen 391.98  750 

«3917.93  $7400 

Whole  annual  expense (11,317.93 

It  was  thought  that  this  expense  could  be  greatly 

X  Newburgh  withdrew  from  the  connty  system  by  act  of  March  13^ 

g  Report,  March  23, 1829.  In  some  instances  the  poor  were  sold  for 
their  own  support. 



reduced  and  a  better  support  provided  by  the  new  sys- 
tem, the  cost  of  the  establishment  of  which  was  esti- 
mated at  ten-thousand  one  hundred  and  ninety  dollars. 
The  committee  suggested  a  meeting  of  delegates  from 
the  several  towns,  which  was  held  on  their  call  at 
Goshen  on  the  22d  of  March ;  John  McGarrah,  of 
Monroe,  chairman,  and  Stacey  Beaked,  of  Wallkill, 
secretary.  This  meeting  approved  the  county  system, 
and  requested  the  oflScers  of  the  different  towns  to  sub- 
mit the  question  to  the  electors  at  the  ensuing  town- 
meetings.  _  The  question  was  accordingly  submitted, 
and,  the  towns  consenting,  the  board  of  supervisors 
met  at  Goshen  in  October  to  take  such  further  action 
as  was  required.  At  this  meeting  a  committee  was 
Appointed  to  consider  and  report ;  and  at  a  subsequent 
meeting,  in  November,  full  powers  were  given  a  com- 
mittee to  purchase  a  site,  with  the  necessary  land,  and 
proceed  with  the  erection  of  buildings.  On  the  6th 
of  February,  1830,  the  proposals  for  erecting  the  build- 
ings were  opened  and  the  contract  awarded  to  John 
H.  Corwin  and  Samuel  Bull  of  Wallkill,  for  seven 
thousand  two  hundred  and  eighty-nine  dollars.  As 
the  general  act  authorized  the  expenditure  of  seven 
thousand  dollars  only  for  land  and  buildings,  applica- 
tion was  at  once  made  to  the  Legislature  for  power  to 
raise  five  thousand  dollars  additional,  and  subse- 
^quently  for  one  thousand  dollars  for  land.*  At  their 
November  meeting  (1829)  the  supervisors  appointed 
the  following  persons  as  the  first  board  of  superintend- 
ents: Gilbert  Holmes,  of  Newburgh;  Jesse  Wood, 
Jr.,  of  Warwick ;  Daniel  Corwin,  of  Wallkill,  and 
William  Smith  and  John  Wilson,  of  Goshen,  who 
Appointed  (November)  Festus  A.  Webb,  of  Minisink, 
keeper,  at  a  salary  of  five  hundred  dollars.f  The 
terms  of  the  general  law  were  fiilly  complied  with  on 
the  29th  of  March,  1831,  when  the  house  was  opened, 
and  the  distinction  between  town  and  county  poor 
Abolished  except  in  temporary  relief,  which  was  con- 
tinued by  the  towns.  During  the  eight  months  em- 
braced in  the  first  report  of  the  superintendents,  four 
hundred  and  thirty-two  persons  were  relieved  at  an 
•expense  of  five  thousand  five  hundred  and  eighty-nine 
dollars  and  eighty-eight  cents ;  and  the  apparent  econ- 
omy of  the  system  shown  in  the  statement  that  for  the 
support  of  the  county  poor  alone,  from  Dec.  1, 1830,  to 
March  31, 1831,  had  been  expended  four  thousand  eight 
hundred  and  ninety-four  dollars  and  twenty-two  cents.! 
The  cost  of  the  house,  with  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
eight  acres  of  land,§  was  twelve  thousand  dollars. 
The  original  building  has  been  imprpved  and  others 
•erected  at  different  times,  and  the  property  now  em- 
braces the  main  asylum,  erected  in  1830,  fifty  by  one 
hundred  and  fifty  feet,  three  stories  and  a  half  high, 

*  The  first  act  was  passed  March  3, 1830 ;  the  second  Feb.  9, 1S33. 

t  Five  superintendents  were  appointed  until  1838;  after  that,  and  until 
1857,  thre«.  In  1867  the  number  was  reduced  to  one,  to  be  elected  by  the 
people.    James  0.  Adams  was  then  chosen. 

I  The  poor  were  first  brought  to  the  house  from  different  towns  in 
April,  U3I. 

g  Subseqnentl]'  increased  to  two  hundred  and  sixty-three  acres. 

with  accommodations  for  three  hundred  persons;  a 
lunatic  asylum  adjoining  on  the  northwest,  erected  in 
1848  by  Eiley  &  McFarr,  thirty  by  fifty  feet,  with  ac- 
commodations for  about  thirty  lunatics ;  a  separate 
building  on  the  south  for  colored  people,  erected  in 
1865  by  B.  H.  Corwin,  with  accommodations  for  one 
hundred  persons.  ||  Adjoining  the  original  asylum  on 
the  northwest  is  the  new  asylum  for  the  custody  and 
care  of  the  chronic  insane,  furnished  with  all  modern 
conveniences, — the  first  of  its  kind  erected  in  the 
State.  Its  construction  was  authorized  by  the  board  of 
supervisors,  whose  attention  was  called  to  its  necessity 
by  J.  H.  Good  ale,  superintendent,  at  a  special  session 
held  Aug.  12, 1874,  when  the  board  appointed  Messrs. 
D.  Thompson,  D.  M.  Wade,  and  M.  Shuit  a  commit- 
tee to  examine  the  matter,  who  reported  (December 
2d)  that  the  representations  which  had  been  made  by 
Mr.  Goodale  were  fully  sustained ;  that  at  the  county 
house  thirty  insane  persons  were  confined  to  fifteen 
rooms ;  that  additional  room  w6s  absolutely  required ; 
that  the  annual  expense  of  maintenance  in  State  asy- 
lums of  thirty-eight  persons  was  seven  thousand  and 
twenty-four  dollars,  and  that  it  was  believed  this  sum 
could  be  largely  reduced  and  at  the  same  time  the  in- 
mates of  the  house  be  better  cared  for  by  the  erection 
of  an  additional  building  of  sufficient  size  to  accom- 
modate all  the  chronic  insane  of  the  county. 

The  report  was  accepted  and  the  erection  of  the 
proposed  building  voted.  Plans  submitted  by  John 
C.  Sloat,  architect,  were  adopted,  and  Messrs.  Owen, 
Bell,  and  Shuit,  of  the  board,  and  J.  H.  Goodale, 
superintendent,  appointed  building  committee.  The 
contract  for  the  building  was  awarded  to  Thomas 
Dobbin,  of  Newburgh ;  and  the  corner-stone  was  laid 
June  11,  1875.  The  dimensions  of  the  building  are : 
length,  eighty  feet;  width,  forty  feet;  height,  four 
and  a  half  stories ;  height  of  ceilings,  average  ten 
feet;  walls  hard-finished  throughout.  A  corridor 
fourteen  feet  wide  traverses  each  story,  and  the  rooms, 
each  ten  feet  ten  inches  deep  by  seven  feet  in  width, 
are  arranged  on  either  side.  It  will  accommodate 
about  one  hundred  persons.  The  cost  of  the  structure 
was  provided  for  by  certificates  of  indebtedness,  issued 
by  the  board  of  supervisors  for  twenty  thousand  dol- 
lars, payable  five  thousand  dollars  annually.  The 
farm  now  contains  two  hundred  and  sixty-three  acres, 
of  which  two  hundred  are  tillable,  and  is  supplied 
with  all  necessary  outbuildings.  The  present  valu- 
ation of  the  estate  is  about  seventy  thousand  dollars. 

The  first  board  of  supervisors  of  the  present  county 
assembled  at  Goshen,  May  28, 1798,  and  was  composed 
of  John  Vail,  Goshen ;  Francis  Crawford,  New  Wind- 
sor ;  Reuben  Tooker,  Newburgh ;  Anselem  Helme, 
Cornwall ;  Jacobus  Post,  Warwick  ;  Nathan  Arnout, 
Minisink ;  James  Finch,  Deerpark ;  David  Galatian, 
Montgomery;  and  Andrew  McCord,  Wallkill.  The 
business  of  the  session  was  confined  to  the  audit  of 

11  These  buildings  are  all  of  stone  qtiarried  on  the  farm. 



accounts.  In  the  course  of  its  subsequent  history 
there  are  few  salient  points.  It  has  erected  three 
towns,  —  Greenville,  Wawayanda,  and  Highlands; 
improved  one  and  constructed  two  court-houses, — of 
the  latter,  one  at  Goshen  with  jail,  and  one  at  New- 
burgh  with  cells;  two  county  clerk's  offices  and  a 
surrogate's  office  at  Goshen,  a  county  almshouse,  and 
a  county  asylum  for  the  insane.  In  its  expenditures 
it  has  been  prudent,  perhaps  in  the  character  of  its 
public  buildings  too  prudent;  but  it  has  never  suf- 
fered the  credit  of  the  county  to  be  impaired,  or  its 
people  to  be  oppressed  by  taxation  where  the  assess- 
ment was  under  its  control.  With  its  powers  enlarged 
and  entering  upon  a  new  political  era,  its  future  will 
not  be  without  more  marked  influence. 



The  county  of  Orange,  erected  Feb.  23,  1798,  is  lo- 
cated between  41°  8'  S.  and  41°  38'  N.  latitude,— 10' 
E.  and  43'  W.  longitude  from  the  city  of  New  York. 
It  is  bounded  ou  the  south  by  Rockland  County  and 
the  State  of  New  Jersey,  on  the  west  by  the  county  of 
Sullivan  and  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  on  the  north  by 
the  county  of  Ulster,  and  on  the  east  by  Hudson's  River. 
It  is  centrally  distant  ninety  miles  from  Albany,  and 
contains  eight  hundred  and  thirty-eight  square  miles. 
The  surface  of  the  county  is  mountainous  upon  the 
southeast  and  northwest  borders,  and  a  rolling  upland 
through  the  centre.  The  Kittatinny,  or  South  Moun- 
tains extend  in  several  parallel  ranges  from  the  New 
Jersey  line  northeast  to  the  Hudson,  ending  in  the 
rocky  and  precipitous  bluffs  known  as  the  Highlands. 
The  Shawangunk  Mountains  extend  from  the  Dela- 
ware River  northeast  through  the  northwest  corner  of 
the  county.  Among  the  principal  ridges  are  the 
Warwick,  Bellvale,  and  Rough  and  Sterling  ranges, 
near  the  south  border  of  the  county,  and  the  Schune- 
munk  range.  The  extreme  northwest  corner  of  the 
county  is  occupied  by  the  series  of  highlands  extend- 
ing from  the  Delaware  River  into  Sullivan  County. 
The  central  portion  of  the  county,  lying  between  the 
mountain  systems,  is  a  rolling  upland,  broken  in  many 
places  by  abrupt  and  isolated  hills  and  the  deep  val- 
leys of  streams.  More  than  one-half  of  the  entire 
surface  of  the  county  is  susceptible  of  cultivation, 
and  forms  a  fine  agricultural  district.  Along  the 
southwest  border,  extending  through  several  towns 
and  into  New  Jersey,  is  a  low,  flat  region,  lying 
upon  the  streams,  and  known  as  the  Drowned  Lands. 
This  tract,  consisting  of  about  seventeen  thousand 
acres,  was  originally  covered  with  water  and  a  dense 
growth  of  cedars  ;  but  a  large  portion  of  it  has  been 
drained  and  reclaimed,  and  now  forms  one  of  the 
finest  agricultural  portions  of  the  county.    On  the 

extreme  northwest  and  forming  in  part  the  boundary 
line  of  the  county,  the  river  Mongaap  flows  south  and 
unites  with  the  Delaware.  Neversink  River  flow*! 
south  along  the  west  foot  of  the  Shawangunk  Moun- 
tains, and  forms  a  tributary  of  the  Delaware,  the 
latter  stream  being  for  a  short  distance  at  this  point 
the  boundary  line  of  the  State.  The  Pakadasink  or 
Shawangunk  River  flows  north  along  the  east  foot  of 
the  Shawangunk  Mountains,  and  forms  a  tributary 
of  the  Wallkill.  The  Wallkill  or  Paltz  River  flows 
north  through  near  the  centre  of  the  county,  and 
forms  a  tributary  of  the  Hudson  at  Rondout,  in  Ulster 
County.  Murderer's  Creek  and  its  principal  tribu- 
tary the  Otterkill  flow  east  through  near  the  centre  of 
the  county,  and  discharge  their  waters  into  the  Hud- 
son. Wawayanda  Creek  flows  south  into  New  Jersey, 
and  re-entering  the  county  as  Pochuck  Creek,  unites 
with  the  Wallkill.  Ramapo  River  rises  in  the  south 
part  of  the  county  and  flows  south  into  Rockland. 
A  number  of  small  local  streams  furnish  hydraulic 
power  in  other  parts  of  the  county.  The  principal 
lakes  are  Greenwood,  Thompson's,  Mombasha,  and 
Orange,  which,  with  a  series  of  smaller  bodies  of 
water,  add  picturesqueness  to  the  topography  of  the 
county.  There  are  also  swamp  districts,  in  addition 
to  the  Drowned  Lands,  pf  which  the  Chester  meadows 
have  been  largely  reclaimed  and  are  very  productive. 


The  Highlands  are  the  most  prominent  of  the 
mountain  ranges.  Approached  from  the  north,  to 
the  right  of  the  range  stands  the  anciently  so-called 
Butter  Hill,  a  title  with  which  Irving  embalmed  it  in 
his  famous  but  fictitious  "Knickerbocker"  history. 
It  is  now  quite  generally  known  as  Storm-king,  a  title 
bequeathed  to  it  by  the  poetic  fancy  of  Willis,  from  the 
fact  that  for  years  it  has  served  as  a  weather-signal  to 
the  inhabitants  of  the  immediate  district.  At  one 
time  a  cap  of  fog  upon  its  crown  indicates  the  coming 
of  rain ;  at  another,  clouds  are  seen  rising  over  the 
Shawangunk  range,  following  its  course  north  and 
south,  separating  into'two  parts,  the  one  passing  over 
the  Warwick  Mountains  to  the  Highlands,  the  other 
over  the  hills  of  Ulster  to  Marlborough,  and  both 
joining  as  it  were  over  Butter  Hill,  pouring  out  tor- 
rents of  rain,  not  unfrequently  accompanied  by  rever- 
berating peals  of  thunder  such  as  one  rarely  hears 
except  in  similarly  broken  mountain  ranges.  The 
ancient  Dutch  navigators,  noticing  the  latter  peculi- 
arity, preserved  a  record  of  the  apparently  culminating 
point  of  these  peals  in  the  Dunderberg,  situated  far- 
ther south.  Butter  Hill  has  an  altitude  of  fifteen 
hundred  and  twenty-four,  feet.  Its  ascent  from  the 
river-front  is  precipitous ;  on  the  north,  however,  it  is 
crossed  by  wagon-roads. 

Cro'-nest,  adjoining  Butter  Hill  on  the  south,  is  the  . 
second  peak  of  the  range,  rising  above  the  Hudson 
fourteen  hundred  and  eighteen  feet.   Its  modern  name 
preserves  in  substance  its  Algonquin  title,  which,  in 



ancient  records,  is  written  Navesing,  signifying  "  a  re- 
sold for  birds."  The  name  is  retained  in  the  Sandy 
Hook  highlands  and  in  the  Neversink  River  in  Sul- 
livan and  Orange,  the  latter  as  well  as  the  Hudson 
having  on  its  border  a  Cro'-nest, — its  original  Nave- 
sing.  Bear  Mountain  is  the  third  principal  elevation, 
rising  thirteen  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  the  river. 
Mount  Independence  forms  the  background  of  the 
plateau  at  West  Point,  and  is  crowned  with  the  crumb- 
ling walls  of  Fort  Putnam.  Just  below,  in  a  gorge 
in  the  rocks  dividing  the  sites  of  Forts  Clinton  and 
Montgomery,  flows  Poplopen's  Kill,  at  the  mouth  of 
which  the  county  line  leaves  the  Hudson  and  from 
thence  passes  amidst  the  hills  southwesterly.  In  suc- 
cessive proximity  are  the  elevations  known  as  Black 
Rock  and  Deer  Hill,  Ant  Hill,  Lawyer's  Hill,  Mount 
Rascal,  and  Peat,  Pine,  Cold,  and  Round  Hills.  Fol- 
lowing the  range  we  meet  Blacktop,  Black-cup,  and 
Long  Hills,  the  ancient  Dutch  Dunderberg,  Torn 
Mountain,  and  Cape  Hill,  Tom  Jones'  Mountain,  and 
Hemlock  Hill.  To  this  may  be  added  as  objects  of 
interest  by  the  way,  Kidd's  Pocket-book,  the  Lover's 
Rocking-stone,  the  Giant's  Haunt,  the  Giant's  Slip- 
per, Picnic  Rock,  Poised  Rock,  and  Erlin's  Bluff, — a 
singular  mingling  of  poetic  and  commonplace  titles, 
and  suggestive  of  paucity  in  proper  orthologic  terms.  ■ 
The  Dunderberg  and  Torn  Mountain  are  east  of  the 
county  line,  and,  though  former  residents  of  Orange, 
now  grace  the  borders  of  Rockland.  In  this  enu- 
meration they  serve  the  purpose  of  territorial  monu- 
ments. The  Torn  forms  the  right  shoulder  of  the 
Ramapo  Valley ;  its  name  and  its  appearance  alike 
suggest  the  violence  with  which  it  was  upheaved  or 
torn  from  its  fellows,  although  in  local  acceptation 
"steeple"  is  understood  to  explain  its  title  and  re- 

No  mountain  range  is  so  well  known  in  Europe, 
nor  is  there  one  with  which  the  history  of  our  own 
nation  is  so  intimately  associated.  The  visitor  at 
Westminster  Abbey  reads  there  the  name  of  Andr§ ;  the 
story  of  Arnold  is  sown  broadcast  through  American 
schools.  Both  point  to  one  centre :  the  Highlands  of 
the  Hudson, — the  one  awakening  regret  at  the  fate  of 
the  young  and  gifted ;  the  other  nerving  the  hearts 
of,  thousands  to  love  of  country.  Aside  from  its  his- 
tory, the  range  has  an  economic  character.  It  tem- 
pers the  winds  of  the  sea-board,  and  bears  upon  its 
sheltering  breast  the  fiercest  blasts  of  many  storms. 
Of  Storm-king  and  Cro'-nest  it  has  been  well  said,  by 
a  recent  writer,  "  They  have  a  charm  that  might 
induce  a  man  to  live  in  their  shadow  for  no  other 
purpose  than  to  have  them  always  before  him,  day 
and  night,  to  study  their  ever-changing  beauty.  For 
they  are  never  twice  alike ;  the  clouds  make  varying 
pictures  all  day  long  on  their  wooded  sides,  and  no- 
where have  we  seen  more  wonderful  effects  of  shadow 
and  sunshine.  Under  the  frown  of  a  low  thunder- 
cloud they  take  on  a  grim  majesty  that  makes  their 
bl»ck  masses  strangely  threatening  and  weird;  one 

forgets  to  measure  their  height,  and  their  massive, 
strongly-marked  features,  by  any  common  standard 
of  every-day  measurement,  and  they  seem  to  over- 
shadow all  the  scene  around  them,  like  the  very 
rulers  and  controllers  of  the  coming  storm.  And 
when  the  sunlight  comes  back  again,  they  seem  to 
have  brought  it,  and  to  look  down  with  a  bright  be- 
nignity, like  giant  protectors  of  the  valley  below." 

The  Shawangunk  range  is  less  broken  than  the 
Highlands.  It  continues,  with  but  slight  breaks, 
from  near  Carpenter's  Point  on  the  Delaware  to  the 
Sullivan  and  Ulster  line,  and  forms  the  boundary  line 
between  Deerpark  and  the  towns  of  Greenville  and 
Mount  Hope,  those  being  the  only  towns  of  the  county 
touched  by  the  range.  The  eastern  slope  is  singularly 
uniform,  and  is  adapted  to  cultivation  to  the  summit ; 
the  western  is  broken  and  precipitous,  presenting 
peaks  fourteen  and  eighteen  hundred  feet  above  tide. 
Few  inland  landscapes  are  more  beautiful  than  the 
former.  Approached  from  the  east,  the  eye  rests  upon 
fields  of  grain  and  grass,  upturned  furrows,  the  verdure 
of  waving  trees,  and  the  homes  of  thrifty  husband- 
men, spread  out  from  vale  to  crest,  from  south  to  the 
far  north,  in  unwearying  panoramic  beauty, — a  patch- 
work of  gold  and  green,  of  brown  and  gray,  of  white 
and  red, — 

"  As  though  all  tints 
Of  gem,  of  bird,  of  flower,  of  cloud,  of  sky, 
Had  met  and  blended  in  a  general  glow  !" 

The  name  by  which  the  range  is  known  does  not 
strictly  belong  to  it.  In  the  Indian  deed  to  Governor 
Dongan,  and  in  the  subsequent  patent  to  Capt.  John 
Evans,  its  principal  divisions  are  given  respectively 
the  names  Pitkiskaker  and  Aiaskawasting.  On  Sau- 
thier's  map  the  same  divisions  are  called  Alaskayering 
and  Shawangunk.  Many  interpretations  of  the  latter 
have  been  made.  In  Mather's  "  Geology  of  New  York" 
the  signification  is  given  as  "the  place  of  the  white 
rocks;"  the  late  distinguished  Algonquin  linguist, 
Henry  R.  Schoolcraft,  renders  it,  "south  mountain ;" 
the  Rev.  Charles  Scott,  taking  Shawangun  as  the 
original,  "south  water;"  another  from  jewan,  "swift 
current,  or  strong  stream ;"  another  from  shong,  "  mink 
river;"*  an,d  another,  from  cheegaugong,  "the  place 
of  leeks."  The  error  in  all  these  cases,  probably,  is 
in  regarding  the  term  as  descriptive  of  a  specific  place 
or  physical  attribute  rather  than  as  a  generic  phrase. 
All  writers  who  have  examined  the  subject  are  aware 
that  Indian  geographical  terms  are  of  two  classes: 
general  or  generic,  and  specific  or  local,  and  are  so  com- 
pounded as  to  present  in  a  single  expression  a  complex 
idea,  or  several  ideas  among  which  there  is  a  natural 
connection.  In  specific  names  the  combination  may 
be  simple,  as  Coxsackie, — co,  object,  and  acke,  land ; 
in  others  intricate,  as  Maghaghkemek,  in  which  ache, 
land,  is  buried  in  consonants  and  qualifying  terms. 
The  terminal  of  a  word  materially  aids  but  does  not 
govern  its  translation.     Uk  or  unk  indicates  "  place 

*  "  Shongham"  is  the  local  Dutch,  and  is  adopted  In  SUIinwiiCi  Jownal. 



of"  in  a  specific  sense,  as  in  Mohunk/  ong,  ''  place  of" 
in  a  more  general  sense,  as  in  Warranawonkore^r,  tlie 
place  or  territory  of  the  clan  of  that  name ;  i&,  ick,  eck, 
or  uk  denotes  rocks  or  stones ;  ack  or  acke,  land ;  ing 
or  ink,  something  in  which  numbers  are  presented,  as 
"  the  place  of  birds ;"  aia,  oes,  os,  aus,  denote  a  single 
small  object  or  place,  as  Minnisais,  a  small  island, — a 
number  of  islands,  Minnisire^'  or  ink;  ish,  eesh,  oosh, 
or  sh  indicates  a  bad  or  faulty  quality ;  co  is  object ; 
at,  at  or  near.  In  some  cases  these  root  terms  are 
thrown  into  the  body  of  the  word,  as  in  Maghagfee- 
mek,  Aiaskawasting,  etc.  General  terms  have  no 
positive  reference  to  the  physiology  of  the  districts  of 
country  to  which  they  are  applied.  Wawayanda  is  of 
this  class,*  and  also  the  term  or  phrase  we  are  con- 
sidering, which  is  preserved  in  two  forms :  the  Dutch 
Shawangunk,  and  the  English  Chawangong, — the  first 
in  translated  records  of  the  Esopus  war  (1663),  and 
the  second  in  English  deeds,  twenty  years  later  but 
practically  contemporaneous  with  the  first.  The  latter 
is  known  to  be  correctly  written;  the  former  may 
perhaps  correspond  with  the  accepted  modern  orthog- 
raphy rather  than  with  the  original  Dutch.  While 
regarding  Chawangong  as  the  most  pleasant,  and  while 
as  a  rule  the  English  rendering  of  all  Algonquin 
terms  is  the  most  correct,  the  only  material  diflFerence 
in  this  case  is  in  the  terminal ;  the  one  indicating  a 
specific  place,  the  other,  place  or  territory  in  a  general 
sQnse.  In  the  connection  in  which  they  are  used  we 
may,  however,  accept  them,  and  also  Shawan,  Chawan, 
and  Shuwun,  as  equivalent  terms  varied  by  dialect, 
and  so  accepting  them  the  interpretation  is  as  plain 
as  that  of  any  word  in  the  English  language,  viz. : 
"the  place  or  territory  of  the  white  man."  This  in- 
terpretation and  no  other  harmonizes  with  historical 
facts.  In  no  case  does  ii  appear  that  the  term  was 
used  or  known  to  the  Dutch  until  after  they  had  con- 
quered the  district,  which  then  became,  under  Indian 
law,  the  place  or  territory  of  the  conquerors, — liter- 
ally, "the  place  of  the  white  man."  In  the  treaty  of 
peace-  (1663)  and  in  its  subsequent  renewal  (1665), 
this  recognition  is  distinctly  made.  In  the  latter  in- 
strument the  boundaries  of  the  conquered  territory 
are  defined  as  a  certain  "  parcel  of  land,  lying  and 
being  to  the  west  and  southwest  of  a  certain  creek  or 
river  called  by  the  name  of  Kahanksen,  and  so  up  to 
the  head  thereof  where  the  old  fort  was,  and  so  with 
a  direct  line  from  thence  through  the  woods  and  across 
the  meadows  to  the  Great  Hill  lying  and  being  to  the 
west  and  southwest  thereof,  which  Great  Hill  is  to  be 
the  true  west  or  southwest  bounds  of  the  said  lands, 
and  the  said  creek  called  Kahanksen  the  north  or 

*  "  Wawayanda"  is  a  compound  term  signifying  a  Mfirict  embracing 
Beveral  well-linown  and  occupied  lands,  or  a  vUlage  and  its  dependencies. 
Wa  is  a  reflective  plural,  and  may  mean  he  or  titey^  or,  by  repetition,  tee ; 
Aindau-ymin,  is  "  my  home ;"  Amdau^jun^  "  thy  home ;"  Aiiidau-aitd,  "  his 
or  her  home ;"  da,  "  town  or  village."  From  these  terms  we  have  Wa- 
varyaun-da, — "  our  homes  or  places  of  dwelling,"  or  "  our  village  and 

northwest  bounds  of  the  said  lands."  This  was  the 
original  Shawangunk  of  the  Dutch, — a  district  em- 
bracing many  specific  Indian  localities,  the  names  of 
none  of  which  were  subordinated  or  disturbed  by  the 
phrase  under  which  the  conquered  admitted  that  paH 
of  their  territory  had  become  "  the  place  of  the  white 
man."t  That  the  term  has,  strictly  speaking,  beea 
improperly  extended  to  mountain,  river,  meadow,, 
etc.,  may  be  conceded,  yet  for  its  history,  its  poetry, 
and  its  orthology,  we  may  well  consent  to  let  it  for- 
ever rest  upon  Pitkiskaker  and  Aiaskawasting. 

The  Schunemunk  range  is  appropriately  described 
as  "  the  high  hills  to  the  west  of  the  Highlands."  It 
extends  from  northeast  to  southwest,  and  is  divided 
longitudinally  principally  by  the  boundary  line  of 
Monroe  and  Blooming-Grove,  with  a  portion  on  the 
northeast  in  the  town  of  Cornwall.  It  was  the  origi- 
nal  dividing  line  between  the  Wawayanda  and  Cheae- 
kook  Patents,  and  also  one  of  the  monuments  in  the 
line  of  the  Evans  Patent.  Its  name  appears  in  sev- 
eral forms.  In  the  deed  to  Governor  Dongan  (1684), 
one  of  the  lines  of  his  purchase  is  described  as  run- 
ning "  northwest  along  a  hill  called  SkoonneTioghly^ 
in  another  paper  of  the  same  period  it  is  called  Sbllf 
nemoghky ;  in  a  deed  to  Joseph  Sackett  (1727),  the 
property  is  described  as  being  on  the  "  south  side  of 
a  high  hill  called  Skonemugh  ;"  in  a  deed  to  Edward 
Blagg  (1726)  it  is  spoken  of  as  Schunamock  Hill.  It 
will  be  observed  that  the  prevailing  orthography 
down  to  the  Blagg  deed  contains  sko,  the  Algonqoio 
generic  term  for  fire,  and  that  the  terminal  indicates » 
certain  place.  From  this  anaylsis,  without  con8ide^ 
ing  no,  na,  ne,  in  the  body  of  the  word  (signifying  excel- 
lent), we  have  the  literal  interpretation,  "fire  place," 
the  reference  being  (as  in  Skootag,  now  Schodac)  tol 
the  principal  castle  or  palisaded  village  of  the  clan 
owning  the  land.  This  castle  stood  on  the  north  spur 
of  the  range.  At  the  time  of  the  sale  it  was  occupied 
by  Maringoman  and  his  people,  and  was  known  and 
called  Maringoman's  castle,  to  distinguish  it  fi-om  the 
wigwam  in  which  he  subsequently  lived,  which  was 
situated  near  Washingtonville.  The  latter  is  a  land- 
mark in  the  boundaries  of  the  Mompesson  and  Rip 
Van  Dam  Patents,  issued  subsequent  to  the  Evans. 

North  of  Schunemunk  is  Muchattoes  Hill,  extend- 
ing north  and  south  in  the  towns  of  New  Windsoi 
and  Newburgh.  Its  name  is  Algonquin, — muhi, 
black  ;  at,  near  or  by ;  oes,  small :  signifying  literally 
"  a  small  black  hill  near  the  river." 

t  A  general  term  of  this  character  was  applied  by  the  Indians  to  De- 
troit after  the  site  of  that  city  passed  to  the  possession  of  the  French. 
There  is  one  other  possible  solution  of  the  name,  and  that  is  that  when 
the  Shawanoes,  of  Maryland,  removed  to  the  territory  of  the  lIinsiM,li 
1694,  they  were  asaigned  lands  on  the  Shawangunk  range,  and  through 
what  is  DOW  Sullivan  County,  and  that  the  name  comes  from  their  occo*  the  country  of  the  Shawanoes.  There  is  still  a  hill  in  Sulllni 
called  Shawanoes  Hill.  Our  conclusion,  however,  Is  baaed  on  the  pl»' 
Sumption  that  the  name  is  older  than  Shawanoes  occupation,  but  of  thil 
we  have  no  other  evidence  than  that  furnished  by  O'Callagan  and  BB* 
head  in  their  rendering  of  Holland  documents.  If  they  have  madaN 
error  in  applying  a  modprn  term  to  an  ancieni  date  we  cannot  correct  It. 



West  of  Schunemunk  is  Woodcock  Hill  now  so 
known,  but  called  Winegtekonk  in  the  patent  to  Sir 
John  Ashurst  (1709),  and  Wenighkonk  in  the  patent 
to  Edward  Blagg  (1726).  The  present  name  requires 
no  explanation,  although  a  reasonable  apology  for  its 
retention  appears  to  be  necessary. 

From  Woodcock  Hill  southwest  are  a  series  of  ele- 
vations in  the  following  order :  Bound  Hill,  in  shape 
like  an  inverted  bowl ;  Mosquito  Hill,  a  jagged  ele- 
vation ;  Rainer's  Hill ;  Peddler's  Hill ;  Tom  Rocks, 
which  are  more  rocky  than  mountainous  and  rise  in 
two  separate  peaks  to  an  elevation  of  about  two  hun- 
dred feet  above  the  surrounding  country  ;  Lazy  HiU, 
whose  gradual  slopes,  it  is  presumed,  suggested  its 
name  ;  and  Goose-pond  Mountain. 

At  this  point  rise  what  are  known  as  the  Bellvale 
Mountains ;  connecting  peaks  continue  the  line  to  the 
Sterling  Mountains  on  the  -south,  the  Rough  Moun- 
tains and  Southfleld  Mountains  on  the  east,  and  the 
Warwick  Mountains  on  the  southwest ;  on  the  north- 
west are  the  Taylor  Mountains,  Bound  Hill,  Rocky 
Hill,  and  Pochuck  Mountain,  filling  out  the  south- 
east and  southwest  borders  of  the  county  with  a  bat- 
tlement of  mountainous  elevations.*  Pochuck  Neck 
and  Pochuck  Mountain  intrude  upon  the  Drowned 
Lands.  Pochuck  is  of  course  Algonquin  corrupted ; 
jto  should  be  pogh  as  in  the  original  of  Ramapo, 
Poughkeepsie,  etc. ;  uok,  as  in  Mahicanituk,  signify- 
ing "  large  areas  of  land  and  water," — a  name  most 
certainly  misapplied  to  the  mountain.  Farther  north, 
in  Warwick,  are  Mount  Adam  and  Mount  Eve,  con- 
joined,— the  former  being  much  the  highest,  the  lat- 
ter much  the  longest, — which  spring  up  from  the  bot- 
tom-lands and  the  rolling  glades  surrounding  them 
and  are  picturesque  in  all  their  phases.  Directly  east, 
in  Chester,  is  Sugar-loaf  Mountain,  which,  when 
seen  from  the  north,  resembles  a  sugar-loaf;  hence  its 
name.  Its  northern  ascent  is  quite  gradual,  its  south- 
ern broken  and  precipitous.  With  its  adjacent  hills 
it  is  the  apex  from  which  the  country  descends  to  the 
north  and  to  the  south.  It  is  therefore  a  very  promi- 
nent object  for  a  great  distance  on  either  side.  North- 
west from  Sugar-loaf  is  Mount  Lookout,  the  principal 
elevation  in  the  town  of  Goshen,  where  both  hills 
and  stones  are  the  exception. 

Scattered  through  the  county  are  minor  elevations : 
the  Comfort  Hills,  on  the  line  between  Montgomery 
and  Crawford ;  Pea  Hill,  Pine  Hill,  &xA  Sloop  Hill, 
in  Cornwall;  Three-mile  Hill  and  Mount  Joy,  in 
Wallkill;  Rough  Bidge  and  Forge  Hill,  in  New 
Windsor;  King's  Hill,  in  Newburgh;  Jogee  Hill,  in 
Minisink,  etc.,  the  latter  perpetuating  in  its  name  the 
name  and  residence  of  Keghgekapowell  oMaM  Joghem, 

*  The  priDclpal  elevationB  in  Warwick  are  Hogback,  Decker,  One  Fine, 
and  Fine  and  Hull'a  Hilts  on  the  east,  Bill  and  Coxcomb  Hills  in  the 
centre,  Long,  Cedar,  Food,  and  Bill  White's  Hills  in  the  southeast. 
Bound,  Bocky,  and  Chuck's  Hills  iu  the  south,  Pochuck  Muuotain,  and 
Oreen  and  Adney's  Hills  in  the  west,  and  Mounts  Adam  and  Eve  and 
Bound  Hill  in  the  northwest. 

one  of  the  grantors  of  the  lands  included  in  the  Evans 
Patent.  In  Deerpark,  Mount  William  and  Point 
Peter  form  prominent  and  attractive  features  of  the 
village  of  Port  Jervis. 

The  valleys  of  the  county  are  not  less  numerous 
than  its  mountains  and  streams.  That  portion  of 
Deerpark  bordering  on  the  Delaware  is  but  a  narrow 
and  irregular  valley,  broken  by  mountains  and  tribu- 
taries of  the  Delaware.  The  valley  of  the  Neversink 
and  Basha's  Kill  comprises  the  main  portion  of  the 
valuable  and  cultivated  lands  of  the  town  of  Deer- 
park.  These  together  are  sometimes  called  the  Hu- 
guenot Valley,  from  the  early  Huguenot  settlers  who 
reclaimed  it  from  the  Indians ;  those  portions  along 
the  Basha  and  Pinet  Kills  were  long  known  as  the 
Peenpack  Valley, — a  name  corrupted  from  Neepe- 
nack,  the  original  western  boundary  of  the  Swart- 
wout  Patent.  The  Wallkill  Valley  widens  out  on 
either  side  of  the  Wallkill.  It  is  of  singular  beauty 
and  fertility,  and  is  properly  classed  among  the  finest 
bottom-lands  of  the  State.  The  valley  of  the  Shaw- 
angunk  Kill  is  narrow  and  crooked.  To  the  east  of 
the  valley  of  the  Wallkill  is  that  of  the  Otterkill, 
which  for  miles  runs  approximately  parallel  with  the 
former  but  suddenly  turns  to  the  east,  and,  through  a 
winding  course  amid  the  hills,  reaches  the  Hudson 
above  the  Highlands.  Throughout  this  valley,  says 
a  recent  writer,  the  hills  approach  and  retire  in  sin- 
gular fantasy,  afibrding  wide  alluvial  flats  and  pent- 
up  gorges,  gradual  slopes  and  steep  declivities,  hither 
and  thither.  At  Salisbury  it  narrows  to  a  gorge  of 
rocks,  and  nearer  its  mouth  it  assumes,  in  picturesque-' 
ness  and  beauty,  the  poetic  iiame  (by  Willis)  of 
Moodna  Valley.  Cromeline  Valley,  through  which 
Cromeline  Creek  passes,  has  its  head  in  the  far  east 
of  Warwick,  from  whence  it  follows  the  tortuous 
course  of  the  stream  from  which  it  takes  its  name 
until  it  reaches  its  junction  with  the  valley  of  the 
Otterkill,  presenting  throughout  scenes  wild  and 
beautiful,  a  surface  varied  from  plain  to  mountain,  a 
soil  from  rich  to  poor,  smooth  to  broken  and  precip- 
itous. Sugar-loaf  Valley  runs  from  the  mountain  of 
that  name  to  Wickham's  Pond,  and  from  thence  a 
devious  course  to  the  village  of  Warwick,  with  hills 
and  mountains,  vales  and  headlands  intersecting; 
from  Warwick  its  course  continues  south  and  west 
until  it  passes  out  of  the  State.  Bellvale  Valley,  or 
the  lower  valley  of  Warwick,  extends  from  the  im- 
mediate vicinity  of  the  village  of  Warwick  southerly 
to  Greenwood  Lake  and  the  Sussex,  N.  J.,  Clove.  It 
is  an  especially  rich  farming  section.  The  valleys  of 
most  of  the  small  streams  have  more  or  less  local  ce- 
lebrity. That  of  the  Arackhook  or  Tinn  Brock  has 
many  patches  of  beauty,  while  that  of  the  Quassaick, 
near  its  confluence  with  the  Hudson,  has  passed  into 
history  under  the  title  of  "  The  Vale." 

The  principal  cloves — so  called  from  the  Saxon 

t  An  affluent  of  Basha's  Kill  in  Mamakating,  Sullivan  Co. 



word  ckopan,  "  to  split  asunder,"  and  meaning  "  val- 
ley," literally — are  known  as  Blagg's  Clove,  in  Bloom- 
ing-Grove, between  the  Schunemunk  and  Woodcock 
Mountains ;  Woodbury  Clove,  in  Cornwall  and  Mon- 
roe, between  the  Schunemunk  and  the  Highlands, 
now  traversed  by  the  Newburgh  and  New  York 
(Short-cut)  Eailroad  ;  and  Smith's  Clove,  extending 
from  Highland  Mills  to  the  Kamapo  Valley.  Smith's 
Clove  has  fame  in  Revolutionary  history  from  its  oc- 
cupancy 'by  portions  of  the  American  army,  and 
as  the  birthplace  of  Chief  Justice  William  Smith ;  of 
his  brother,  Joshua  Hett  Smith,*  whose  name  is  as- 
sociated with  that  of  Arnold  in  the  treason  at  West 
Point,  and  also  of  the  locally  notorious  Claudius 
Smith  and  his  equally  notorious  sons.  What  relation- 
ship Claudius  sustained  to  the  chief  justice  and  to 
Joshua  it  may  not  be  well  to  inquire  ;t  it  is  sufficient 
to  know  that  in  their  devotion  to  the  mother-country 
they  richly  earned  the  name. of  Tory,  and  that  their 
offenses  against  their  Whig  neighbors  differed  only  in 

Tortuous  cloves  from  Long  and  Poplopen's  Ponds, 
converging  to  the  south  from  Black-top  Mountain  and 
Cat  Hollow,  give  character  to  Forest  of  Dean,  far  de- 
pressed beneath  Bear  Mountain,  where,  from  the  south, 
Two-pond  Valley  intersects  and  thence  diverges  to 
the  northeast  and  reaches  the  Hudson,  forming  a 
succession  of  vales  where  mountain  cliffs  and  jagged 
rocks  occupy  the  foreground,  and  abrupt  declivities 
and  broken  valleys  fill  the  picture.  To  the  south  of 
Black-rock  Hill  lies  Eagle  Valley, — so  called  from 
local  tradition  describing  it  as  the  resort  of  the  "  king 
of  birds," — through  which,  descending  as  rocks  and 
hills  permit,  in  crooked  course  to  the  Hudson,  the 
waters  from  Bog-meadow  Pond  chant  their  music  and 
finally  dash  over  the  rocks  in  foaming  spray,  forming 
the  "  Boter  Melck  Val"  of  the  early  Dutch  skippers, 
— the  Buttermilk  Falls  of  our  times.  Poplopen's 
Valley — through  which  pass  the  waters  of  Poplopen's 
Creek,  the  outlet  of  Poplopen's  and  other  mountain 
ponds — is  similarly  constituted.  Its  name  is  appar- 
ently from  that  of  a  Highland  chieftain  whose  rude 
castle  once  crowned  one  of  the  adjacent  hilltops. 
The  valley  of  the  Bamapo,  the  largest  of  the  moun- 
tain passes,  continues  Smith's  Clove  to  the  Hudson. 
The  term  Bamapo  was,  it  is  assumed,  originally  given 
to  the  entire  district  as  one  of  "  many  ponds."  The 
original  orthography,  Bamspook  or  Eamapogh,  how- 
ever, indicates  "  a  river  into  which  empty  a  number  of 
ponds,"  the  application  being  specific  to  the  river. 

Few  districts  of  country  are  so  bountifully  supplied 
with  ponds  and  streams  as  that  embraced  in  the 

*  "  A  place  called  Smith's  Clove,  a  valley  which  took  its  name  from  my 
family,  as  possessing  a  greater  part  of  the  land  it  contained,  as  well  as 
around  its  vicinity." — J.  H.  Smithes  Narrative. 

f  The  latter,  in  his  "  Narrative,"  states  that  a  hrother  of  his,  whose 
name  he  does  not  give,  resided  in  the  Clove  '*  about  three  miles  out  of 
the  main  road." 

county  of  Orange.  On  hilltops  or  in  valleys,  dashin§; 
over  rocks,  winding  through  cultivated  fields,  lying  in 
repose,  or  chained  to  the  service  of  man  in  the  forge, 
the  factory,  or  the  mill,  they  are  not  only  a  source  of 
wealth  but  beautify  the  landscape.  The  lake  system 
of  the  county  begins  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
Highlands  in  Cornwall,  continues  through  the  towM 
of  Highlands  and  Monroe,  culminates  in  Warwick  in 
that  beautiful  sheet  of  water  known  as  Greenwood 
Lake,  and  from  thence  west  and  north  appears  in 
inland  reservoirs  of  various  sizes.  Cornwall  has  on? 
pond,  Sutherland's ;  Bog-meadow  Pond,  Round  Pond, 
No.  1,  Long  Pond,  and  Cranberry  Pond,  No.  1,  are 
in  Highlands ;  Poplopen's  Pond,  Bull  or  AgneW 
Pond  (also  called  Wood  Lake),  Summit  Lake,  Twrf 
Ponds  or  Twin  Ponds  (upper  and  lower).  Slaughter"! 
Pond,  Cranberry  Pond,  No.  2,  Greenwood  Pond, 
Hazzard's  Pond,  Round  Pond,  No.  2,  Mombasha 
Pond,  Cedar  Pond,  No.  1,  Truedo  or  Duck-cedat 
Pond,  Round  Island  Pond,  Little  Long  Pond,  No.  1, 
Little  Long  Pond,  No.  2,  Green  Pond,  Car  Pond, 
Spruce  Pond,  and  Nigger  Pond  are  in  Monroej 
Wickham's  Pond,  Stirling  Lake,  Cedar  Pond,  No. 
2,  and  Greenwood  Lake,  are  in  Warwick ;  Thomp- 
son's Pond,  on  the  line  between  Warwick  and  Chesi 
ter ;  Binnenwater  or  Maretange  I'ond,  in  Greenville; 
Washington  Lake,  in  New  Windsor;  Orange  Lake^- 
in  Newburgh ;  Big  Pond  and  Little  Pond,  in  Deer- 
park  ;  and  Round  Pond,  No.  3,  in  Wawayanda. 

Sutherland's  Pond,  in  Cornwall,  lies  under  the 
shadow  of  Black-rock  Hill,  southwest  from  Cro'-nest, 
and  is  about  half  a  mile  long.  Its  name — like  that 
of  others  in  the  series  which  will  be  recognized  with- 
out special  notice — is  that  of  an  individual  owner. 
Its  outlet  runs  west  and  south  and  unites  with  Mu^ 
derer's  Creek,  after  furnishing  the  falls  that  are  seen 
near  the  Cornwall  mineral  spring. 
■  Bog-meadow  Pond,  the  first  in  the  town  of  High- 
lands', lies  southwest  from  Black-rock  Hill.  It 
covers  about  three  hundred  acres  of  land,  and  has  a 
depth  of  some  twenty-five  feet.  Its  outlet  dashes 
over  the  rocks  at  Buttermilk  Falls  and  reaches  the 
Hudson.  Round  Pond,  No.  1,  and  Long  Pond  are 
northwest  from  Highland  Falls.  The  former  is  more 
elevated  than  the  latter,  into  which  its  waters  flow; 
the  outlet  of  the  latter  unites  with  Poplopen's  Creek. 
The  waters  of  Round  Pond,  in  making  connection 
with  Long  "Pond,  flow  under  a  natural  bridge,  the 
breadth  of  which  is  fifty  feet,  and  its  length,  up  and 
down  stream,  seventy-five  or  eighty  feet.  It  is  used 
as  a  bridge,  and  one  may  ride  over  it  without  being 
aware  of  it.  There  is  no  daylight  under  it.  The 
stream  oti  the  upper  side  passes  into  a  cave,  and  is 
lost  to  sight  until  it  emerges  from  another  cave  on  the 
other  side.  Willis  describes  it  as  "  a  massive  porch, 
covering  the  last  stair  of  a  staircase  by  which  a  cas- 
cading stream  descends  into  a  mountain  lake."  I| 
differs  in  situation  only,  however,  from  the  subterr^ 
nean  passage  of  the  outlet  of  Washington  Lake  it 



New  Windsor.  Cranberry  Pond,  No.  1,  is  in  the 
south  part  of  the  town  and  southwest  from  Fort 

Poplopen's  Pond,  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  town, 
and  Bull  or  Agnel's  Pond,  its  neighbor  on  the  south- 
west, are  the  first  of  the  Monroe  series,  and  lie  north- 
west from  Forest  of  Dean.  Their  waters  flow  to  Pop- 
lopen's Creek.  Summit  Lake,  Two  Ponds,  Slaughter's 
Pond,  Cranberry  Pond,  No.  2,  Greenwood  or  Echo 
Pond,  Bound  Pond,  No.  2,  Green  Pond,  and  Car 
Pond,  lie  in  a  chain  south-southwest  from  Poplo- 
pen's ;  Cedar  Pond  and  Little  Long  Pond,  No.  1,  are 
east,  and  Spruce  and  Truxedo  Ponds  west  of  the 
chain-line ;  Nigger  Pond  is  in  the  extreme  southern 
part  of  the  town.  The  waters  of  Two  Ponds  flow  to 
Poplopen's  Creek ;  those  of  Summit  Lake,  Slaughter's, 
Cranberry,  No.  2,  Greenwood,  and  Bound,  No.  2,  are 
united  for  the  use  of  Greenwood  fiirnace,  and  irom 
thence  flow  to  the  Eamapo ;  Little  Long  Pond,  No.  1, 
and  Cedar  Pond,  No.  1,  send  their  waters  into  Bock- 
land  County  and  there  unite  with  the  Bamapo,  w^hile 
those  of  Green,  Car,  Spruce,  Truxedo,  and  Nigger 
Ponds  unite  with  the  same  stream  in  Orange. 
Slaughter's  Pond  is  about  one  mile  and  a  half  long 
and  half  a  mile  wide,  and  Cedar  and  Little  Long 
Ponds  are  of  nearly  the  same  size.  Truxedo  Pond  is 
two  miles  long,  north  and  south.  Greenwood,  Green, 
Car,  Spruce,  and  Nigger  Ponds  are  small.  Bound 
Pond,  No.  2,  or  Little  Round  Pond,  more  nearly  re-  • 
sembles  a  vast  moat  than  a  pond,  as  a  circular  wooded 
island  nearly  fills  its  circumference.  In  most  cases 
the  names  of  these  ponds  require  no  explanation ;  but 
of  Truxedo  it  may  be  remarked  that  it  is  apparently 
a  corruption  of  Truxillo,  while  the  surname,  "  Duck- 
cedar,"  is  a  misnomer.  Hazzard's  Pond,  in  the  north 
part  of  the  town  and  west  from  Poplopen's,  is  about 
half  a  mile  in  diameter.  Its  outlet,  Woodbury  Creek, 
famishes  power  to  the  Highlands  Mills ;  flows  thence 
north  through  Woodbury  Clove  and  unites  with  Mur- 
derer's Creek.  Bound-island  Pond — so  named  from 
a,  round  island  in  it  called  Chestnut — lies  southwest 
from  Hazzard's  and  near  the  line  of  Blooming-Grove. 
It  is  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide  and  three-quarters 
of  a  mile  long,  and  is  the  head  of  the  Bamapo  Biver. 
Little  Long  Pond,  No.  2,  is  nearly  south  from  Bound- 
island  and  near  the  Chester  line.  It  is  about  one 
mile  long  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  wide.  Its  outlet 
furnishes  part  of  the  head- waters  of  Cromeline  Creek. 
Mombasha  Pond  is  in  the  west  part  of  the  town,  near 
Warwick.  It  is  from  one  and  a  half  to  two  miles  in 
diameter,  and  contains  two  or  three  islands.  Its  out- 
let flows  northeast  and  thence  south,  passing  the 
Southfield  works,  furnishing  power  for  mills  and 
forges.  Its  name  is  presumed  to  be  a  corruption  of 
Mombaccus,  "  the  place  of  death," — the  reference  ap- 
parently being  to  a  burial-ground  or  a  battle-field. 

The  Warwick  series  begin  with  Stirling  Lake  in 
the  southeast,  covering  about  sixty  acres  of  land.  At 
its  outlet  was  established,  in  1751,  by  Ward  &  Colton, 

the  Stirling  Iron- Works,  which  have  been  continued 
since  that  time.  Gen.  William  Alexander,  Lord 
Stirling,  was  interested  in  the  works  prior  to  the 
Bevolution,  and  from  him  the  works  and  the  lake 
take  their  name.  The  outlet  of  the  lake  flows  into 
New  Jersey.  Cedar  Pond,  No.  2,*  lying  southeast, 
unites  its  waters  with  the  waters  of  Stirling  Lake, 
above  Stirling  works.  Wickham's  Pond,  in  the  north, 
covers  an  area  of  about  eighty-five  acres.  Its  outlet 
is  a  tributary  of  Wawayanda  Creek.  Greenwood 
Lake  is  the  largest  body  of  water  in  the  town  or 
county.  It  is  about  nine  miles  long  and  one  mile 
wide ;  extends  into  New  Jersey,  and  is  used  as  a 
feeder  for  the  Morris  Canal.  Its  original  name,  Long 
Pond,  although  descriptive  of  its  shape,  was  long 
enough  in  use;  its  present  title  is  the  offspring  of 
more  cultivated  taste. 

Thompson's  Pond  is  in  the  northwest  part  of  War- 
wick, east  of  Florida,  and  extends  into  Chester.  It 
covers  an  area  of  about  one  hundred  acres.  Its  out- 
let furnishes  power  for  grist-  and  saw-mills,  and  is  a 
tributary  of  Quaker  Creek.  It  has  recently  been  re- 
christened,  and  is  now  entered  on  the  map  Glenmere 
Lake,  though  why  "lake"  should  be  added  is  not 
clear.  "  Glen"  is  a  depression  between  hills ;  "  mere," 
a  pool  or  lake. 

Binnen water,  in  Greenville,  covers  about  fifty  acres, 
and  sends  its  waters  to  Butgers'  Creek.  It  lies  about 
two  miles  southerly  from  the  village  of  Mount  Hope, 
about  one  and  one-half  miles  southeast  from  Finch- 
ville,  and  about  one  mile  south  from  the  boundary  line 
between  Mount  Hope  and  Greenville.f  At  one  time  it 
was  an  important  landmark,  constituting  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  Evans  Patent  and  the  southeast 
line  of  the  Minisink.  Haifa  century  or  more  later  a 
new  line  was  established  for  the  Evans  Patent  farther 
east,  the  Minisink  angle  formed,  and  the  pond  ex- 
cluded from  the  boundary.  In  the  deed  to  Governor 
Dongan  it  is  described  as  "  a  water  pond  called  Mare- 
tange  ;"  in  the  patent  to  Evans  it  is  called  Merchary, 
on  Sauthier's  map,  Maretang, — from  the  German 
"  merche,"  "  mericha,"  an  aquatic  plant  of  the  genus 
Sippuris  vulgaris,  having  silicious  jointed  stems.  The 
present  name  is  German ;  its  correct  orthography  is 
Binnenwasser  (one  word),  signifying  "  inland  water." 
The  original  title  should  be  restored  to  the  maps  of 
the  county  for  its  historic  associations,  or  at  least 
coupled  with  its  more  modern  name. 

Bound  Pond,  in  Wawayanda,  is  emphatically  round. 
It  lies  in  the  south  part  of  the  town,  near  Gardner- 
ville,  and  is  about  one  mile  in  circumference.  It 
is  clear  and  fresh,  very  deep,  indeed  rej)utedly  bot- 
tomless, and  has  no  visible  outlet  or  inlet. 

*  The  figures  inserted  after  the  names  of  ponds  are  to  distinguish  them 
from  others  of  the  same  name,  of  which  there  are  several  in  the  county. 
The  poverty  of  the  language  is  so  great  that  the  donore  of  these  names 
were  probably  forced  to  repetition. 

t  This  line  is  the  old  east-and-west  line  of  the  original  counties  of 
Orange  and  Ulster.  New  Windsor  and  Cornwall  are  also  divided  by  this 



Big  Pond,  in  Deerpark,  is  about  one  mile  long 
and  half  a  mile  wide.  Its  outlet,  known  as  Shingle 
Kill,  passes  south  and  enters  the  Delaware  at  Hones- 
ville.  Little  Pond,  in  the  same  town,  lies  southeast 
from  Big  Pond,  and  is  about  one-quarter  of  a  mile  in 
diameter.  Its  outlet  passes  south  and  forms  Old-dam 
Brook,  a  tributary  of  the  Neversink. 

Washington  Lake,  in  New  Windsor,  covers  seventy- 
six  acres,  or,  including  overflowed  swamp,  one  hundred 
and  seven  acres.  Its  outlet,  for  some  distance,  is  sub- 
terraneous, disappearing  at  the  Swallow-hole  and 
emerging  at  the  Trout-hole, — a  fall  of  forty  feet.  The 
Newburgh  water-works  take  its  waters.  For  years  it 
was  known  as  Little  Pond,  and  is  still  so  called  by 

Orange  Lake,  in  Newburgh,  covers  some  four  hun- 
dred acres  of  land,  and  is  quite  deep  in  places.  At 
different  times  it  has  been  known  as  Binnenwasser 
(by  the  Germans),  Moose's  Pond,  Machin's  Pond 
(from  Capt.  Thomas  Machin),  and  Big  Pond,  the 
latter  giving  place  to  its  present  title.  The  Algonquin 
name  was  Qussuk,-^novi  rendered  Quassaick  and  ap- 
plied to  its  outlet.  It  is  fed  by  two  small  streams  in 
addition  to  strong  springs  in  its  bed.  The  mill-owners 
on  its  outlet  use  it  as  a  reservoir,  and  during  the  most 
severe  droughts  the  supply  has  never  been  exhausted. 

The  whole  country  is  remarkably  rich  in  the  lacus- 
trine and  marsh  alluvions ;  indeed,  they  are  more 
abundant  than  in  any  other  county  in  the  State,  there 
being  probably  forty  thousand  acres.*  The  principal 
districts  are  the  Drowned  Lands,  the  Gray-court 
Meadows,  Big  Swamp  in  Newburgh,  Great  Swamp  in 
New  Windsor,  Long  Swamp  in  Warwick,  Tamarack 
and  Purgatory  Swamps  in  Hamptonburgh,  Cedar 
Swamp  in  Goshen  and  Warwick,  Pakadasiuk  Swamp 
in  Greenville,  Grassy  Swamp  in  Deerpark,  Pine 
Swamp  in  Crawford,  Barton's  Swamp  in  Cornwall, 
and  the  Black  Meadows  in  Chester  and  Warwick. 

The  Drowned  Lands  extend  from  the  Chechunk 
outlet  in  Goshen,  through  Warwick,  Wawayanda, 
and  Minisink,  into  New  Jersey,  and  cover  in  the 
towns  named  about  seventeen  thousand  acres.  They 
are  full  of  islands  of  great  fertility,  some  of  them  of 
considerable  area.  Their  names  are  Pine,  Great,  Pel- 
let's, Gardner's,  Merritt's,  Cranberry,  Black-walnut, 
Fox,  and  Seward.  An  arm  of  the  lands,  known  as 
Cedar  Swamp,  extends  east  to  near  Orange  farm,  in 
Goshen.  Quaker  Creek  passes  through  this  arm  on 
the  north,  and  Mounts  Adam  and  Eve  adjoin  it  on 
the  south.  The  reclamation  of  the  lands  has  been 
gradual,  and  is  mainly  effected  by  aq  outlet,  con- 
structed many  years  ago,  by  which  a  rocky  ridge  in 
the  bed  of  the  Wallkill  was  avoided.  .  This  outlet  has 
worn  its  way  through  the  soil  until  from  a  simple 
ditch  it  has  come  to  contain  the  principal, flow  from 
the  lands.  Pochuck  Creek,  Rutgers'  Creek,  Quaker 
Creek,  and  the  Wallkill  pass  through  the  lands,  the 

*  Beach's  "  Cornwall,"  175. 

latter  for  their  entire  distance  in  this  county.  The 
aboriginal  name  of  the  district  may  well  have  been 
Pochuck, — "  a  large  area  of  land  and  water."  It  ii 
presumed,  however,  that  the  Indians  had  no  general 
name,  but  gave  specific  titles  to  different  portions  «f 
the  tract,  of  which  Pochuck  and  Woerawin  only  have 
been  preserved.  The  latter  appears  in  a  deed  to  Dr. 
Samuel  Staats,  in  1703,  for  a  tract  not  located,  but 
described  as  having  been  found  on  examination  to  be 
"  altogether  a  swamp."  The  inference  from  the  term 
itself,  is  that  "  many  good  lands"  were  intended  t4' 
be  conveyed, — probably  the  islands  already  named,  ^ 
which  then  appeared  to  be  worthless. 

The  Gray-court  Meadows  extend  from  near  Cra^ 
ville,  in  Blooming-Grove,  into  the  northern  part  of' 
Chester,  and  embrace  about  five  hundred  acres.  They 
are  now  mainly  under  cultivation  and  very  fertile. 
Their  name  is  that  originally  given  by  Daniel  Crome» 
line  to  his  tract  in  the  first  division  of  the  Waway- 
anda Patent,!  of  which  they  are  a  part.  Cromelint 
Creek  passes  through  and  drains  these  meadows. 

The  Black  Meadows  extend  through  Chester  on  the 
northwest  and  into  Warwick  east  of  Thompson's 
Pond.  They  embrace  an  area  of  one  thousand  acres, 
through  which  runs  the  Black-meadow  Creek. 

The  Long  Swamp,  in  Warwick,  southwest  from 
Edenville,  covers  about  one  thousand  acres,  and  is 
drained  from  the  south  into  New  Jersey. 

The  Tamarack  and  Purgatory  Swamps,  in  Hamp- 
tonburgh, are  of  considerable  extent,  and  are  drained 
by  a  small  sluggish  stream.  The  latter  is  represented 
as  having  been  originally  a  dismal  swamp,  from  which 
fact  Mr.  Peter  Bull,  its  owner,  gave  the  name,  bestow- 
ing at  the  same  time  upon  his  own  residence  that  of 
Paradise,  t 

The  Grassy  Swamp,  in  Deerpark,  extends  from  Sul- 
livan County  to  the  Mongaup.  It  is  a  low,  wet  swamp, 
overgrown  with  long,  coarse  grass.  Grassy-swamp 
Brook  passes  through  it. 

The  Big  Swamp,  in  Newburgh,  takes  its  name  froiiii 
Big  Pond  (Orange  Lake),  which  it  adjoins.  It 
stretches  from  the  Ulster  County  line  to  the  lake,  andl 
was  probably  originally  an  extension  of  the  lake  to^ 
the  well  as  south  of  its  present  borders,  which,, 
if  all  under  water,  would  add  three  times  to  its  present 
length.  Bushfield  Creek  passes  through  the  swampi 
to  the  lake. 

The  Great  Swamp,  in  New  Windsor,  lies  in  the 
northwest  part  of  the  town,  near  Coldenhani.  The' 
Arackhook  or  Tinn  Brock  passes  through  it. 

The  Great  Pine  Swamp  commences  neari  Howell'*,, 
on  the  Erie  Railroad,  and  extends  northward  and 
eastward  seven  miles  in  the  town  of  Wallkill,  having 
in  its  area  many  oases  and  cultivated .  fg.rpis.    Part  of' 

t  Three  of  the  original  divisions  of  the  patQnt,tretain  the  names  1)^ 
stowed  by  their  proprietors,  Tiz. :  Goshen,  Warwick,  and  Gray-court.  B' 
is  perhaps  needless  to  say  that  the  story  of  an.iqn,,a  sign,, and  a  court  te> 
pure  fiction. 

1  Eaeer's  "  Orange  County,"  811. 



its  overflow  passes  into  the  Shawangunk  Kill,  south 
of  Bloomingburgh. 

The  Little  Pine  Swamp  lies  east  of  .Thompson 
Ridge  and  Pine  Bush,  in  Crawford,  extending  north- 
ward into  Ulster.  Its  surplus  waters  assist  in  swell- 
ing the  volume  of  the  Dwaars  Kill. 

The  Pakadasink  Swamp,  in  Greenville  (on  lands  of 
Isaac  M.  Seybolt  and  others],  is  the  head  of  the  Big 
Pakadasink  or  Shawangunk  Kill,  as  that  stream  was 
formerly  known  and  described.  The  Little  Binnen- 
water  Swamp,  also  in  Greenville,  lies  directly  south 
from  the  village  of  Mount  Hope.  A  small  stream 
flows  from  it  southwesterly  and  connects  with  the  out- 
let of  Binnenwater  Pond,  the  latter  uniting  with  Rut- 
gers' Creek. 

The  Barton  Swamp,  in  Cornwall,  is  inconsiderable 
in  size,  compared  with  the  others  named.  Peat  of  a 
fair  quality  is  taken  from  it. 

Marl  and  peat  beds  are  found  in  several  localities, 
from  which  portions  and  in  some  cases  entire  skele- 
tons of  the  mastodon  have  been  exhumed.  The  first 
exhumation  of  record  was  in  1794,  the  second  in  1800, 
the  third  in  1803,  the  fourth  in  1805,  the  fifth  in  1838, 
the  sixth  in  1844,  "the  seventh  in  1845,  the  eighth  in 
the  same  year,  the  ninth  in  1872.  The  skeleton  of 
1845,  exhumed  from  a  marl  bed  near  Coldenham, 
was  complete  and  weighed  nineteen  hundred  and 
ninety-five  pounds.  It  is  now  in  the  Boston  Mu- 
seum. The  one  exhumed  in  1872,  in  the  town  of 
Mount  Hope,  was  also  complete.  Its  weight  was 
about  seventeen  hundred  pounds.  It  is  now  in  the 
New  Haven  Museum. 

The  boundary  streams  of  the  county  are  the  Hud- 
son on  the  northeast,  the  Delaware  and  Mongaup  on 
the  west,  and  the  Shawangunk  on  the  northwest.  Of 
the  first,  the  Hudson,  it  is  not  necessary  to  speak.  Its 
aboriginal  name,  Mahicanituk,  was  that  of  a  particu- 
lar division  rather  than  of  the  entire  stream.  The 
principal  harbor  on  it,  within  what  may  be  called  the 
waters  of  Orange  County,  is  at  Newburgh,  where  it 
expands  into  a  bay  one  mile  and  a  quarter  in  width, 
sheltered  by  the  Highlands  from  "  all  winds  save  an 
east-northeast  wind,"  as  Hudson  wrote  in  1609.  For 
the  convenience  of  commerce,  principal  landing- 
places  or  wharves  have  been  established  at  New- 
burgh, Cornwall,  and  West  Point,  and  for  more  local 
trade  at  Hampton,  New  Windsor,  Cozzens',  Fort 
Montgomery,  etc.  The  water-front  of  the  city  of 
Newburgh  is  without  a  rival  on  the  river,  the  channel 
being  abrupt  and  the  depth  ample  to  float  the  largest 

The  Delaware,  on  the  west,  touches  the  county  for 
only  a  short  distance.  Like  the  Hudson,  it  had  no 
general  aboriginal  name, — Lenapewihituk  being  ap- 
plied to  it  at  Philadelphia,  while  above  and  below 
Port  Jervis  it  was  known  and  called  by  the  Indians 
Minising, — ^literally  "  a  river  of  islands."*     Beyond 

*  Minuit  and  Mituis  are  entirely  two  diffetent  words. — the  flrat  eigni- 
fying  Uland,  the  second  wolf.    Some  writera  confuse  the  terms  and  give 

rafting  it  has  no  commerce  at  this  point,  and  is 
crossed  by  railroad  and  foot  bridges. 

The  Mongaup  River,  the  dividing  line  between 
Orange  and  Sullivan,  is  properly  in  Sullivan  County, 
the  line  of  Orange  running  "to"  and  "along"  its 
course.  Mr.  Quinlan,  in  his  "  History  of  Sullivan 
County,"  says  it  was  originally  known  as  the  Min- 
gap-ach-ka.  Mongawping  or  Mingwing  is  better  au- 
thenticated,— implying  a  plurality  of  streams,  com- 
prehending the  three  branches  of  which  it  is  com- 
posed. Its  present  name,  as  already  stated,  is  presumed 
to  be  Dutch.  It  appears  in  the  early  records,  Mon- 

The  Shawangunk  Kill,  on  the  northwest,  has  its 
head  in  Pakadasink  Swamp,  in  the  town  of  Green- 
ville, passes  through  the  town  of  Mount  Hope,  and 
upon  the  line  between  Ulster  and  Orange,  running  a 
northeast  course  to  the  Wallkill,  in  Ulster  County. 
Its  present  name  has  already  been  explained.  Like 
other  streams, — and,  it  maybe  said,  all  streams,  moun- 
tains, etc., — it  had  no  general  name,  but  was  specifi- 
cally divided,  Achsinink  being  recorded  in  one  local- 
ity and  Pakadasink  in  another.  In  the  deed  to  Gov- 
ernor Dongan  it  is  described  as  "the  river  called 
Peakadasink,"  and  in  the  act  of  1762,  dividing  Wall- 
kill  Precinct,  the  line  is  described  as  extending 
"to  the  Pakadasink  River  or  Shawangunk  Kill."  In 
another  paper  of  nearly  the  same  date,  it  is  said,  as 
well  understood  evidence,  "Nothing  could  more 
plainly  point  out  where  that  pond  lies  (Maretange) 
than  the  river  Pakadasink,  which  takes  its  rise  oppo- 
site to  the  said  pond  and  extends  along  the  foot  of 
the  said  hills  from  a  place  called  Pokanasink,  and 
from  that  place  to  the  head  of  the  said  river, 
and  nowhere  else,  the  said  river  is  called  by  that 

How  the  river  lost  a  name  so  well  established  is 
explained  by  the  papers  relating  to  the  bounds  of 
the  Minisink  Patent.  Having  succeeded  in  spreading 
their  line,  the  proprietors  of  that  patent  found  it 
necessary  to  obliterate  its  old  landmarks.  A  general 
change  of  names  ensued :  Maretange  Pond  was  lo- 
cated on  Sam's  Point ;  the  Big  and  Little  Pakadasink 
Kills  (the  latter  now  called  the  Little  Shawangunk 
Kill)  were  shifted  to  the  same  vicinity,  and  to  make 
the  whole  apparently  and  entirely  consistent,  two 
small  streams  in  Crawford  received  the  names  respec- 
tively of  Big  and  Little  Pakadasink,  that  it  might  not 
be  missed  in  its  ancient  neighborhood.  The  original 
name  contained  equivalents  signifying  "swamps,"  and 
being  generic,  may  be  applied  wherever  the  corre- 
sponding topography  exists.f 

The  principal  streams  passing  through  or  entirely 

the  latter  as  the  derivative  of  Minisink.  The  explanatory  tradition  that 
either  name  originated  from  the  breaking  through  of  the  waters  at  the 
Delaware  Water  Gap  is  not  well  founded. 

tit  -will  be  observed  by  those  familiar  with  the  district  that  the  to- 
pography in  this  case  corresponds  almost  precisely.  It  Is  not  assumed 
that  the  name  is  in  itself  improperly  applied  to  its  present  locations ;  it 
is  strictly  correct. 



included  in  the  county  are  the  Neversink,  the  Wall- 
kill,  the  Otterkill  or  Murderer's  Creek,  and  the  Ram- 

The  Neversink  receives  its  head-waters  from  north- 
western Ulster  and  northern  Sullivan.  It  runs  south 
and  southeast  into  the  town  of  Deerpark  to  near 
Cuddebackville,  and  thence  turns  south  and  south- 
west until  it  joins  the  Delaware  near  Carpenter's 
Point,  where  it  is  about  two  hundred  feet  wide.  It  is 
a  never-failing  stream.  Its  name  has  been  explained 
in  another  connection.  Its  principal  tributaries  are 
Basha's  Kill  and  Old-dam  Brook  (Ouwe-dam  Kill). 
The  former  rises  in  Sullivan  County,  and  is  about 
seventy  feet  wide.  Its  name  is  from  an  Indian  squaw- 
sachem  called  Basha  Bashiba,  who  lived  on  its  banks, 
near  Westbrookville.*  Old-dam  Brook  is  the  outlet 
of  Little  Pond.  Its  name  is  from  an  old  dam  erected 
upon  it  by  Indians  or  beavers,  which  caused  its  waters 
to  overflow  a  large  tract  of  land.  About  half  a  mile 
above  its  junction  with  the  Neversink,  it  falls  over 
six  hundred  feet  in  the  course  of  a  mile,  and  is  called 
Fall  Brook. 

The  Wallkill  rises  in  Wantage,  Sussex  Co.,  N.  J., 
flows  through  the  Drowned  Lands  into  Orange,  where 
it  forms  the  dividing  line  between  Warwick  and  Min- 
isink,  Goshen  and  Wawayanda,  Hamptonburgh  and 
Wallkill,  passes  through  the  town  of  Montgomery 
into  Ulster  County,  and  thence  to  the  Hudson  River 
at  Eondout.  Its  course  is  northeast,  the  plane  of  ele- 
vation upon  which  it  runs  being  from  Sussex  County 
in  New  Jersey,  descending  gradually  to  near  Esopus 
in  Ulster.  It  is  a  durable  stream,  and  furnishes  ex- 
tensive hydraulic  power  throughout  its  course.  Its 
current  is  not  rapid,  except  at  Walden,  where  it 
passes  over  a  fall  of  about  forty  feet.+  Its  aboriginal 
name  is  not  known,  but  the  presumption  is  in  favor  of 
Warranawonkong.  Its  present  name  is  unquestion- 
ably from  the  Huguenots  or  Walloons  who  settled 
New  Paltz,  it  being  repeatedly  entered  in  the  records 
as  "  the  Walls  or  Paltz  River."|  Its  principal  branched 
are  the  Long-house-Wawayanda-Warwick-Pochuck 
Creek,  Quaker  Creek,  Rutgers'  Creek,  Tinn  Brock, 
McCorlin's  Kill,  Muddy  KUl,  and  Dwaars  Kill. 
Long-house  Creek  rises  in  New  Jersey,  and  runs 
north  until  it  receives  the  outlet  of  Wickham's  Pond ; 

*  Quinlan's  "  History  of  SnlliTan  County,"  423.  In  the  Swartwout 
Patent  the  stream  is  called  the  Assawaghkemcck,  from  "  waaea,"  light 
or  foaming,  and  "  eck,"  rocks,— literally,  the  "  light  waters,"  reference 
being  made  to  the  fall.  "  Basha's  Kil"  is  Dutch.  "  Basha's  land"  vfas 
one  of  the  boundaries  of  the  Minisink  Patent,  1704.  She  was  not  a 
mythical  character. 

f  The  fall  at  Walden  was  called  Hasdiscb  by  the  Indians, — a  term  in 
which  "  dangerous"  is  expressed. 

X  This  explanation  of  the  origin  of  the  name  by  the  Bev,  James  B. 
Wilson,  D.D.,  is  fully  sustained  by  the  records  discovered  since  be 

It  may  be  added  that,  although  now  written  Wallkill,  the  name  is 
strictly  two  words,  maile  and  kU.  In  this  work  the  local  orthography  has 
been  followed  in  Wallkill,  Otterkill,  etc.,  as  being  too  ttrmly  established 
to  su£fer  correction.  The  word  "creek,"  applied  to  a  stream  of  water, 
is  quite  as  incorrect  aa  "  kill ;"  yet  Webster  admits  its  use  to  be  estab- 
lished "  in  some  American  States." 

from  thence  it  forms  the  Wawayanda  or  Warwfl 
Creek,  and  flows  southwest  through  the  village! 
Warwick  into  New  Jersey,  where  it  becomes  Pochucl 
Creek,  returns  to  the  county,  and  unites  its  waten 
with  the  Wallkill  in  the  Drowned  Lands.  The  names 
which  it  bears  are  explained  in  other  connectiom, 
with  the  exception  of  "  Long-house,"  the  European 
title  for  the  peculiar  dwellings  which  the  Indians  (». 
cupied,  one  of  which  stood  upon  its  banks.g  Quaker 
Greek  has  its  principal  head  in  Thompson's  Pond. 
It  flows  west,  forms  the  boundary  line  between  Goshen 
and  Warwick,  receives  several  small  tributary  streams, 
and  unites  with  the  Wallkill  in  the  Drowned  Lands. 
Rutgers'  Creek  has  its  extreme  western  head  in  the 
town  of  Greenville,  flows  thence  southeasterly  to 
Waterloo  Mills,  in  Minisink;  thence  northeast  to 
Rutgers'  Place,  where  it  unites  with  its  northern 
head.  The  latter  rises  in  Wallkill,  flows  thence  sonth 
to  Millsburgh,  receiving  in  its  course  the  outlet  of 
Binnenwater  Pond  and  Binnenwater  Swamp,  and 
Boudinot's  and  Tunkamoes  ("small  stream")  Creeks, 
in  Wawayanda  and  Minisink.  From  Millsburgh  it  is 
the  boundary  line  between  Wawayanda  and  Minisink, 
It  enters  the  Wallkill  at  Merritt's  Island.  Its  name 
is  from  Anthony  Rutgers,  ||  one  of  the  proprietors  of 
the  Wawayanda  Patent,  from  whom  also  Rutgers' 
Place  (the  residence  of  the  late  Dr.  M.  H.  Cash) 
takes  its  name.  Boudinot's  Creek,1[  its  largest  afflu- 
ent, flows  through  Greenville  to  the  southeast  comet 
of  Mount  Hope,  thence  southeast  to  its  junction  in 
Wawayanda.  Monhagen  Creek  flows  southeast 
through  Middletown  and  enters  the  Wallkill  north- 
east from  New  Hampton.  It  is  now  the  source  from 
which  Middletown  is  supplied  with  water.  McCo^ 
lin's  Kill,  or  McNeal's  Kill,**  rises  in  Crawford,  flows 
south,  passes  through  Mechanictown,  and  enters  the 
Wallkill  one  mile  and  a  half  above  Stony-ford  bridge, 
Dwaars  Kill  has  its  rise  in  the  town  of  Wallkill, 
flows  northeast  through  Crawford,  and  enters  the 
Wallkill  in  Ulster  County.  Its  name  is  Dutch  (origi- 
nally Dwaars  Stroom),  and  means  "  a  stream  that 

g  These  dwellings  were  formed  by  long,  slender  hickory  saplioga  lit 
in  the  ground  in  a  straight  line  of  two  rows,  as  far  asunder  as  they  in- 
tended the  width  to  be,  and  continued  as  far  aa  they  intended  the  lanfft 
to  be.  The  poles  were  then  bent  forward  in  the  form  of  an  arch  tDd 
secured  together,  giving  the  appearance  of  a  garden  arbor.  Split  pol* 
were  then  lashed  to  the  sides  and  roof,  and  over  these  bark  was  placed. 
Rarely  exceeding  twenty  feet  in  width,  these  dwellings  were  someUiM 
six  hundred  and  fifty  feet  long,  and  were  occupied  by  an  indefinite  iniB» 
ber  of  families. 

I  There  is  not  the  slightest  foundatien  for  the  statement  (Eager,  118) 
that  Bulgers  "  is  an  English  corruption  of  Rutkys,  the  Indian  namt" 
The  lallxr  is  a  corruption  of  the  former,  and  a  very  bald  one.  Kutg«» 
was  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  1726-27. 

<[  Mr.  Eager  enters  the  name  "  Bandegot."  It  now  appears  on  tin 
maps  "  Indigot."  The  correct  orthography  is  Boudinot,  from  IBllS 
Boudinot,  a  proprietor  of  the  Wawayanda  Patent.  Boudinot  would  DOt 
have  deemed  it  possible  his  name  could  be  so  transposed. 

•*  Mr.  Eager  (346)  gives  the  name  "  McCormick's  Kill,"  and  ^5Q  I 
"McCorlin's  Kill."    The  latter  has  been  entered  on  the  maps  oflbl 
county.    We  are  informed  that  the  stream  was  known  years  ago  H 
"  McNeal's  Kill,"  from  John  McNeal,  who  had  a  grist-mill  on  it  as  salV 
probably  as  1760,    McCorlin  is  a  mythical  pemn. 



runs  across"  or  unites  "  with  another."*  The  Tinn 
Brock  wa3  called  by  the  Indians  Arackhook  or  Akh- 
gook,  the  Algonquin  term  for  snake,  the  reference  no 
doubt  being  to  its  extremely  sinuous  course,  which 
resembles  the  contortions  of  a  snake  when  thrown 
upon  a  fire.  Its  present  name  is  from  the  Saxon 
words  Tkijnne,  "  thin  or  small,"  and  Broc,  "  running 
water  less  than  a  river," — ^a  small  brook.  It  rises  in 
New  Windsor,  south  of  Coldenham,  but  does  not  take 
its  nalne  until  after  it  crosses  the  Cochecton  turnpike, 
runs  north  and  west,  and  enters  the  Wallkill  half  a 
mile  below  Walden.  Muddy  Kill  (Dutch,  Modder 
Kil, — literally.  Muddy  Kill)  flows  from  the  eastern 
slope  of  the  Comfort  hills  and  runs  south  to  the  Wall- 
kill  above  Montgomery.  The  mischievous  chorogra- 
pher  now  writes  its  name  "  Mother  Kill." 

The  Otterkill  rises  in  the  north  part  of  Chester, 
and  passes  through  the  East  Division  of  Goshen  into 
Hamptonburgh,  where  it  was  called  Denn  Creek,t 
from  Christopher  Denn,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the 
Wawayanda  Patent.  At  La  Grange  it  flows  upon 
nearly  the  same  level  with  the  Wallkill,  the  two 
streams  being  within  a  mile  of  each  other  at  this 
point.  Through  Hamptonburgh  it  runs  around  the 
base  of  the  hills  in  the  form  of  a  half  circle ;  thence 
into  Blooming-Grove,  and  in  a  serpentine  course 
through  Washingtonville  to  Salisbury  Mills,  where, 
meeting  the  mountain  ledges,  it  passes  over  a  fall  into 
a  deep  chasm,  which  it  follows  through  rocks  and 
crags  and  continues  to  the  Hudson.  Its  name  is  pre- 
sumed to  have  been  bestowed  from  the  otters  which 
were  found  in  it  at  the  early  settlement  of  the  county. 
Its  largest  tributaries  are  Cromeline  Creek,  Gold- 
smith Creek,  Colemantown  Creek,  Beaver-dam  Creek, 
Schunemunk  Creek,  Woodbury  Creek,  and  Canter- 
bury Brook.  Cromeline  Creek  receives  its  principal 
head-waters  from  Little  Long  Pond,  No.  2,  in  Mon- 
roe; flows  thence  through  Chester  and  the  western 
part  of  Blooming-Grove  to  its  junction  with  the  Ot- 
terkill in  the  northwest  part  of  the  latter  town. 
Schunemunk  Creek  rises  in  the  southeast  part  of 
Blooming-Grove;  flows  northwest  and  northeast 
around  the  hills,  and  joins  the  Otterkill  above  Wash- 
ingtonville. On  some  maps  it  is  called  Satterly's 
Creek.  .Woodbury  Creek  has  its  principal  head  in 
Hazzard's  Pond,  in  Monroe.  It  receives  the  outlet  of 
Sutherland's  Pond;  flows  northeast  through  Wood- 
bury Clove,  and  enters  the  Otterkill  at  Orr's  Mills, 
in  Cornwall.  Canterbury  Brook  rises  in  the  Cornwall 
Highlands;  flows  northeast  through  the  village  of 
Canterbury,  and  enters  the  Otterkill  {under  the  name 

»  "  The  Dwaare  Stroom  unitea  with  or  flows  across  the  WallkiUi  heDoe 
the  name  indicatee  that  fact  or  circumstance,  and  becomes  the  charactei^ 
tatic  of  the  river."— Dr.  E.  B.  O'Callaghan.  The  tradition  given  by  Eager 
(334),  that  the  name  is  from  an  Indian  chief,  has  no  other  foundation 
than  the  possibility  that  there  was  an  Indian  niclinamed  Dwass. 

t  The  following  from  the  Mapes'  deed  (1727)  established  the  early  use  of 
,  both  titles :  "  Lying  on  the  west  side  of  the  Otterkill,  known  as  the  Den- 
nekiU."  The  latter  may  well  be  preserved  aa  a  memorial  of  the  fii^t 
settler  on  that  part  of  the  Wawayanda  Patent, 

of  Idlewild  Brook)  near  the  Hudson.  Goldsmith 
Creek  rises  in  Little  Britain  and  runs  south  to  the 
Otterkill  above  Washingtonville ;  Colemantown  Creek 
also  flows  south  and  enters  above  the  same  place. 
Beaver-dam  Creek  rises  in  Montgomery,  and  passes 
south  through  low  meadows  from  near  Goodwill 
Church  to  its  junction  at  Campbell  Hall.  Its  head- 
water is  a  spring  of  several  yards  in  diameter  and  of 
unknown  depth ;  its  name  is  from  an  old  beaver 
damj  near  Campbell  Hall.  From  its  junction  with 
Cromeline  Creek  east  to  the  Hudson,  the  Otterkill 
loses  its  name  and  is  called  Murderer's  Creek  and  the 
Moodna,  the  latter  a  Willisian  designation.  To  the 
early  Dutch  traders  it  was  known  as  the  "  Waora- 
neck;"  subsequently,  as  the  "Martelaer's  Back 
Creek ;"  after  1656,  as  "  the  Murderer's  Creek."  It  is 
assumed  by  some  writers  that  the  latter  was  derived 
from  its  immediately  preceding  title,  signifying  a 
baffling,  struggling  reach  or  course  in  the  navigation 
of  the  Hudson,  bounded  on  the  north  by  this  creek 
and  on  the  south  by  Martelaer's  Rock,  opposite  West 
Point ;  by  others,  that  it  was  bestowed  as  a  memorial 
of  some  act  of  hostility  by  the  Waoranecks  during 
the  early  Indian  wars ;  but  superior,  in  local  estima- 
tion, to  philology  or  probability,  is  the  explana- 
tion given  by  Paulding  in  his  beautiful  tradition  of 
Naoman,  his  faithfulness  and  his  fate,  pointing  un- 
waveringly to  Maringoman  as  the  author  of  a  horrid, 

Quassaick  Creek  is  composed  of  the  outlet  of  Orange 
Lake  and  of  the  Fostertown  and  Tent  Stone  Meadow 
Creeks.  It  flows  southeasterly  through  the  western 
part  of  the  town  of  Newburgh,  and  forms  the  bound- 
ary line  between  the  city  of  Newburgh  and  the  town 
of  New  Windsor.  Its  name  (Quassaick)  signifies 
stony  brook.  Its  water-power  is  very  durable  and  is 
largely  emplojred.  Fostertown  Creek  rises  in  Ulster 
County,  and  flows  southerly  through  the  central  part 
of  the  town  of  Newburgh.  It  is  called  Fostertown  ' 
Creek  until  it  reaches  Gidneytown,  when  it  takes  the 
latter  name.  Tent  Stone  Meadow  Creek  rises  in  a 
large  swamp  in  Ulster  County,  known  many  years 
ago  as  the  Tent  Stone  Meadow.  It  flows  southerly 
and  empties  into  the  Quassaick  at  the  Powder  Mills. 
Bushfield  Creek,  one  of  the  feeders  of  Orange  Lake, 
and  necessarily  of  Quassaick  Creek,  rises  in  a  swamp 
in  Ulster  County,  known  as  the  Stone  Dam  Meadow. 
Its  original  name  was  Beaver-dam  Creek. 

X  From  the  remains  of  the  dams  which  they  constructed,  the  streams  of 
the  county  apparently  abounded  in  beavers  at  the  time  of  the  discovery, 
though  now  extinct. 

g  "  In  ancient  Dutch  days  it  was  known  aa  the  Martelaer's  Back,  or 
Martyr's  Beach.  The  Dutch  navigators  divided  the  river  into  reaches,  to 
which  they  gave  descriptive  names.  They  found  here  (West  Point)  a 
rooky  point  nearly  at  right  angles  with  the  current,  and,  when  sailing 
with  a  fair  west  wind,  encountered,  on  passing  it,  the  wind  '  dead  ahead,* 
compelling  them  to  heat  or  struggle  with  it.  Hence  the  name  Martelaer, 
signifying  contending  or  struggling.  The  tradition  which  converts  the 
name  into  a  memorial  of  deeds  of  violence,  on  the  part  of  the  Indians,  is 
entirely  worthless." — J,  J,  MojielVa  Hand-book, 



The  Ramapo  River  has  its  head  in  Round-island 
Pond  in  Monroe,  and  flows  thence  southerly  through 
Ramapo  Valley  into  Rockland  County.  It  receives 
the  outlets  of  thirteen  of  the  mountain  ponds  already 
named:  Round-island,  Summit,  Slaughter's,  Cran- 
berry, No.  2,  Greenwood,  Round,  Little  Long,  Cedar, 
Green,  Car,  Spruce,  Truxedo,  and  Nigger.  It  enters 
the  Passaic  River  near  Pompton  Plains,  N.  J.  There 
is  no  stream  in  the  world  like  it. 

Poplopen's  Creek  is  composed  of  the  outlets  of 
Poplopen's,  Round,  No.  1,  Long,  Bull,  Cranberry,  No. 
1,  and  Two  Ponds.  Its  course  is  southeast  to  the 
Hudson.  Queensborough  Brook  and  Sickbosten's  Kill 
(now  called  Stony  Brook)  are  its  tributaries. 

The  tributaries  of  the  Hudson,  aside  from  those 
already  named,  are  small  streams,  principally  in  New- 
burgh.  The  Neversink  and  the  Shingle  Kill  flow  into 
the  Delaware  in  Deerpark, — the  former  at  Carpenter's 
Point,*  and  the  latter  at  Honesville.  Grassy-swamp 
Brook,  in  the  same  town,  unites  with  the  Mongaup ; 
the  latter  unites  with  the  Delaware  about  six  miles 
northerly  from  Carpenter's  Point.  The  Little  Shawan- 
gunk  Kill  and  the  Big  and  Little  Pakadasink  are 
tributaries  of  the  Shawangunk.  One  branch  of  the 
former  rises  half  a  mile  easterly  from  the  village  of 
Mount  Hope,  and  is  met,  about  a  mile  east  from  that 
village,  by  a  branch  from  the  town  of  Wallkill ;  flows 
thence  through  the  town  northeasterly  until  it  strikes 
the  line  of  the  town  of  Wallkill ;  thence  northwest 
to  its  junction  with  the  Shawangunk  in  the  latter 
town.  It  was  originally  known  as  the  "  Little  Paka- 
dasink," as  has  been  already  stated.  The  present  Big 
Pakadasink  and  Little  Pakadasink  are  in  the  town 
•of  Crawford,  and  flow  north  to  the  Shawangunk.  In 
the  Crawford  dialect  they  are  called  the  Big  and  the 
Little  "  Paugh-caugh-naugh-sing,"  the  most  prolix 
orthography  of  the  original  name  on  record. 

The  islands  of  the  Hudson  lying  opposite  the  lines 
of  the  county  are  Poleber's,  now  called  Pallopel's ; 
Martelaer's  Rock,  now  Constitution,  and  Manaha- 
waghkin,  now  called  lona.  Though  not  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  county,  their  position  in  its  water- 
scape entitles  them  to  recognition  in  its  topography. 

Newburgh  is  in  41°  30'  north  latitude,  and  is  ele- 
vated one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  above  tide-water. 
From  observations  made  for  thirteen  successive  years, 
the  mean  temperature  has  been  found  to  be  50°  10' 
In  Goshen,  situated  in  latitude  41°  20',  and  elevated 
four  hundred  and  twenty-five  feet  above  tide-water, 
observations  made  for  eight  years  show  a  mean  tem- 
perature of  49°  16'.  Difierence  between  Newburgh 
and  Goshen  ninety-four  minutes.  At  Newburgh  the 
period  between  frosts,  though  variable,  has  been  known 

*  Apoint  of  land  made  by  the  junction  of  the  Neversink  and  the  Del- 
aware Bivers,  just  south  of  Port  Jerris.  The  Tri-States  Bock,  marking 
the  boundary  between  New  York,  New  Jersey,  and  PennsylTania,  is'  on 
this  point. 

to  be  from  the  5th  of  May  to  the  29th  of  September^ 
one  hundred  and  forty-six  days.  At  Goshen  frosii 
have  been  noticed  as  late  as  the  1st  of  June,  and  ag 
early  as  the  20th  of  September,— one  hundred  and 
eleven  days.  Difierence  between  periods  of  fi:o4 
thirty-five  days.  At  Newburgh  the  shadbush  bloomed 
April  24th,  the  peach  April  23d,  the  plum  May  Ist, 
the  cherry  April  27th,  the  apple  May  6th ;  strawber- 
ries ripened  June  10th ;  haying  commenced  July  4th; 
wheat  harvest  commenced  July  17th ;  the  first  killing 
frost  September  29th.  At  Goshen  the  shadbuaji 
bloomed  April  27th,  the  peach  April  28th,  the  plum 
May  4th,  the  cherry  April  29th,  and  the  apple  May 
9th ;  haying  commenced  July  8th  ;  the  wheat  harvest 
July  21st ;  the  fiist  kil  ling  frost  September  20th.  The 
observations  made  at  Newburgh  show  the  temperature 
of  the  eastern  part  of  the  county,  while  those  made 
at  Goshen  may  be  applied  to  the  central.  On  the 
eastern  slope  of  the  Shawangunk  range,  representing 
the  western  part  of  the  county,  the  temperature  ig 
from  two  to  four  degrees  less  than  at  Newburgh ;  at 
the  top  of  the  range  full  five  degrees  less. 

The  temperature  of  the  eastern  and  southern  por- 
tions of  the  county  is  afiected  in  some  degree  by  the 
shelter  afforded  in  tbe  mountain  ranges ;  the  former 
also  by  the  tides  of  the  Hudson.  The  Highlands,  for 
many  years  exempt  from  taxation  by  reason  of  their 
unfitness  for  cultivation,  are  an  incalculable  advan- 
tage to  Newburgh,  New  Windsor,  and  Cornwall ;  they 
efiectually  break  the  force  of  all  winds  save  from  the 
east-northeast.  Thousands  of  invalids  may  be  found 
in  those  towns,  as  permanent  residents  or  as  boardei^ 
brought  thither  by  this  peculiarity  in  situation.  The 
poet  N.  P.  Willis,  from  his  experience  of  twenty  yean 
as  a  consumptive,  found  no  language  too  strong  in 
which  to  commend  the  hygienic  virtues  of  the  High- 
lands. The  entire  mountain  system  of  the  county 
has  more  or  less  effect  on  its  climate.  In  the  economy 
of  nature,  currents  of  air  gather  around  the  ranges; 
are  forced  upward  to  a  lower  temperature,  and  pre- 
cipitation ensues,  while  the  atmospheric  condensation 
produces  a  local  heat  beyond  the  natural  temperature. 
For  this  reason  most  of  the  cloves  are  more  temperate 
than  their  elevation  and  latitude  would  otherwise 
warrant ;  those  opening  towards  the  south  especially 


Probably  no  county  in  the  State  presents  more  in- 
teresting geological  features  than  Orange.  The  rocks 
of  the  Highlands  are  granite,  gneiss,  and  sienite, 
with  veins  of  trap.  The  central  portions  of  the 
county  are  occupied  with  strata  of  Hamilton  shalep, 
Helderberg  limestones  and  grit,  Medina  sandstone, 
and  the  gray  sandstones,  all  extending  from  the 
northeast  to  the  southwest,  from  the  east  foot  of  the 
Shawangunk  Mountains.  The  rocks  which  compose 
the  Shawangunk  Mountains  are  the  shales  and  the 

f  Horton's  and  Mather^s  Surveys  consulted. 



sandstones  of  the  Chemung  group.  The  red  shales 
and  grits  of  the  Catskill  group  are  seen  at  the  falls  of 
the  Shingle  Kill  in  Deerpark.  The  Erie  division  are 
found  from  the  Delaware  River,  along  the  west  side 
of  Mamakating  Hollow.  Some  of  the  rocks  of  this 
division,  near  Port  Jervis,  are  upturned  at  a  high  an- 
gle ;  others,  towards  Cuddebackville  and  Ellenville, 
are  more  indurated  and  seem  almost  trappean.  The 
geological  series  descend  southwest  to  the  primary 
rocks  of  the  Pochuck  Mountains.  The  Helderberg 
division  extends  through  the  county,  on  the  Mama- 
kating Valley,  by  Cuddebackville,  to  Carpenter's 
Point  on  the  Delaware.  The  limestones  of  this  di- 
vision are  all  upturned,  often  at  a  very  high  angle, 
in  the  town  of  Deerpark,  where  they  form  a  range  of 
low  mountains,  rising  from  the  level  of  the  Never- 
aink  to  half  the  elevation  of  the  Shawangunk.  A 
limestone,  containing  fossils  of  this  division,  is  also 
found  in  the  town  of  Cornwall,  between  the  village 
of  Canterbury  and  Salisbury  Mills.  Its  position  is 
between  the  slate  and  grit  rock ;  its  dip  is  to  the  south- 

The  Shawangunk  grit  of  the  Ontario  division  ex- 
tends on  the  top  of  the  Shawangunk  Mountains  from 
New  Jersey  to  near  Kingston.  The  thickness  of 
these  grits  varies  from  sixty  to  one  hundred  and  fifty 
feet.  They  have  been  used  as  millstones,  known  as 
"  Esopus  millstones."*  A  pyritous  grit,  in  the  form 
of  bowlders,  is  scattered  over  the  county.  Eocks 
similar  in  character  to  the  Shawangunk  grit,  and  the 
interstratified  and  overlaying  red  rocks,  extend  from 
the  Jersey  line  on  the  west  side  of  Greenwood  Lake 
northeast  to  Canterbury  in  Cornwall.  They  are  also 
found  at  Pine  Hill.  This  hill  is  primitive,  and  here 
the  grit  rock  inclines  against  it  and  rests  upon  it. 
The  grit  rock  is  regularly  stratified,  and  dips  to  the 
southeast ;  is  of  all  colors  from  white  to  red.  It  ex-" 
tends  from  Round  Hill  four  miles,  to  Woodcock 
Mountain.  It  is  also  found  in  the  southeast  base  of 
Schunemunk,  interstratified  with  graywacke  and 
slate;  also  at  Pine  Hill.  Here  the  rock  is  red, 
and  can  be  quarried  in  blocks  suitable  for  building. 
The  Bell  vale  Mountains,  in  Warwick,  on  the  south- 
east side,  are  composed  of  graywacke ;  also  the  Schune- 
munk in  Blooming-Grove,  the  Goose-pond  Moun- 
tain, and  the  Sugar-loaf.  Quarries  of  blue  and  red 
stone  abound  in  Schunemunk  and  Pine  Hill. 

In  the  Champlain  division  is  the  "  Hudson  River 
series — slate  group," — which  consists  of  slates,  shales, 
grits,  limestones,  breccias,  and  conglomerates, — some- 
times designated  as  graywacke  slate,  graywacke 
shale,  graywakce,  and  slaty  graywacke.  They  con- 
tain facets  and  testacea,  of  which  a  few  are  seen 
at  the  falls  of  the  Wallkill,  near  Walden,  at  Orange 
Lake,  and  at  Sugar-loaf  The  Hudson  River  group 
of  rocks  occupies  a  large  extent  of  the  surface  of 

*  These  millatonee  were  the  first  that  were  quarried  in  the  province, 
and  were  regarded  aa  superior  to  those  imported  from  Europe. 

the  county.  Its  general  direction  is  northeast  and 
southwest.  Its  dip  is  uniform  to  the  southeast,  in 
some  places  thirty  degrees,  in  others  nearly  vertical. 
It  extends  from  the  Hudson  River  through  Warwick 
to  the  Jersey  line,  and  on  the  west  side  of  the  Wall- 
kill,  from  New  Jersey  to  Ulster  County ;  and  in  all 
this  range  there  is  no  rock  resting  upon  it.  It  forms 
the  bank  of  the  Hudson  River  from  Cornwall  Land- 
ing to  four  miles  above  Newburgh,  and  it  is  always 
seen  stratified  with  graywacke  and  graywacke  slate. 
In  this  form  it  is  found  at  Walden,  below  Montgom' 
efy,  in  Mount  Hope,  at  Newburgh,  and  towards  Hamp- 
ton. In  the  town  of  Warwick,  near  the  Jersey  line, 
it  forms  a  cuneiform  termination,  the  limestone  sur- 
rounding it  on  both  sides.  From  this  the  argillite 
'  widens  into  an  elevated  ridge  of  rich  land,  called 
Long  Ridge,  which  extends  into  Goshen.  It  forms 
the  surface  rock  of  most  of  Goshen,  Blooming-Grove, 
parts  of  Cornwall,  New  Windsor,  Newburgh,  Mont- 
gomery, Hamptonburgh,  Crawford,  Wallkill,  and  in 
Mount  Hope  and  Minisink,  quite  to  the  top  of  the 
Shawangunk  Mountains.  The  Utica  slate  is  found 
on  the  banks  of  the  Hudson,  above  Newburgh.  It  is 
of  dark  color,  and  in  some  places  black,  and  highly 

The  Trenton  limestone  is  found  near  Mount  Look- 
out ;  also  in  the  town  of  Hamptonburgh,  where  it  is 
full  of  the  fossil  shells  of  the  very  early  periods  of 
animal  life.  In  that  neighborhood  it  is  called  the 
"Neelytown  limestone."  Black  River  limestone  is 
found  a  few  miles  from  Goshen,  Mount  Lookout 
being  entirely  composed  of  it.  It  is  also  found  on 
Big  Island,  in  the  Drowned  Lands,  on  Pochuck  Neck, 
and  in  Minisink  west  of  the  Drowned  Lands.  A 
blue  limestone,  sometimes  sparry  and  checkered, 
commences  on  the  bank  of  the  Hudson  at  Hamp- 
ton ;  it  is  about  one  mile  in  width  northwest  and 
southeast,  and  passes  southwesterly  through  New 
burgh  into  New  Windsor,  disappearing  in  the  vicinity 
of  Washington  Lake.  The  elevated  point  of  this  rock 
at  Hampton  is  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Dans  Kammer. 
It  is  also  found  east  of  Salisbury  Mills  in  Cornwall, 
and  is  visible  through  Blooming-Grove  and  Warwick 
to  the  State  line ;  also  in  the  north  part  of  Monroe, 
north  of  Greenwood  Furnace,  and  extends  southwest 
to  near  Greenwoqd  Lake;  also  in  Cornwall,  near 
Ketcham's  Mill,  and  in  Goshen,  two  and  a  half  miles 
from  the  village,  extending  from  the  Wallkill  south- 
west to  Glenmere.  The  western  edge  of  this  bed 
underlays  the  Drowned  Lands,  and  passes  along  the 
northwestern  margin  of  the  white  limestone  of  War- 
wick ;  here  it  divides  into  two  branches  on  each  side 
of  the  primitive  rock,  and  passes  into  New  Jersey. 
This  limestone  also  interlocks  with  the  argillite 
ridges,  as  at  near  Goshen.  Limestone  of  the  oolitic 
character  is  found  on  Big  Island,  near  New  Milford, 
and  on  Pochuck  Neck.  The  edges,  of  that  found  in 
some  perpendicular  clifis  at  the  latter  place  are  ex- 
posed in  layers  one  above  the  other ;  some  are  of 



the  usual  character ;  others  are  oolitic,  but  the  round 
granules  are  bluish-white  quartz;  others  slaty,  ap- 
proaching the  calciferous  state,  and  others  are  of  a 
ribbon-like  appearance. 

Below  the  New  York  transition  system  lies  the 
"Taconic  system,"  consisting  of  slates,  limestones, 
and  granular  quartz  rocks.  Slate  rocks  of  this  sys- 
tem are  found  four  miles  north  of  Newburgh,  near  a 
small  hill  of  granite  rock.  The  limestone  between  the 
Highlands  and  Goose-pond  Mountain,  and  also  about 
Bellvale,  belong  to  this  system.  Metamorphic  rocks 
consist  of  limestones  that  are  granular,  dolomitized, 
and  stratified, — color,  white,  blue,  and  red ;  of  slates 
that  are  talcose,  argillaceous,  micaceous,  and  horn- 
blende ;  and  of  sandstones  that  are  changed  to  gran- 
ular quartz  rocks,  eurite,  and  gneiss;  In  their  several 
deposits  all  the  changes  from  the  gray  and  blue  lime- 
stone are  traced  into  the  perfect  crystallized  limestone, 
containing  the  various  crystallized  minerals,  which 
give  them  their  metamorphic  character.  There  is  a 
white  limestone  of  this  variety  ranging  from  Mounts 
Adam  and  Eve,  in  Warwick,  to  Andover,  in  New 
Jersey.  It  is  developed  in  a  succession  of  narrow 
ridges  of  only  a  few  rods  in  width,  and  is  separated 
by  masses  of  other  rocks  of  granite,  sienite,  and 
granular  quartz.  Hornblende  rock  and  augite  are 
scattered  all  around.  This  white  limestone  is  rarely 
stratified,  and  in  some  places  runs  into  the  blue  and 
gray  limestone,  which  is  fossiliferous  in  some  in- 
stances and  oolitic  in  others.  The  white  limestone 
forms  the  shore  of  the  Drowned  Lands  at  Amity. 
In  some  localities  it  is  snow-white,  translucent,  and 
compact,  like  Parian  marble.  Plumbago  and  mica 
are  found  in  it,  and  also  a  great  variety  of  minerals. 
Northeast  of  the  Amity  church,  on  a  small  knoll,  are 
found  calcareous  spar,  rhomb  spar,  yellow  brucite, 
xauthite,  talc,  black  and  ruby  spinelle,  cocolite. 
About  one  mile  southwest  of  Amity  is  specular  iron 
ore  and  serpentine ;  veins  of  scapolite  are  found  south- 
west of  this  place,  and  about  a  mile  north  the  lime- 
stone is  filled  with  brucite  of  various  colors,  magnetic 
oxide  of  iron,  hornblende,  and  serpentine.  At  the 
south  base  of  Mount  Eve,  in  an  old  mine-hole,  fine 
crystals  of  green  and  brown  hornblende  are  found. 
At  another  place  is  a  vein  of  arsenical  iron.  The 
same  kind  of  limestone  is  found  near  Fort  Mont- 
gomery, in  the  Highlands  (in  the  gorge  through 
which  the  creek  passes  into  the  Hudson),  at  or  near 
Forest  of  Dean ;  thence  it  is  traced  by  way  of  Little 
Round  Pond  towards  Greenwood  Furnace  and  across 
the  Ramapo.  It  is  also  seen  southwest  of  Queens- 
borough  Furnace  in  limited  extent.  These  beds  also 
contain  the  minerals  above  named. 

The  primary  rocks  of  the  county  consist  of  gneiss 
and  hornblende  granite,  sienite,  limestone,  serpen- 
tine, augite,  and  trappean.  Among  these  rocks  there 
are  no  continuous  ridges  of  mountains  of  more  than 
a  few  miles  in  length,  in  consequence  of  the  interrup- 
tions caused  by  the  dislocations  and  the  lateral  up- 

heavals of  masses  of  the  strata.  Ridge  succeeds  ridge, 
each  of  which  runs  out  and  diminishes  until  it  disap- 
pears below  the  rocks  of  a  more  recent  origin. 

The  primitive  rocks  extend  from  Butter  Hill  to 
Fort  Montgomery,  thence  along  the  line  of  the 
county  to  New  Jersey,  thence  to  Pochuck  Mountain, 
embracing  a  large  part  of  the  towns  of  Warwick, 
Monroe,  Highlands,  and  Cornwall;  part  of  New 
Windsor,  Newburgh,  Blooming-Grove,  and  the  south 
part  of  Goshen.  Woodcock  Mountain,  Round  Hill, 
Peddler  Hill,  Goose-Pond  Mountain,  Sugar-loaf  and 
Sugar-loaf  Mate,  Brimstone  Hill,  Muchattoes  Hill^ 
Mount  Adam,  Mount  Eve,  and  Pochuck  Mountain, 
are  composed  of  this  series. 

Granite  is  found  at  the  foot  of  Butter  Hill  suitable 
for  quarrying ;  sienite  at  West  Point,  on  the  east  side 
of  Bear  Mountain,  and  at  the  base  of  Butter  Hill. 
Gneiss  abounds  in  all  the  Highlands,  and  has  been 
quarried  at  Butter  Hill,  Cro'-nest,  West  Point,  But- 
termilk Falls,  and  between  that  and  Fort  Montgom- 
ery. Mica  slate,  or  micaceous  gneiss,  is  found  one 
mile  north  of  Fort  Montgomery,  and  at  the  foot  of 
Cro'-nest.  Augite  rock  is  found  between  West  Point 
and  Round  Pond;  also  in  Monroe,  south  of  Cedar 
Pond  ;  near  Slaughter's  Pond,  Green  Pond,  and  Mom- 
basha  Pond,  and  near  the  O'Neil,  Forshee,  Clove, 
Rich,  and  Forest  of  Dean  mines.  Greenstone  trap  is 
found  near  Truxedo  Pond.  Granular  greenstone  is 
found  at  Cro'-nest  and  at  Butter  Hill.  Hornblende 
rock  is  found  in  large  strata,  and  quartz  rock  is  in 
every  hill  and  mountain  of  the  Highlands.  In  the 
town  of  Monroe  is  a  bed  of  the  latter  four  rods  wide 
rising  fifteen  feet  above  the  gneiss  on  each  side.  Ser- 
pentine is  found  at  the  O'Neil  and  at  the  Forshee 
mine,  and  there  is  a  large  bed  of  it  in  the  town  of 
Warwick.  Crystallized  serpentine  is  also  found  in 
Warwick  in  the  white  limestone.  Scapolite  is  found 
at  Amity ;  also,  blende  of  minute,  red,  brilliant  prisms, 
with  adamantine  lustre.  Yellow  garnet  is  found  at 
Edenville.  A  species  of  soapstone  is  found  at  the 
Clove  mine  in  Monroe ;  magnetic  pyrites,  mica,  and 
hornblende;  at  the  Rich  iron-mine.  Large  sheets  of 
mica  are  found  southwest  of  the  Forshee  mine..  In 
the  latter  mine  are  found  beautiful  red  garnet,  brown 
tremoline,  cocolite,  and  umber.  The  O'Neil  mine 
abounds  with  a  great  variety  of  beautiful  minerals, 
among  which  are  crystallized  magnetic  ore  of  great 
brilliancy  and  beauty,  magnetic  pyrites,  copper,  py- 
rites, carbonate  of  copper,  serpentine,  amianthus,  as- 
bestos, brown  spar,  rhombic  spar,  augite,  cocolite, 
feldspar,  and  mica. 

West  of  the  village  of  Canterbury  is  a  bed  of  hem- 
atite ore,  on  the  late  Townsend  farm.  Two  beds  of 
arsenical  iron  are  found  in  Warwick :  one  in  a  vein 
near  Mount  Adam,  and  the  other  near  Edenville. 
The  latter  contains  arsenical  pyrites  of  a  white  silver 
color,  in  connection  with  arsenic,  sulphur,  and  iron; 
also  red  oxide  of  iron.  This  vein  is  connected  with 
the  white  limestone.   An  ore  of  titanium  is  also  found 



in  Warwick,  associated  with  augite  and  scapolite.  An 
ore  of  cerium  occurs  near  Fort  Montgomery. 

The  primitive  rocks  of  the  Highlands  abound  in 
ore  of  the  magnetic  oxide  of  iron.  The  granite 
gneiss  more  generally  contains  it  in  layers  having  the 
lines  and  bearing  of  the  rock.  At  West  Point  the  ore 
is  associated  with  hornblende.  Meek's  mine,  Kronk- 
ite's  mine,  Eound  Pond  mine,  Forest  of  Dean  mine. 
Long  mine,  Ps>tterson  mine.  Mountain  mine,  and  a 
group  of  mines  around  it,  and  Crossway  mine,  all 
abound  in  this  ore,  of  rich  quality.  A  bed  of  titan- 
iferous  iron  ore  is  located  on  the  east  side  of  Bear 
Hill ;  magnetic  ore  at  the  lower  landing  at  Fort 
Montgomery,  mixed  with  the  sulphuret  of  iron ;  also 
at  the  place  called  Queensborough  ore-bed,  within  a 
mile  or  two  of  Queensborough  Furnace.  In  several 
localities  of  the  Shawangunk  grits  are  found  veins  of 
lead.  Beds  of  lead  ore  have  been  opened  at  Eden- 
ville,  and  also  in  the  towns  of  Deerpark  and  Mount 
Hope.*  Zinc  ore  has  also  been  found,  exceeding  in 
quality  the  lead.  A  copper-mine  was  opened  near 
Otisville  in  1866,  and  worked  for  about  a  year,  show- 
ing good  ore  but  in  small  quantities. 

The  mines  which  have  been  opened  in  the  beds  de- 
scribed, and  some  of  which  have  been  named  in  other 
connections,  are  the  Stirling  mine,  in  Monroe,  opened 
in  1781.t  Its  ore  is  very  sound  and  strong,  and  has 
been  much  used  for  cannon.  Part  of  its  ore  is  bare, 
and  part  of  it  slightly  covered  with  soil  and  rocks. 
It  embraces  a  surface  of  about  thirty  acres.  One  and 
a  half  miles  southwest  of  the  Stirling  is  the  Belcher 
mine,  supposed  to  be  a  prolongation  of  the  Stirling 
mine.  Long  mine  and  Red  mine  are  farther  south ; 
the  ores  of  the  latter  are  magnetic  and  full  of  pyrites. 
East  pf  Stirling  Pond  are  the  Mountain  mine,  the 
Crossway  mine,  and  the  Patterson  mine.  About  a 
mile  south  of  the  village  of  Monroe  is  the  Clove  mine, 
the  ore  of  which  is  magnetic,  granular,  and  compact ; 
a  portion  of  it  soft,  in  a  black  powder,  and  can  be 
taken  out  with  a  shovel.  Southeast  of  the  Clove  is 
the  O'Neil  mine,  in  the  midst  of  granitic  gneiss  and 
sienite.  Half  a  mile  southwest  of  this  is  the  Forshee 
mine,  permeating  the  whole  hill  upon  which  it  is 
located.  About  five  miles  southeast  of  Monroe  is  the 
Rich  mine,  the  ore  of  which  is  strongly  magnetic, 
rich,  and  abundant.  The  Smith  mine  is  between 
Cro'-nest  and  Butter  Hill ;  its  ore  is  a  native  magnet ; 
it  has  not  been  worked  of  late  years.  The  Townsend 
mine  of  hematite  ore  is  in  Cornwall,  about  two  miles 

*  The  principal  lead.minea  that  have  been  opened  are  in  Iklount  Hope 
and  Deerpark.  They  are  known  as  the  Brie,  at  Gujrmard ;  the  Wallkill, 
two  and  a  half  milee  northeast  of  Guymard ;  the  Champion,  Washington, 
Hammoth,  Mount  Hope,  and  Central.  Of  these,  hut  two,  the  Erie  and 
the  Walklll,  haTe  erer  been  extensively  worked.  The  lead  of  the  Erie 
mine  is  argeuUferous,  and  at  times  the  yield  of  silTer  pays  running  ex- 
penses, leaving  the  lead  a  clear  profit.  The  works  are  within  a  few  rods 
of  the  Erie  Bailroad. 

t  The  Stirling  iron-works  were  established  in  1761.  This  mine  was 
discovered  in  1780  and  opened  in  1781.  The  works  are  now  connected 
with  the  Erie  road  by  a  branch  from  Stirling  Junction. 

and  a  half  west  from  Canterbury.  Its  ore  is  lean, 
but  makes  excellent  iron.  It  is  mostly  in  powder  or 
small  fragments,  mixed  with  balls  of  the  hematite  of 
a  few  pounds'  weight.  Forest  of  Dean  mine  was 
opened  as  early  probably  as  1761.  It  lies  west  from 
Fort  Montgomery.  The  QueensboroughJ  mine  lies 
south  from  Forest  of  Dean ;  it  has  not  been  worked 
to  any  extent.  Greenwood  mine,  in  Monroe,  lies 
north  of  the  Erie  road.  Its  yield  is  consumed  by 
Greenwood  Furnace. 

Traditions  of  lead,  tin,  silver,  and  even  gold  mines, 
in  the  Highlands,  are  quite  prevalent,  while  on  the 
Schunemunk  range  and  in  other  places  the  carbon- 
aceous slates  have  been  pretty  thoroughly  examined 
from  presumed  indications  of  veins  of  coal.  The 
early  European  adventurers  evidently  made  a  very 
complete  examination  of  the  entire  district  in  the 
hope  of  striking  the  precious  ores.  Some  magnificent 
magnetic  pyrites,  however,  was  their  only  reward,  as 
it  has  been  of  equally  sanguine  but  more  recent 

The  soils  of  the  county  vary  with  the  geological 
features  of  the  different  sections.  The  district  known 
as  the  primary,  in  most  of  its  higher  elevations,  is  not 
susceptible  of  cultivation,  owing  to  the  rough  and 
broken  state  of  the  surface  and  the  naked  character 
of  the  rocks.  At  the  base  of  the  Highlands  are  out- 
cropping hills,  and  the  surface,  though  broken,  is 
productive,  and  in  many  instances  presents  beautiful 
farms.  In  the  district  of  the  Hudson  system  of  slates 
and  limestones,  though  irregular  and  broken,  its 
slaty  or  shaly  beds  and  sandstone  and  limestone 
rocks  furnish  a  soil  favorable  to  the  growth  of  grain 
and  grass.  Above  the  Highlands  this  district  di- 
verges from  the  river  to  the  southwest  quite  into  the 
State  of  New  Jersey.  No  part  rises  into  mountains, 
yet  there  are  steep  bluffs,  but  not  higher  than  three 
hundred  feet.  West  of  this  lies  the  belt  of  land  to  the 
Shawangunk  Mountains,  stretching  across  the  county 
from  Crawford  to  the  Jersey  line,  in  which  the  soil 
partakes  of  the  grits  and  shales  of  this  series,  giving 
peculiar  features  and  qualities  to  the  surface. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  remarked  that  the 
most  striking  feature  of  the  Shawangunk  range,  as 
presented  to  the  eye,  is  the  fact  that  the  surface  of  its 
eastern  or  southeastern  slope  bears  abundant  evidence 
that  the  great  glacial  or  ice  age  witnessed  the  passage 
from  it  of  an  enormous  glacier,  which  ground  up  the 
rocks  until  the  soil  was  produced  which  is  now  so 
highly  cultivated,  while  its  western  or  northwestern 
slopes  remain  rocky  and  untillable,  bearing  nothing 
but  forest-trees  and  minerals.  This  peculiarity  exists 
in  the  range  even  beyond  the  limits  of  the  county; 
and  the  glacier  marks,  so  plainly  visible,  afford  a 

X  Queensborough  mine  takes  its  name  from  a  tract  of  one  thousand  four 
hundred  and  thirty-seven  acres  granted  to  Gabriel  and  William  Ludlow, 
Oct.  18, 1731,  and  to  which  they  gave  the  name.  The  name  is  now  fre- 
quently but  wrongly  written  Queens&ur^;  the  sufiBx  should  be  borough, 
signifying,  in  its  appHcalioD,  Queen's  Hill. 



means  of  judging  of  the  kind  of  plow  that  dug  out 
the  beds  aud  valleys  of  the  Wallkill  and  the  Shawan- 
gunk  Kill. 

Throughout  the  county  the  existence  of  large  masses 
of  bowlders,  the  origin  of  which  can  only  be  referred 
to  distant  places,  furnishes  evidence  that  in  many 
sections  the  soil  has  been  the  result  of  drift  deposi,ts. 
Below  the  city  of  Newburgh,  the  drift  bed,  containing 
bowlders  and  pebbles  that  are  scratched,  overlies  the 
abraded  rocks,  and  is  in  turn  overlaid  by  clay  beds, 
sand,  and  gravel,  in  regular  courses.  Bowlders,  erratic 
blocks,  and  scratched  rocks  abound  on  the  High- 
lands. The  bowlders  are  formed  mostly  of  granites 
and  gneiss ;  occasionally  one  of  graywacke,  showing 
unmistakably  its  transportation  from  a  great  distance ; 
their  accompanying  friable  deposits  now  enrich  the 
mountain  cloves.  Aside  from  their  contributions  to 
the  soil,  many  of  the  drift  deposits  are  valuable, — the 
sand  for  casting  or  moulding,  smoothing  and  rubbing 
stones  used  in  lithography,  blotting  sand,  and  for 
mortar  and  glass ;  the  clays,  for  pottery  and  brick. 

The  soil  of  the  plateau  adjoining  the  Hudson, 
forming  a  semicircle  from  the  Highlands  to  the 
Dans  Kammer,  is  gravelly,  sandy,  clayey, — a  mixture 
forming  a  warm  and  fertile  loam.  The  surface  rises 
gradually  to  Orange  Lake,  then  descends  to  the 
Wallkill.  The  soil  of  the  Wallkill  Valley  is  pecu- 
liarly rich  and  fertile.  Much  of  it  is  alluvium,  inter- 
mingled with  clay,  sand,  and  gravel.  In  the  town  of 
Wallkill  the  soil  is  more  diversified ;  in  some  places 
it  is  clayey  and  of  no  great  depth  above  the  rock  ; 
in  others  gravelly,  and  again  sandy  and  elevated. 
Through  Goshen  and  Warwick  it  partakes  more  of 
clay  and  sand  loam,  with  slight  intervals  of  gravel. 
Approximating  the  State  line,  the  primitive  forma- 
tions of  Mount  Adam,  Mount  Eve,  and  Pochuck 
Mountain  change  the  constituents,  but  not  to  detract 
from  its  fertility.  Some  of  the  most  rich  and  pro- 
ductive soils  in  the  county  are  found  in  the  islands  of 
the  Drowned  Lands.  West  of  the  Wallkill  Valley 
the  soil  is  affected  In  its  constituents  by  the  Shawan- 
gunk  range  of  mountains,  and  is  generally  a  clayey 
loam,  well  adapted  to  grass.  In  some  parts  it  becomes 
slaty  and  warm ;  in  others  it  is  shaly  and  covered 
with  fragments  of  rocks.  In  Deerpark  is  a  range  of 
soil,  brought  down  from  the  adjacent  hills  and  upper 
country,  that  is  very  fertile  and  easy  of  cultivation; 
and,  though  it  has  been  under  the  plow  nearly  two 
centuries,  it  still  ranks  with  the  most  productive 
lands  of  the  State.  The  valley  of  the  Otterkill  is  a 
sandy  and  gravelly  loam,  partly  alluvial. 



The  military  history  of  the  county  obliges  us  to 
return  again  to  a  recognition  of  the  territory  from 
which  it  was  taken,  being  component  parts  of  Ulster 

and  Orange.  At  best  the  earliest  militia  rolls  are 
imperfect.  They  serve,  however,  as  far  as  they  go 
to  show  organizations,  and,  inferentially,  the  names 
of  pioneer  settlers.  Beginning  with  that  portion  of 
the  county  which  was  taken  from  Ulster,  we  find  that 
the  first  military  organization  within  its  limits  was 
made  prior  to  1738,  and  was  composed  of  two  com- 
panies  of  the  regiment  of  which  A.  Gaasbeck  Cham- 
bers was  colonel,  Wessel  Ten  Broeck  lieutenant- 
colonel,  Coenradt  Elmendorf  major,  and  Cornelius 
Elmendorf  quartermaster.*  The  first  of  these  com- 
panies was  known  as  "The  Foot  Company  of  Military 
of  the  Precinct  of  the  Highlands ;"  the  second  as 
"  The  Company  of  Militia  of  the  Wall  a  Kill."  The 
following  were  their  muster-rolls  in  1738 : 

"A  Lialof  the  first  company  of  Militia  of  the  prewnk  of  the  Higlhtmls  wtdtt 
the  command  of  Capt.  Thoma*  Elliton : 

Capt.  Thomas  EllisuD.  David  Oliver. 

EDBign  John  Toung.  Arthur  Beaty. 

Sergt.  David  Davids.  Matthew  Davis. 

Sergt.  Mosee  Gaiitson.  John  NicoU,  Jr. 

Sergt.  P.  McCloghery.  Alexander  McKej-. 

Corp.  Jacobus  Bruyn.  Robert  Sparks. 

Corp.  Jaa.  Stringham.  Jeuriali  Quiclc. 

'  Corp.  Jonah  Hazard.  Thomas  Quicl£. 

Clerk,  Chas.  Clinton.  Jacob  Gillis. 

John  Umphrey.  Joseph  Simsjn. 

Alexander  Falls.  James  Clark. 

David  Bedford.  John  Clark. 

William  Coleman,  Lodewick  Miller. 

Joseph  Sweezer.  Peter  Miller. 

Thomas  Coleman.  George  Weygant. 

John  McVey.  William  Ward. 

John  Jones.  William  Ward,  Jr. 

Patrick  Brodeiick.  ,Tohn  Mattys  Kimhecg.  ■ 

Joseph  Shaw.  William  Smith,  Jr. 

Caleb  Curtis.  James  Edmeston. 

William  Sutton.  Tobias  Weygant. 

Jeremiah  Foster.  Jerry  Manse. 

Chai  les  Beaty.  Thomas  Johnston . 

Amos  Foster.  Casparis  Stymas. 

Alexander  Foster.  John  Monger. 

James  Young.  James  Luckey. 

James  Nealy.  Thomas  Williams. 

Robert  Feef.  Johannis  George. 

Joseph  Butterton.  Jeremiah  Tompkins. 

Samuel  Luckey.  Isaac  Tompkins. 

John  Markham.  William  Watts. 

John  Read.  Josiah  Ellsworth. 

Joseph  McMikhlll.  James  Ellsworth. 

David  Umphrey.  Anthony  Preslaer. 

James  Gamble.  Jonathan  Tomkius. 

John  Gamble.  Robert  Banker. 

Cornelins  McClean.  Thomas  Fear. 

John  Umphrey,  Jr.  Frederick  Painter. 

James  Umphrey.  Moses  Elswoith. 

Peter  Mulinder.  John  Marie. 

Robert  Burnet.  Jonathan  Owens. 

Archibald  Beaty.  Andrew  McDowell. 

Daniel  Coleman.  Total  86." 

"A  List  of  the  Company  of  Militia  of  tlie  WaU  a  KiU  under  Uie  command  of 
Capt.  Joh»  Bayard. 
Capt.  John  Bayard.f  Ensign  William  Kelso. 

Lieut.  William  Borland.  Sergt.  John  Newkirk. 

•  The  regiment  was  composed  (1738)  of  nine  companies,  which  w«i» 
located  as  follows :  Kingston,  3 ;  Marbletown,  1 ;  Wallkill,  1 ;  Hurley,  1 ! 
Rochester,  1 ;  New  Paltz,  1,  and  the  precinct  of  the  Highlands,  \.—Doc. 
Uitl.  N.  Y.,  iv.  226,  etc. 

+  Correction  has  been  made  In  orthography  of  names  in  cnsps  whew 
known,  and  the  modern  adopted. 



Corp.  John  Miller. 
Lendert  Coll  (Cole). 
Corneline  Cole. 
Baroat  Cole. 
Jofan  BobeBon. 
James  Gilleepie. 
Thomas  Qillespie. 
John  Wilkina. 
William  Wilkine. 
Andrew  Graham. 
George  OUomi. 
John  North. 
John  North,  Jr. 
Samuel  North. 
James  Toung. 
Bobert  Toung. 
Matthew  Young. 
Jamefl  McNeill. 
John  McNeill. 
Andrew  Borland. 
John  Borland. 
John  McNeill,  Jr. 
James  Crawford. 
John  Crawford. 
Alexander  Milligan. 
Nathaniel  Hill. 
Alexander  Kidd. 
Archibald  Hunter. 
Jamee  Hunter. 
John  Wharry. 
John  Mingus. 
Stephauus  Crist. 
Jacob  Bush. 
Benjamin  Haines. 
John  McNeill,  Sr. 
Matthew  Rhea. 
■William  Crawford. 
Bobert  Hunter. 
James  Monell. 
George  Monell. 
John  Monell. 
William  Monelt. 
Thomas  Neils. 
Bobert  Neils. 
John  Neils. 
Matthew  Neils. 
Nathaniel  Colter. 
John  Neily,  Jr. 
Joseph  Buttletown. 
Thomas  Coleman. 
Joseph  Shaw. 
Patrick  Broderick. 
William  Soutter. 
John  Butterfleld. 
John  McVey. 

John  Jones. 

Joseph  Knapp. 

Isaiah  Gale. 

Caleb  Enapp. 

Bobert  McCord. 

William  Faulkner. 

Israel  Bodgers. 

Jeremiah  Bodgers. 

James  Bodgers. 

James  White. 

John  Manley. 

Francis  Falls. 

Cronamus  Felter. 

Bichard  Gatehouse. 

John  Boyle. 

Bichard  Boyle. 

Bobert  Hughey. 

Bubert  Buchanan. 

James  Eager. 

Thos.  McColIum. 

Sojornaro  Her. 

John  Haven. 

McKim  Clineman. 

Jury  Burger. 

Hugh  Flanigan. 

Benj.  Bennet. 

Patrick  McPeck. 

John  Eldoris. 

Patrick  Gillespie. 

John  Lowry. 

Samuel  Smith. 

Joseph  Theal. 

James  Crawford. 

Joseph  Sutter. 

David  Craig. 

Edward  Andrews. 

Samuel  Ci'awford. 

Andrew  McDowell. 

Philip  Millspaugh. 

Cronamae  Mingus. 

Stuffel  Mould. 

Johannes  Crane. 

John  Young. 

Hendrick  Newkirk. 

Frederick  Sinsabaugh. 

Cornelius  Wallace. 

Hendrick  Crist. 

Tunas  Crist. 

Lawrence  Grist. 

Mathias  Millspaugh   and   his 

John  Jamison. 
John  McDonald. 
James  Davis. 

Total,  114." 

From  the  original  county  of  Orange  the  following 
return  appears : 

"  A  List  of  the  Officers  and  SoldierB  belonging  to  the  Begiment  of  Foot  Mi- 
litia in  the  Ooun^  of  (h-angSt  in  the  Province  of  New  York,  consisting  qf 
eight  Oompaaies  of  Foot,  whereof  Vincent  Malhewa  is  Ootl 

Vincent  Mathews,  col.  Michael  Jackson,  adjt. 

Solomon  Carpenter,  lient-col.  James  Thompson,  q.m, 

George  Bemsen,  m^j. 

First  Company. 
Bam.  Bemsen,  capt.  Three  corporals. 

Corns.  Smith,  lieut.  One  drummer. 

Ebenezer  Smith,  ensign.  Sixty-three  private  men. 

Three  sergeants.  In  all,  73. 

Seookd  Company. 
Saml.  Odell,  capt.  Three  corporals. 

Henry  Cuyper,  lieut.  One  drummer. 

Benj.  AlhsoD,  ensign.  Fifty^eight  private  men. 

Three  sergeants.  In  all,  68. 

Third  Coufant. 

John  Holly,  capt. 
Michael  Dunning,  lient 
Sol.  Carpenter,  Jr.,  ensign. 
Three  sergeants. 
Three  corporals. 

Fourth  Company. 

One  drummer. 

One  hundred  and  eleven  pri- 
vate men. 
In  all,  121. 

Jacobus  Swartwout,  capt. 
Johannes  Westbrook,  lieut. 
Johannes  Westbrook,  Jr.,  en- 
Three  sergeants. 

Three  corporals. 
One  drummer. 

Fifty-five  private  men. 
In  all,  65. 

Fifth  Company. 

Nathaniel  Du  Bois,  capt. 
David  Southerland,  lieut. 
Isaac  Hennion,  ensign. 
Three  sergeants. 

Three  corporals. 
One  drummer. 
Sixty-three  private  men. 
In  all,  73. 

Sixth  Company. 

Abm.  HariDg,  Jr.,  capt. 
Garret  Beanvelt,  lieut. 
John  Haring,  ensign. 
Three  sef-geants. 

Three  corporals. 
One  drummer. 
Sixty-two  private  men. 
rn  all,  72. 

Srventh  Company. 
Jacob  Vanderbilt,  capt.  Three  corporals. 

Andrew  Onderdonk,  Heut.  One  drummer. 

Aaron  Smith,  ensign.  Fifty  private  men. 

Three  sergeants.  In  all,  60. 

Troop  op  Horse. 

Two  corporals. 
One  trumpeter. 
Fifty-two  private  men. 
In  all,  60. 

Henry  Youngs,  capt. 

William  Mapes,  lieut. 

Michael  Jackson,  cornet. 

Two  sergeants. 
*'  The  total,  595  officers  and  soldiers.    Sub>officers,  56  foot. 
"June  20,1738." 

The  Ulster  regiment  was  divided,  in  1756,  into  two 
regiments,  the  first  (or  northern)  embracing  Kings- 
ton, etc.,  and  the  second  (or  southern)  embracing  the 
precincts  of  Highlands,  Wallkill,  and  Shawangunk, 
and  in  this  form  took  part  in  the  French  and  Indian 
war  of  1656.  In  September,  1773,  the  southern  regi- 
ment' was  under  the  following  officers,  viz. :  Thomas 
Ellison,  colonel ;  Charles  Clinton, lieutenant-colonel; 
Cadwallader  Colden,  Jr.,  major ;  and  Johannes  Jan- 
sen,  adjutant.  The  first  company  in  the  regiment 
was  located  in  Newburgh,  and  was  composed  as  fol- 
lows, viz. :  Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  captain ;  Samuel 
Sands,  first  lieutenant;  Wolvert  Acker,  second  lieu- 
tenant ;  Cornelius  Hasbrouck,  ensign  ;  four  sergeants, 
four  corporals,  one  drummer,  and  one  hundred  and 
forty-one  privates.* 

What  changes,  if  any,  occurred  in  the  Orange 
County  regiment  cannot  be  stated,  except  inferen- 
tially.  It  appears  to  have  been  divided,  the  com- 
panies of  which  Abraham  Haring  and  Jacob  Vander- 
bilt were  captains  forming  the  nucleus  of  a  regiment 
in  the  Orangetown  district  (now  Rockland). 

On  the  22d  of  August,  1775,  the  Provincial  Con- 
gress of  New  York  passed  a  law  under  which  the 
militia  of  the  Revolution  was  organized.  This  law 
provided  that  counties,  cities,  and  precincts  should  be 
divided  by  their  respective  local  committees,  so  that 
in  each  district  a  company  should  be  formed  "  ordi- 

*  The  names  of  non-commissioned  officers  and  privates  are  not  em- 
braced in  the  report. 



narily  to  consist  of  about  eighty-three  able-bodied 
and  eflfective  men,  officers  included,  between  sixteen 
and  fifty  years  of  age ;"  the  officers  to  consist  of  one 
captain,  two  lieutenants,  one  ensign,  four  sergeants, 
four  corporals,  one  clerk,  one  drummer,  and  one  fifer. 
The  several  companies  so  formed  were  directed  to  be 
"joined  into  regiments,  each  regiment  to  consist  of 
not  less  than  five  nor  more  than  ten  companies,'' 
which  should  be  commanded  by  "  one  colonel,  one 
lieutenant-colonel,  two  majors,  an  adjutant,  and  a 
quartermaster."  The  regiments  were  to  be  classed  in 
six  brigades,  under  "  a  brigadier-general  and  a  major 
of  brigade,*'  and  the  entire  force  was  to  be  under  the 
command  of  one  major-general.* 

When  the  organization  was  perfected,  the  counties 
of  Ulster  and  Orange  formed  the  fourth  brigade,  un- 
der Brig.-Gen.  George  Clinton. t     This  brigade  was 
composed  of  five  regiments  in  Orange  County,  com- 
manded respectively  by  William  Allison,  of  Goshen, 
Jesse  Woodhull,  of  Cornwall,  John  Hathorn,  of  War- 
wick, A.  Hawkes  Hay,  of  Orangetown,  and  Abm. 
Lent,  of  Haverstraw ;  and  of  four  regiments  in  Ulster 
County,  commanded  respectively  by  Johannes  Har- 
denbergh,  of  Kingston,  James  Clinton,  of  New  Wind- 
sor, Levi  Pauling,  of  Marbletown,  and  Jonathan 
Hasbrouck,  of  Newburgh.    Territorially,  our  inquiry 
is  confined  to  Col.  Allison's,  Col.  Hathorn's,  and  Col. 
Woodhull's   regiments    in    Orange,  and  Col.  Has- 
brouck's  and  Col.  Clinton's  regiments  in  Ulster,  al- 
though it  will  be  understood  that  Col.  Hay's  and  Col. 
Lent's  regiments  were  in  what  was  then  Orange  County. 
The  territory  in  Col.  Allison's  regimental  district  in- 
cluded Goshen  and  the  western  part  of  the  county ; 
Col.  Hathorn's  embraced  Warwick  and  the  southern 
settlements ;    Col.  Woodhull's    embraced    Cornwall 
(then  including  Monroe  and  part  of  Blooming-Grove) ; 
Col.  Hasbrouck's  embraced  Newburgh,  Marlborough, 
and  Shawangunk ;  and  Col.  Clinton's  embraced  New 
Windsor,  Montgomery,  Crawford,  and  Wallkill.  The 
rosters  and  muster-rolls  of  the  regiment  cannot  be 
obtained,  and  all  information  in  reference  to  them  is 


William  Allison,  colonel. 

Benjamin  Tneten,  lieutenant-colonel. 

Goshen  Co.— 1775— George  ThompsoD,  captain;  Joseph  Wood  and  Coe 
Gale,  lieutenantB;  Daniel  Everett,  Jr.,  ensign.  1776 — William 
Thompson,  Be9ond  lieutenant,  and  Pbineaa  Case,  ensign,  vice  Coe 
Gale  and  Daniel  Everett,  .Tr.,  transferred  to  Minute  Company  under 
Capt,  Moees  Hatfield. 

Wawayanda  Co.— 1775 — William  BlaJr,  captain ;  Thomas  Wisner  and 
Thomas  Sayne,  Jr.,  lieutenants;  Richard  Johnson,  ensign. 

Drovmed  Lands  Co. — 1775— Samuel  Jones,  Jr.,  captain;  Peter  Gale  and 
Jacob  Dunning,  lieutenants ;  Samuel  Webb,  ensign. 

*  Proc.  Prov.  Conv.,  104, 114,  etc. 

f  This  brigade  should  not  be  confused  with  the  special  brigade  which 
was  organized  under  Gen.  Clinton  in  August,  1776,  which  was  composed 
of  "all  levies  raised  and  to  be  raised  in  the  counties  of  Westchester, 
Duchess,  Orange,  and  Ulster"  (Proc.  Prov.  Conv.,  503),  nor  with  the  com- 
missionissued  to  him  by  the  Continental  Congress  in  March,  1777. 

Chester  O).- 1775— John   Jackson,  captain;   John  Wood   and  Jamet 

Miller,  lieutenants ;  James  Parshal,  ensign. 
Pochuck  Cb.— 1775— Ebenezer  Owen,  captain ;  Increase  Holly  and  John 

Bronson,  lieutenants ;  David  Rogers,  eneign.  1776— Increase  Holly, 

captain;   David  Rogers  and  James  Wright,  lieutenants;  Charles 

Knapp,  ensign. 
West  Side,  WallkUl  Go.— Hid— Gilbert  Bradner,  captain;  Joshua  Davla 

and  James  Dolsen,  lieutenants ;  Daniel  Finch,  ensign. 
MiniMink  Co.— 177S — Moses  Kortright,  captain;    John  Van  Tile  and 

Johannes  Decker,  lieutenants;  Epbraim  Medaugh,  ensign.    1777— 

Mertinus  Decker,  second  lieutenant,  vice  Johannes  Decker. 


John  Hathorn,  colonel. 

Warioick  Co. — 1775 — Charles  Beardsley,  captain ;  Richard  Welling  and 
Samuel  Lobdell,  lieutenants;  John  Price,  ensign.  1776 — John  Min'- 
thom,  captain,  vice  Beardsley,  deceased ;  Nathl.  Ketcham  and  Georgs 
Vance,  lieutenants;  John  Benedict,  ensign. 

Pond  Co. — 1775 — Henry  Wisner,  Jr.,  captain ;  Abm.  Dolson,  Jr.,  and 
Peter  Bartholf,  lieutenants;  Matthew  Dolson,  ensign.  1776 — Abm. 
Dolson,  Jr.,  captain ;  Peter  Bartholf  and  John  Hopper,  lieutenanfi; 
Mathias  Dolson,  ensign.  1777 — Peter  Bartholf,  captain ;  John  De 
Bow  and  Anthony  Finn,  lieutenants;  Joseph  Jewell,  ensign. 

Sterling  Co.— 1776 — John  Norman,  captain;  Solomon  Finch  and  William 
Fitzgerald,  lieutenants;  Elisha  Bennett,  ensign.  1777— Heniy 
Townsend,  captain ;  William  Fitzgerald  and  Elisha  Bennett,  lieu- 
tenants; Joseph  Guukliog,  ensign. 

Florida  Co. — 1775 — Nathaniel  Elmer,  captain;  John  Popino,  Jr.,  and 
John  Sayre,  lieutenants;  Richard  Bailey,  ensign.  1776 — John  Ken- 
nedy, lieutenant,  vice  Poplno.  1777 — John  Sayre,  captain  ;  John 
Kennedy  and  Richard  Bailey,  lieutenants;  John  Wood,  ensign. 

Wantage  CD.—1775— Daniel  Rosekrans,  captain ;  James  Clark  and  Jacob 
Gale,  lieutenants ;  Samuel  Cole,  ensign. 


Jesse  Woodhull,  colonel. 
Elihu  Marvin,  lieutenant-colonel. 
Nathaniel  Strong,  Zachaiiah  Du  Bois,  majors. 
William  Moffat,  adjutant. 
Nathaniel  Satterly,  quartermaster. 

Oc/ord  Co. — 1775 — Archibald  Little,  captain;   Birdseye  Youngs,  fint 
lieutenant;  Thomas  Horton,  second  lieutenant;  Nathan  Marvin, 
ensign.    Formerly  commanded  by  Capt.  Elihu  Marvin,  promoted 
lieutenant-colonel.    1777 — Thomas  Horton,  captain ;  Josiah  Seeley, 
first  lieutenant;  Nathan  Marvin,  second  lieutenant;  Barnabas  Ho^ 
ton,  Jr.,  ensign. 
(Jlove  Co, — 1776— Jonathan  Tuthill,  captain;  John  Brewster,  Jr.,  first 
lieutenant;  Samuel  Strong,  second  lieutenant;  Francis  Brewster, 
ensign.    Formerly  commanded  by  Capt.  Jesse  Woodhull. 
Bethlehem  Cb.— 1775— Christopher  Van  Duzer,  captain;  William  Roe, fint 
lieutenant;  Obadiah  Smith, second  lieutenant ;  Isaac  Tobias,  ensigD* 
1776— Gilbert  Weeks,  ensign. 
Upper  Clove  Co. — 1775 — Garret  Miller,  captain  ;  Aaa  Buck,  first  lieaten* 
ant;  William  Horton,  second  lieutenant;   Aaron  Miller,  eDBtgn. 
A  new  company,  being  part  of  the  company  formerly  commancled 
by  Capt.  Austin  Smith. 
Woodbury  Clove  Ci>.— 1775 — Francis  Smith,  captain ;  Thomas  Smith,  flnt 
lieutenant;   Alexander  Galloway,  eecond   lieutenant;   John  H> 
Manus,  eneign.    1776 — John  McManus,  second  lieutenant;  Ttio«, 
Lammoreux,  ensign. 
Southwest  Co. — 1775 — Stephen  Slote,  captain;   George  Galloway,  fln^ 
lieutenant;  John  ^Brown,  second  lieutenant ;  David  Rogers,  ensigH' 
A  new  company. 
Blooming-Grove  Co. — 177&^SiIa8  Plerson,  captain ;  Joshua  Brown,  flnt 
lieutenant ;  David  Reeve,  second  lieutenant ;  Fhineae  Heard,  ensign. 
Formerly  commanded  by  Capt.  Phineas  Rumsey.^ 
LightrEorse  Co. — 1776 — Ebenezer  Woodhull,  captain ;  James  Sayre,  liea* 
tenant;  William  Heard,  cornet;  Azariah  Martin,  second  master. 

X  At  the  meeting  to  reorganize  the  company  there  were  two  ticketi|— * 
the  one  given  above  and  one  on  which  Phineas  Rumsey  was  named  ftr 
captain,  John  Vail  for  first  lieutenant,  and  John  W.  Tuthill  for  seo- 
ond  lieutenant.  It  was  claimed  that  the  latter  received  the  mOlt 
votes. — American  Archives,  vol,  iU.  627. 



JonathAo  Haabrouck,  colonel. 
Johannes  Hardenburgh,  Jr.,  lieatenant-colonel. 
Jofaanoes  Jansen,  Jr.,  Lewie  Du  Bois,  majors. 
Abrabam  Schoonmaker,  adjutant. 
Isaac  Belknap,  quartermaster. 

Ckupt.  Samuel  Clark's  company^  Nev>burgk^  June  8, 1778. 

Samuel  Clark,  captain. 
James  Denton,  first  lieutenant. 
Martin  Wygant,  second  lieu- 
MuDBon  Ward,  ensign. 
'William  Albertson,  sergeant. 
Isaac  Brown,  sergeant. 
Ebenezer  Gidney,  sergeant. 
Hope  Mills,  sergeant. 
Hugh  Stevenson,  corporal. 
Isaac  Demott,  corporal. 
John  Simson,  corporal. 
William  Palmer,  corporal. 
Joseph  Brown,  fifer. 
Sol.  Buckingham,  drummer. 
John  SUlIwell. 
Elijah  Townsend. 
Stephen  Albertson. 
Daniel  Gillis. 
Daniel  Holley. 
James  Demott. 
Nathaniel  Denton. 
John  Beckett. 
Silas  Leonard. 
Henry  Smith. 
Benjamin  Smith. 
Benjamin  Birdsall. 
HarmanuB  Bikeman. 


Thomas  Patterson. 
Bichard  Ward. 
William  Ferguson. 
William  Carskaden. 
Isaac  Hasbrouck. 
James  Harris. 
William  Bloomer. 
John  Schofield. 
Benjamin  ICamp. 
Hugh  Ferguson. 
William  Lewis. 
Bichard  Albertson. 
William  Foster. 
Jeremiah  Ward. 
George  Jackson. 
Joseph  Gidney,  Jr. 
John  Wiggins. 
George  Lane. 
Samuel  Fowler. 
Daniel  Gidney. 
Joseph  Coleman. 
Gilbert  Edwards. 
Samuel  Gardner. 
Jacob  Wiggins. 
Bichard  Drake. 
Jesse  Smith. 
Albertson  Smith. 
John  Backet. 

A  list  of  the  Exempts  of  Copt.  Samuel  Clarh'e  company,  April  30, 1778,  aTid 
Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  colonel. 

Moaes  Higby,  doctor. 

Samnel  Fowler. 

John  Staples. 

William  Lupton. 

Nefacmiah  Denton, 

Thomas  Ireland. 

Samuel  Denton. 

James  Harris. 

William  Bowdish. 

Isaac  Brown,  doctor. 

Thomas  Palmer. 

Benjamin  Coffin. 

William  Collard. 

Joseph  Gedney. 

Nathaniel  Coleman. 

Burger  Wigant. 

Samnel  Bond. 

Thomas  Denton, captain. 

Eobert  Carscadden. 

Simon  Crozier. 

Joseph  Gidney. 

Hugh  MacLean. 

Jeremiah  Howell. 
**  Samuel  Clark. 
^Abel  Belknap. 

Cornelius  Wood. 

Jacob  Miars. 

Peter  Donley. 
•Daniel  Aldredge. 
Samuel  Sands. 
Thomas  Rhodes. 
Leonard  Smith. 
Mr.  Trumpoor. 
William  Lawrence. 
Thomas  Brinkley. 
John  T.  Staples. 
John  Stil  William. 
Elias  Burger. 
William  Ward. 
Duncan  Duffie. 
Daniel  "Denton. 
James  Denton,  lieutenant. 
Martin  wygant. 
Monson  Ward,  ensign. 
Samuel  Weed. 
Adolph  DeGroye. 
Aaron  Linn. 
John  Nathan  Hutchins. 
Isaac  Belknap,  Jr. 
James  Bums. 
David  Cetch. 
William  Sobe. 
John  Holdrum. 
James  McMasters. 
Jacob  Beeder. 

«  "Newburoh,  March  20, 1776.— A  true  state  of  the  regiment  of  mi- 
litia in  the  county  of  Ulster,  whereof  Jonathan  Hasbrouck  is  colonel, 
consisting  of  eleven  companies.  My  whole  regiment  consists  of  six 
hundred  and  eight  men,  officera  included ;  likewise  four  hundred  and 
fifty  firelocks,  two  hundred  and  ninety-three  swords,  one  hundred  and 
eighty-eight  cartridge-boxes,  thirty-two  pounds  of  powder,  one  hundred 
and  twenty  pounds  of  lead.— A  true  state  of  my  regiment  after  every 
fourth  man  was  selected  as  a  minute  man." 

Thomas  Smith. 
Cornelius  H^brouck. 
Isaac  Belknap. 

Thaddeus  Smith. 
William  Wilson. 
Joseph  Albertson. 

Capt.  Jacob  ConMiti's  company, 
•  Jacob  Conklin,  captain. 

Jacob  Lawrence,  first  lieuten- 

David  Guion,  second  lieuten- 

John  Crowell,  ensign. 

Robt.  Erwin,  sergeant. 

Robt.  Boss,  sergeant. 

John  Lawrence,  sergeant 

Abm.  Strickland,  sergeant. 

Abm.  Smith,  drummer. 

Jacob  Strickland,  corporal. 

Ebenezer  Strickland. 

Jonathan  Brundige. 

John  Killpatrick. 

Peter  Aldrich. 

Samuel  Tarepening. 

Cornelius  Terwilliger. 

Hazael  Smith. 

Daniel  Burnells. 
ft  Barent  Cole. 

Joshua  Camwell. 

Jonas  Totten,  corporal. 

William  Thurston. 
Thomas  Ireland,  Jr. 
Jeremiah  Wool. 
Thomas  Harris. 
Robert  Morrison,  doctor. 
Benjamin  Harris. 

Neicburgh,  May  4, 1778. 
James  Totten. 
James  Mills. 
William  Erwin,  Jr., 
William  Cope,  Jr. 
Stephen  Jones. 
Isaac  Barton,  Jr. 
Nathaniel  Guion,  corporal. 
Robert  Aldrich. 
James  Penny. 
William  Pefnny. 
John  Dolson. 
Joseph  Simmons. 
Tunis  Kiealer. 
Jacob  Tremper. 
John  Tremper, 
John  Thomas. 
Johannes  Snyder, 
Stephen  Stevens,  corporal. 
William  McBride. 
Gerrit  Van  Benechoten. 
Peter  Tarepening. 
Hermanus  Terwilliger. 
Abm.  Cole,  Jr. 

A  list  of  Exempts  of  Capt.  Jacob 
«  Jacob  Conklin,  captEiin. 

Jacob  Lawrence,  lieutenant. 
•  David  Guion,  lieutenant. 

John  Crowell,  ensign. 

Cornelius  Polhamus. 

David  Horton. 

Isaac  Barton,  Sr. 

Peter  Aldredge. 

Henry  W.  Kipp. 

James  Denton. 

Ebenezer  Baimond. 

Michael  Redmon. 

Joshua  Brush. 

iCaleb  Lockwood. 

CkmkUri'B  company,  April  23, 1779, 
William  Erwin. 
James  Quigley. 
Isaac  Benscouten. 
Ebepezer  Strickland. 
Joel  Campbell. 
Lewis  Slut. 
.Johannes  Snyder. 
William  Wear, 
Jacob  Halstead. 
Tunis  Keysler. 


Israel  Brush. 
Nicholas  Stephens. 
William  Roach. 

Capt.  Arthur  SmiOi's  company, 
Arthur  Smith,  captain, 
Isaac  Fowler,  first  lieutenant. 
John  Foster,  second  lieutenant. 
*tWilliam  Conklin, 
John  Kniffin, 
James  Clark, 

Reuben  Holmes,  sergeants. 
William  Smith, 
William  Michael, 
Samuel  Griggs,  corporals. 
Jonathan  Cosnpan. 
Joseph  Hallett. 
William  Place. 
Daniel  Fowler. 
Charles  Kniffen. 
Tunis  Dalson. 
George  Merritt. 
Dunkin  Campbell. 
John  Owen. 
ThomE^  Campbell. 

A  list  of  the  Exempts  of  Capt.  Arthur 
Arthur  Smith,  captain. 
Isaac  Fowler,  lieutenant. 
John  Foster,  lieutenant. 
Wolvcrt  Acker,  ensign, 
Nehemiah  Fowler. 
Charles  Tooker. 

Newburgli^  April  24, 1779. 

Burroughs  Holms. 

Solomon  Comes. 

James  Warring. 

William  Ward, 

John  Fowler. 

Jonas  Southerd. 

John  Allen. 

Jacob  Wiggins. 

Stephen  Ireland. 
'    Gilbert  Aldridge. 

Francis  Smith. 

Henry  Cropsey. 

John  Kniffen. 

Jacob  Gillis. 

Samuel  Fowler. 

John  Davis. 

Reuben  Tooker, 

John  Randle. 

Nicholas  Watts. 

James  Clark. 

SmUh'e  company,  ApHl  23, 1779. 
Joseph  Calfi'enter. 
Henry  Cropsey. 
Thomas  Orr. 
Hans  Cusnian, 
John  Stratton. 
John  Griggs. 



Jonathan  Owens. 
Richard  Oabui-n. 
Daniel  Kniffen. 
Daniel  Purdy. 
Daniel  BngardB. 
Daniel  Thurston. 
Jehiel  Clark. 
William  Michael. 
Thomae  Bosworth, 

Thomas  Ward. 
Elijah  Ward. 
Samuel  Stratton. 
George  Merritt. 
Jeremiah  Howell. 
John  Fowler, 
David  Smitli. 
Gilbert  Barton. 
Thomas  Burling. 
Isaac  Fowler,  Sr.* 


James  Clinton,  colonel. 

James  McClaughry,  lieutenan1>colonel. 

Jacob  Newkirls,  Moses  Phillips,  majors. 

George  Denniston,  adjutant. 

Alexander  Trimble,  quartermaster. 

New  Windtoi—Eatlern  O).— 1775— John  Belknap,  captain ;  Silas  Wood, 
first  lieutenant ;  Edward  Falls,  second  lieutenant ;  James  Stickney, 

Nem  Windsor— Wettem  Co.— me — James  Humphrey,  captain;  James 
Keraaghau,  second  lieutenant;  Richard  Wood,  ensign.f 

New  Windsor — Village  Co. — 1775 — John  Kicoll,  captain  ;  Francis  Mande- 
Tile,  first  lieutenant;  Hezekiah  White,  second  lieutenant ;  Leonard 
D.  Nicoll,  ensign. 

Hanover^First  Co. — 1775 — Matthew  Felter,  captain ;  Henry  Smith,  first 
lieutenant;  Johannes  Newkirk,  Jr.,  second  lieutenant;  William 
Crist,  ensign.    Formerly  known  as  Capt.  Newkirk's  company. 

Sanoter— Second  Co. — 1775 — William  Jackson,  captain ;  Arthur  Parks, 
first  lieutenant;  James  McBride,  second  lieutenant;  Andrew  Neely, 
ensign.    Formerly  Capt.  Goldsmltli's  company. 

Hanover — Third  Co. — 1775 — Cadwallader  C.  Colden,  captain  ;  James  Mil- 
ligan,  first  lieutenant;  John  Hunter,  second  lieutenant;  Matthew 
Hunter,  Ensign.  Formerly  known  as  Capt.  Cblden's  company.  Mil- 
ligan  subsequently  captain. 

Hanover — Fourth  Co. — 1775 — John  J.  Graham,  captain ;  Samuel  Berkley, 
first  lieutenant;  Joseph  Crawford,  second  lieutenant;  James  Mc- 
Curdy,  ensign.    Formerly  Capt.  Crage's  company. 

Hanover — Fifth  Co. — 1775 — John  Gillespie,  captain ;  Jason  Wilkins,  first 
lieutenant ;  Robert  Hunter,  Jr.,  second  lieutenant ;  Samuel  Gillespie, 
ensign.    Formerly  Capt.  Galatian's  company. 
WaUhm — Firat  Co. — 1775 — Samuel  Watkins,  captain;  David  Crawford, 
first  lieutenant;  Stephen  Harlow,  second  lieutenant;  Henry  Smith, 
ensign.    Company  located  on  the  east  side  of  the  Wallkill. 
Wallkill — Second  Co. — ^1775 — William  Faulkner,  Jr.,  captain;  Edward 
McNeal,  first  lieutenant;  John  Wilkins,  second  lieutenant;  John 
Faulkner,  ensign.    Company  located  on  west  side  of  Wallkill,  "  be- 
tween the  said  Wallkill  and  the  Little  Sliawangunk  Kill." 
WallMl— Third  09.— 1776— Isaiah  Velie,  captain ;  Israel  Wickham,  first 
lieutenant;  John  Dunning,  second  lieutenant ;  Jonathan  Owen,  en- 
sign. Company  located  between  the  Wallkill  and  the  Little  Sbawan- 
gunk,  to  the  southward  of  Capt.  Faulkner's  company  district. 
Wallkill — Fourth    Co. — 1775 — William    Denniston,    captain;    Benjamin 
Velie,  firet  lieutenant;  Joseph  Gillet,  second  lieutenant;  David  Cor- 
win,  Jr.,  ensign.  Company  located  to  the  northwest  of  Little  Shawan- 
gunk  Kill. 

There  were,  of  course,  many  changes  in  these  com- 
mands during  the  Revolution,  but  of  which  we  have 
found  no  record.  The  duties  specially  assigned  to 
the  active  members  of  the  militia  were,  "  in  case  of 
any  alarm,  invasion,  or  insurrection,"  to  immediately 

*  These  returns  are  not  of  official  record.  The  original  rolls  from 
which  they  are  taken  were  accidentally  discovered  in  a  quantity  of 
old  paper  sent  to  market  in  1864.  Of  their  genuineness  there  is  not  the 
slightest  doubt 

f  Prior  to  the  organization  of  this  company  two  companies  had  ex- 
isted in  New  Windsor,  attached  to  Col.  Ellison's  regiment,  oije  in  New 
Windsor  Village  and  one  In  Little  Britain, — the  former  commanded  by 
Capt.  William  Ellison,  who  was  superseded  by  Nicoll.  Of  the  old  Little 
Britain  company,  James  McClaughry  was  captain,  George  Denniston, 
lieutenant,  and  John  Burnet,  James  Humphrey,  James  Faulkner,  Jacob 
Newkirk,  Richard  Wood,  William  Telford,  Samuel  Logan,  James  Ker- 
naghan,  and  Alexander  Beatty  among  its  members. 

repair,  "properly  armed  and  accoutred,"  to  the  habi- 
tations of  the  captains  of  the  companies  to  which  they 
belonged,  or  to  a  duly  appointed  rendezvous.  Cap- 
tains were  required  to  march  their  companies,  when 
thus  assembled,  "  to  oppose  the  enemy,  and  at  the 
same  time  send  off  an  express  to  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  regiment  or  brigade,"  who  was  in  turn 
required  "  to  march  with  the  whole  or  part  of  his 
command,"  as  he  should  judge  necessary.  By  the 
law  of  1778,  those  "  who,  in  ordinary  circumstances 
would  be  exempt,"  were  organized  in  companies  to 
repel  invasions  and  suppress  insurrections. 

During  the  early  years  of  the  war  of  the  Revolu- 
tion the  militia  was  kept  in  a  state  of  demoralization 
by  the  formation  of 


The  first  of  the  special  militia  organizations  was 
that  known  as  Minute  Men,  which  was  formally  rec- 
ommended by  the  Continental  Congress  to  the  sev- 
eral provinces  for  adoption  in  May,  1775.  Under  the 
militia  bill  of  August  22d,  the  Provincial  Convention 
of  New  York  accepted  the  plan,  and  provided  "  that 
after  the  whole  militia"  was  formed,  in  the  manner 
already  detailed,  "  every  fourth  man  of  each  com- 
pany" should  be  "  selected  for  minute  men"  of  such 
persons  as  were  willing  to  enter  into  that  "  necessary 
service."  The  persons  thus  selected  were  to  be  or- 
ganized in  companies  and  elect  officers,  except  in 
cases  where  an  entire  company  of  any  regiment 
should  offer  its  services,  when  it  was  to  be  commanded 
by  the  officers  already  chosen.  The  companies  were 
to  be  organized  in  regiments  under  officers  corre- 
sponding with  those  of  the  regular  militia,  and  the 
manner  in  which  they  were  called  out  was  similar;- 
but  they  were  required  to  meet  in  subdivisions  for 
military  drill  at  least  four  hours  in  each  week,  and  in 
companies  for  the  same  purpose  at  least  four  hours 
every  fortnight,  and  when  in  service  were  subject  to 
the  orders  of  officers  of  the  Continental  army,  and 
entitled  to  the  "  same  allowance,  as  to  pay  and  pro- 
visions, witji  the  Continental  forces."  The  plan,  how- 
ever, was  not  satisfactory  in  its  operation,  and  it  was 
abolished  in  June,  1776.  In  the  mean  time  the  pro- 
visions of  the  law  were  generally  complied  with.  In 
the  southern  district  of  Ulster  three  companies  were 
raised,  viz. : 

Newburgh  Minute  Go. — Uriah  Drake,  captain ;  Jacob  Lawrence,  first  lieu- 
tenant; William  Ervin,  second  lieutenant;  Thomas  Dunn,  ensign. 

New  Windsor  Minute  Co. — Samuel  Logan,  captain  j  John  Robinson,  en- 
sign ;  David  Mandeville  and  John  Scofield,  sergeants. 

Sanooer  Minute  On.— Peter  Hill,  captain  ;  James  Latta,  first  lieutenant; 
Nathaniel  Hill,  second  lieutenant;  William  Goodyier,  ensign. 

With  a  company  organized  in  Marlborough  a  regi- 
mental organization  was  effected,  of  which  Thomas 
Palmer  was  colonel;  Thos.  Johnston,  Jr.> lieutenant- 
colonel  ;  Arthur  Parks,  first  major ;  Samuel  Logan, 
second  major ;  Isaac  Belknap,  quartermaster.  Com- 
panies were  also  organized  in  Goshen,  Cornwall,  etc., 



and  a  regiment  formed,  of  which  Isaac  Nicoll  was 
colonel;  Gilbert  Cooper,  lieutenant-colonel;  Henry 
V.  Verbeyck,  first  major;  Hezekiah  Howell,  Jr., 
second  major;  Ebenezer  Woodhull,  adjutant;  Ne- 
hemiah  Carpenter,  quartermaster*  The  companies 
organized  for  this  regiment  were : 

Cormcall  Minute  Co. — Tbomaa  Moffat,  captain ;  Setli  Marvin,  first  lieu- 
tenant; James  Little,  second  lieutenant;  Nathan  Strong,  ensign, 
succeeded 'by  William  Bradley. 

Goshen  Minute  Co. — Moses  Hetfleld,  captain ;  Cole  Gale,  and  Daniel  Et. 
erett,  lieutenants.  At  another  date,  James  Biltler  and  William  Bar. 
ker  named  as  lieutenants,  and  William  Carpenter,  ensign. 

The  second  special  organization  of  the  militia  in- 
cluded the  several  drafts  made  to  reinforce  the  army 
at  different  times.  The  first  draft  occurred  in  June, 
1776,  when  four  battalions  were  organized  for  service 
in  the  vicinity  of  New  York  City,  to  which  Orange 
County  sent  three  companies  and  Ulster  four,  as  part 
of  Gen.  John  Morin  Scott's  brigade.  The  second 
draft  was  made  in  July,  1776,  and  embraced  one- 
fourth  of  the  militia  under  command  of  Cols.  Isaac 
Nicoll  and  Levi  Pauling,  the  whole  constituting  a 
brigade  under  Gen.  George  Clinton.  The  third  draft 
was  in  September,  1776,  for  six  hundred  men  to  rein- 
force the  garrison  at  Forts  Clinton  and  Montgomery, 
of  which  number  sixty-two  were  drawn  from  Col. 
Hasbrouck's  regiment,  and  the  whole  placed  under 
command  of  Johannes  Snyder.  Details  in  regard  to 
the  officers  and  privates  in  these  and  subsequent  drafts 
are  not  of  record,  but  it  is  known  that  under  them  the 
militia  were  in  varying  numbers  almost  constantly 

On  the  23d  of  July,  1776,  companies  of  Rangers 
were  authorized  for  the  protection  of  the  inhabitanta 
of  the  northern  and  western  frontiers  of  the  province. 
These  companies  were  to  hold  themselves  in  constant 
readiness  for  service,  with  a  view  especially  to  pre- 
vent the  incursions  of  Indians  and  Tories,  but  were 
to  be  confined  entirely  to  the  counties  in  which  they 
were  raised,  unless  by  mutual  consent  of  the  commit- 
tees of  adjoining  counties,  or  unless  otherwise  directed 
by  the  convention.  Three  companies  were  organized 
in  Ulster  County,  under  Capts.  Isaac  Belknap,  of 
Newburgh,  Jacob  K.  DeWitt,  of  Deerpark,  and  Elias 
Hasbrouck,  of  Kingston.  Capt.  Belknap's  company 
was  composed  (Oct.  7, 1776)  ag  follows: 

Isaac  Belknap,  captain. 

Henry  Schoonmaker,  first  lieu- 

PetruB  Roosa,  second  lieuten- 

David  Clark,  corporal. 

Samuel  Falls. 

Thomas  Jackson. 

Corns.  Vanderburgh. 

Marcus  Wackman. 

Christian  Dupont. 

Isaac  Utter. 

Aaron  Roosa. 

John  Hisson. 

John  McNeal. 
Abraham  Garrison, 
Robert  Harris. 
John  Caverly. 
Jonathan  Ghatfield. 
Stephanus  Ecker. 
Matthew  Robinson. 
Jas.  Dailey. 
Wilhemue  Roosa, 
George  Hack. 
Darius  Worden, 
Saml,  Chard. 
James  Humphrey, 
James  Carscaden, 

•  Both  regiments  were  on  duty  In  the  Highlands  in  ms-lB.—Proe. 
Proc.  Omv.,  381. 

Philip  Aing, 
Petrus  Roosa. 
Ed.  McClannoQ. 
Elisha  Willard. 
Robert  Gillespy. 

John  Mallot, 
Thomas  Patterson. 
John  Willard, 
John  Christie. 
Joshua  Griffeu. 

The  first  active  service  of  the  company  was  under 
the  direction  of  the  Committee  of  Saffety  at  Fishkill. 
In  February,  1777,  it  was  attached  to  Governor  Clin- 
ton's brigade,  and  was  thereafter  kept  busy  in  'the 
Highlands.-)-  The  organization  was  abandoned, 
March,  1777. 

The  first  New  York,  or  "  Continental"  regiments  as 
they  were  called,  were  constituted  in  1775  for  the 
term  of  six  months.  These  regiments  were  four  in 
number,  and  were  commanded  respectively  by  Alex. 
McDougall,  Goos6  Van  Schaick,  James  Clinton,  and 
James  Holmes.  CoL  Clinton's  regiment  (the  third) 
was  largely  composed  of  Orange  and  Ulster  County 
men,  the  district  embraced  in  the  present  county  of 
Orange  furnishing  two  companies,  viz. :  Capt.  Daniel 
Denton's,  of  Goshen,  and  Capt.  John  Nicholson's,  of 
New  Windsor,  The  regiments  were  in  the  expedi- 
tion against  Canada  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  1775. 
On  the  8th  of  January,  1776,  the  Continental  Con- 
gress issued  its  first  formal  call  for  troops  for  the  pur- 
pose of  reinforcing  the  army  in  Canada.  Under  this 
call  New  York  furnished  one  battalion,  of  which  Col. 
Van  Schaick  was  continued  in  command.  On'  the 
19th  of  January  of  the  same  year  the  second  call  was 
issued,  under  which  New  York  was  required  to  fur- 
nish four  battalions  "  to  garrison  the  several  forts  of 
the  colony  from  Crown  Point  to  the  southward,  and 
to  prevent  depredations  upon  Long  Island,  and  pro- 
mote the  safety  of  the  whole."  These  battalions 
were  assigned  to  the  command  of  Alex.  McDougall, 
James  Clinton,  Rudolphus  Ritzema,  and  Philip  Van 
Cortlandt.  The  quota  of  Orange  County  was  two 
companies,  and  that  of  Ulster  three  companies, 
which  were  filled  in  April  following,  the  companies 
being  Capt.  Daniel  Denton's,  of  Goshen,  Capt,  Amos 
Hutchins',  of  Orangetown,  and  Capt.  William  Roe's, 
of  Cornwall,  from  Orange  County,  and  Capt.  John 
Belknap's,  of  New  Windsor,  Capt.  William  Jackson's, 
of  Montgomery,  and  Capt,  Cornelius  Hardenburgh's, 
of  Hurley,  from  Ulster  County.  Capt.  Roe's  com- 
pany was  in  excess  of  the  quota.  Denton's  and 
Hutchins'  companies  were  in  Ritzema's  regiment, 
and  the  other  companies  in  Clinton's  regiment.  On 
the  16th  of  September   the   Contipental  Congress 

t  Jour.  Prov.  Conv,,  636,  813,  etc.  The  names  of  the  members  of  Capt. 
Belknap's  company  are  from  a  memorandum-book  found  among  his 
papers,  and  are  no  doubt  correct.  The  same  book  contains  a  diary  of 
the  services  of  the  company  during  the  month  of  October,  1776,  f^om 
which  it  appears  that  its  first  muster  for  duty  was  at  the  house  of  Mrs, 
Ann  DuBois,  in  Marlborough,  on  the  7th  of  that  month.  It  marched  from 
thence  to  Fishkill,  and  reported  to  the  Convention  on  the  17th,  when  it 
was  placed  **  under  the  direction  of  the  committee  for  trying  tories,"  It 
was  still  at  Fishkill  in  January,  1777,  There  is  little  room  for  doubt* 
ing  that  Capt.  Belknap  was  the  original  of  Cooper's  Capt,  Towusend  in 
"  The  Spy,'*  There  was  certainly  no  other  company  of  rangers  at  Fish- 



issued  its  third  call  for  troops,  under  which  New 
York  was  required  to  furnish  four  battalions  "to 
serve  during  the  war."  These  battalions  were  the 
first  of  their  class,  and  were  placed  under  the  com- 
mand of  Cols.  Goos6  Van  Schaick,  Philip  Van  Cort- 
landt,  Peter  (^ansevort,  and  Henry  B.  Livingston. 
Ulster  furnished  three  companies  to  Col.  James 
Gansevort's  regiment,  of  which  Capt.  James  Greggs', 
of  New  Windsor,  was  one,  and  one  company — Capt. 
William  Jackson's,  of  Montgomery — to  Col.  Living- 
ston's regiment.  In  July  previous,  the  Continental 
Congress  authorized  a  commission  to  Maj.  Lewis  Du- 
Bois,  of  Col.  Hasbrouck's  regiment  of  militia,  to  raise 
a  battalion  "for  three  years  or  the  war,"  but  the  Con- 
vention of  New  York  objected,  and  the  matter  was 
held  in  abeyance.  Now,  however,  the  Convention 
asked  authority  to  recruit  a  fifth  battalion,  of  which 
Maj.  DuBois  should  have  the  command,  and,  the  re- 
quest being  granted,  the  battalion  was  commissioned. 
While  more  or  less  mixed  by  general  recruiting,  this 
battalion  was  regarded  as  the  battalion  of  the  district 
the  history  of  which  we  are  considering.  It  was 
ordered  to  garrison  Fort  Montgomery  in  March,  and 
was  on  duty  there  in  the  action  of  October,  1777, 
when  it  sustained  a  heavy  loss  in  killed,  wounded, 
and  prisoners.    Its  field-ofBcers  were : 

Lewis  DuBoia,  colonel ;  commissioned  June  25, 1776 ;  resigned  Deo.  29, 

Jacobus  Brayn,  lieutenant-colonel;  commissioned  June  25, 1776;  taken 

prisoner  at  Fort  Montgomery,  Oct.  6, 1777. 
MarinuB  Willett,  lieutenant-colonel ;  commissioned  July  1, 1780. 
Samuel  Logan,  majot;  commissioned  June  26, 1776;  taken  prisoner  at 

Fort  Montgomery;  exchanged  Dec.  21, 1780;  served  to  the  end  of 

the  war. 
Henry  DuBoie, adjutant ;  commissioned  Nov.  21, 1776;  promoted  captain 

July  1, 1780. 
Kehemiah  Carpenter,  quartermaster;  commissioned  Nov.  21, 1776 ;  taken 

prisoner  at  Fort  Montgomery ;  exchanged  and  promoted  lieutenant. 
Samuel  Townsend,  paymaster;  commissioned  Nov.  21, 1776. 
John  Gano,  chaplain ;  commissioned  Nov.  21,  1776 ;  promoted  brigade 

chaplain;  served  to  the  end  of  the  war, 
Samuel  Cook,  surgeon ;  commissioned  Nov.  21,1776;  served  to  the  end 

of  the  war. 
Ebenezer  Hutchinson,  surgeon^B  mate;  commissioned  June  12, 1778. 

The  battalions  authorized  under  this  call,  and  Col. 
Lamb's  artillery, — which  drew  many  officers  and  pri- 
vates from  Orange  and  Ulster,— were  the  only  three 
years'  regiments  raised  in  the  State  during  the  Revo- 
lution, and  were  kept  in  the  field  by  levies  and  by 
recruiting  for  shorter  periods  to  supply  vacancies  in 
their  ranks. 

The  uniform  which  was  worn  by  the  Continental 
regiments  varied  with  the  ability  of  the  authorities  to 
purchase  the  materials.  The  regiments  raised  in 
1775  were  clothed  in  the  same  general  style  but  in 
different  colors.  The  first  had  blue  broadcloth  dress 
coats  with  crimson  cuffs  and  facings ;  the  second  had 
light  brown  coats  with  blue  cuffs  and  facings ;  the  third 
had  gray  coats  with  green  cuffs  and  facings;  the 
fourth  had  dark  brown  coats  with  scarlet  cuffs  and 
facings.    Their  breeches  (as  they  were  called)  and 

waistcoats  were  of  Russia  drilling ;  the  former  were 
short  (to  the  knee)  and  the  latter  long  (to  the  hips). 
Their  stockings  were  long  (from  the  knee),  of  "  coarae 
woolen  homespun;"  low  shoes,  linen  cravats,  and 
round  low-crowned  broad-brimmed  felt  hats.  The 
regiments  raised  in  January,  1776,  were  supplied  with 
hunting-frocks  in  lieu  of  coats,  and  in  June  the  Rus- 
sia drillings  gave  place  to  "brain-dressed  deer's 
leather  sufficient  to  make  each  soldier  one  waistcoat 
and  one  pair  of  breeches."  The  established  uniform 
of  the  troops,  however,  so  far  as  there  was  one,  was 
the  hunting-frock,  which  came  in  under  the  order  of 
the  Continental  Congress  in  1776.  These  frocks  have 
the  same  description  wherever  spoken  of.  "  The  uni- 
form of  the  South  Carolina  rebels,"  says  an  English 
writer,  "  is  a  hunting-shirt  such  as  the  farmers'  ser- 
vants in  England  wear ;"  and  another,  referring  to 
the  Continental  soldiers  who  were  killed  at  Port, 
Montgomery,  says,  "  they  had  on  frocks  such  as  our 
farmers'  servants  wear,"  from  which  fact  it  was  pre- 
sumed they  were  militia-men,  instead  of  members  of 
Col.  DuBois'  regiment  as  they  were.  The  descriptiog 
by  the  Hessian  officer,  Briefwechsel,  of  the  army 
under  Gen.  Gates  at  Saratoga,  which  was  composed  of 
over  nine  thousand  regular  troops,  may  be  accepted 
as  applicable  to  the  entire  army  of  the  Revolution  at 
that  time.  The  rank  and  file,  he  writes,  "were  not 
equipped  in  any  uniform."  A  few  of  the  officers  wore 
regimentals ;  and  those  fashioned  to  their  own  notions 
according  to  cut  and  color.  Brown  coats  with  sea- 
green  facings,  white  linings  and  silver  trimmings,  and 
gray  coats  in  abundance,  with  buff  facings  and  cuffi, 
and  gilt  buttons ;  in  short,  every  variety  of  pattern. 
The  brigadiers  and  generals  wore  uniforms  and  belts 
which  designated  their  rank,  but  most  of  the  colonels 
and  other  officers  were  in  their  ordinary  clothes ;  "  a 
musket  and  bayonet  in  hand,  and  a  cartridge-box  or 
powder-horn  over  the  shoulder."  The  Continental 
uniform,  now  generally  accepted  as  such,  was  not 
adopted  until  1780,  when,  by  general  orders  (June 
28th),  all  officers  were  directed  "  to  wear  their  coats 
with  buff  facings  and  linings,  yellow  buttons,  white 
or  buff  under-clothes,  with  a  black  and  white  feather 
in  their  hats." 

The  equipage  of  the  militia,  as  well  as  of  the  early 
Continental  regiments,  consisted  of  "  a  good  mu-'ket 
or  firelock  and  bayonet,  sword  or  tomahawk,  a  steel 
ramrod,  worm,  priming-wire  and  brush  fitted  thereto, 
a  cartouch-box  to  contain  twenty-three  rounds  of  car- 
tridges, twelve  flints,  and  a  knapsack,  one  pound  of 
powder,  and  three  pounds  of  bullets."  The  muskets 
were  of  a  variety  of  patterns ;  the  long  gun  of  the 
old  French  war,  the  shorter  standard  musket  of  the 
English  army,  and  a  scant  assortment  of  rifles.  The 
Convention  of  New  York  endeavored,  in  its  con- 
tracts,* to  secure  uniformity  by  providing  that  % 

*  Eobert  Boyd  established,  in  June,  1776,  a  forge  in  New  Windior, 
just  south  of  Quassaick  Creek,  for  the  manufacture  of  muskets  and  UJ- 



musket-barrel  should  be  "three  feet  and  a  half  in 
length,  and  of  three-fourths  of  an  inch  bore,  well 
fortified  at  the  breech,"  and  that  bayonets  should  be 
"  one  foot  and  nine  inches  from  the  shoulder ;"  but  as 
there  were  few  gunsmiths  in  the  province  at  that  time 
(1776),  it  was  not  until  after  arms  were  received 
from  France  that  there  was  a  perceptible  regularity  or 
a  sufficient  quantity  to  supply  the  troops.  Mean- 
while spears,  spontoons,  and  tomahawks  were  called 
into  use  and  became  effective  weapons.*  Not  only 
did  the  district  now  comprising  the  county  of  Orange 
furnish  men  and  arms,  but  within  its  limits  were  es- 
tablished the  first  works  for  the  manufacture  of  pow- 
der, of  which  (January,  1778)  "near  2000  weight" 
was  delivered  to  the  order  of  the  Convention  of  the 
State,  and  the  remainder  of  their  production  "  to  the 
several  orders  of  Gen.  Washington  and  Gen.  Schuyler 
at  different  times." 

Having  enumerated  aa  far  as  fragmentary  records 
will  permit  the  military  organization  of  the  district 
down  to  and  including  the  heroic  era  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, a  brief  review  of  their  services  in  the  field 
obliges  a  return  to  the  French  and  Indian  war  of 
1755.  This  was  peculiarly  a  frontier  war,  although  a 
war  in  wiich  the  question  of  English  supremacy  in 
all  that  section  of  North  America  over  which  the 
English  flag  was  floating  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revo- 
lution. The  Indians  of  the  Delaware  Eiver  country 
(the  ancient  Lenapes  and  Minsis)  had  grievances  to 
adjust  which  led  them  to  become  the  allies  of  the 
French.  They  had  sold  their  lands  to  William  Penn, 
who,  perhaps  under  the  expectation  of  arranging  the 
boundaries  himself  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  grantors, 
had  drawn  a  deed  of  which  advantage  could  be  taken, 
and  his  successors,  the  proprietaries  of  Pennsylvania, 
were  not  slow  to  improve  it, — literally  "  running"  the 
boundaries  of  the  famous  "  walking  purchase."  The 
Minsis  had  special  complaint  against  the  traders  in 
the  Minisink  country  who  had  made  them  drunk  and 
defrauded  them  of  the  purchase-money  of  their  lands ; 
who  invariably,  by  the  same  process,  defrauded  them 
of  the  price  of  the  peltries  which  they  brought  in. 
The  Delawares  complained;  the  proprietaries  sum- 
moned them  to  a  council,  with  chiefs  of  the  Six 
Nations  as  arbitrators ;  feasted  the  latter  and  loaded 
them  with  presents.  The  result  may  be  anticipated : 
the  Delawares,  then  tributary  to  the  Six  Nations,  and 
the  special  wards  of  the  Senecas,  were  obliged  to  re- 

onets.  The  Convention  voted  to  pay  him  "  three  poundfj  fifteen  shillings, 
New  York  money,  for  each  good  muaket  with  steel  ramrod,  and  bayonet 
with  scabbard,"  In  February,  1776,  he  was  able  to  write  that  he  had 
"  the  best  gunsmiths^  shop  in  the  colonies ;"  but  nevertheless  its  capacity 
was  limited  from  the  diCBculty  in  obtaining  workmen. 

*  The  Provincial  Convention  of  New  Tork  ordered  (Sept.  4, 1776)  the 
manufactnre  of  four  thousaud  lances  or  spontoons  to  arm  the  militia  for 
whom  no  guns  could  be  obtained.  Bight  hundred  were  sent  to  Orange, 
and  the  same  number  to  Ulster  County.  (Proc,  607.)  Tomahawks  were 
a  favorite  implement,  and  many  thousand  were  furnished  the  troops.  As 
a  whole,  the  equipage  of  the  army  was  not  Ineifective. 

linquish  their  lands  and  remove  to  Wyoming.  Not 
satisfied  with  what  they  had  wrongfully  obtained,  the 
proprietaries  followed  up  their  advantage  with  the 
Six  Nations,  and,  with  the  Susquehanna  Company  of 
Connecticut,  bought  the  lands  at  Wyoming.  The 
transaction  so  incensed  the  Senecas,  who  had  been 
but  partially  represented  in  the  matter,  that  they 
drove  from  their  ranks  their  best  chief  for  his  par- 
ticipation in  it,  and  removed  the  "petticoat"  from 
the  Delawares  and  bade  them  defend  their  homes. 
The  latter  were  ready  for  the  work.  Liberated  from 
the  thraldom  to  which  they  had  been  subjected  for 
nearly  a  century,  and  with  all  its  grievances  to  redress, 
the  chiefs  of  the  East  met  those  of  the  West  in  coun- 
cil at  Alleghany ;  rehearsed  their  wrongs,  and  declared 
that  wherever  the  white  man  had  settled  within  the 
territory  which  they  claimed,  or  of  which  they  had 
been  defrauded,  there  they  would  strike  him  as  best 
they  could  with  such  weapons  as  they  could  com- 
mand ;  and  that  the  blow  might  be  effectually  dealt, 
each  warrior-chief  was  charged  to  kill  and  scalp  and 
burn  within  the  precincts  of  his  birthright,  and  all 
simultaneously,  from  the  frontiers  down  to  the  heart 
of  the  settlements,  until  the  English  should  sue  for 
peace  and  promise  redress. 

In  October  following,  with  their  allies,  painted 
black  for  war,  in  bands  with  murderous  intent,  they 
moved  eastward,  and  the  line  of  the  Blue  Mountains, 
from  the  Delaware  to  the  Susquehanna,  became  the 
scene  of  the  carnival  which  they  held  with  torch  and 
tomahawk  during  many  coming  months.  The  Minsis 
performed  their  part,  and  on  the  frontiers  of  Orange 
and  Ulster  Counties,  and  New  Jersey,  but  principally 
within  the  limits  of  the  Minisink  Patent,  were  re- 
peated the  fearful  ravages  of  the  more  remote  dis- 
tricts of  Pennsylvania.  The  settlements  were  small, 
at  considerable  distance  from  each  other,  and  much 
exposed  to  the  surprises  of  the  Indians,  whose  incur- 
sions were  frequent.  The  people,  especially  in  the 
contested  district,  were  kept  in  almost  perpetual 
alarm,  and  under  such  "  continued  military  duty  as 
to  be  rendered  incapable  of  taking  care  of  their  pri- 
vate affairs  for  the  support  of  their  families."  An 
extent  of  country,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Wallkill,  of 
fifteen  miles  in  length  and  seven  or  eight  in  breadth, 
which  was  "  well  and  thickly  settled,  was  abandoned 
by  the  inhabitants,  who,  for  their  safety,  removed 
their  families  to  the  east  side  of  the  river,  and  became 
a  charge  on  the  charity  of  their  neighbors,"  while 
others  "  removed  to  distant  parts,  and  some  out  of  the 

"Fatigues  of  body,  in  continually  guarding  and. 
ranging  the  woods,  and  anxiety  of  mind  which  the 
inhabitants  could  not  avoid,  by  their  being  exposed 
to  a  cruel  and  savage  enemy,  increased  by  the  per- 
petual lamentations  of  the  women  and  children," 
were  not  the  only  evils  which  the  inhabitants  suf- 

+  N.  Y.  MSS.,  Ixxxii.  107,  etc. 



fered.  Three  men  were  killed  at  Cochecton ;  five  men 
at  Philip  Swartwout's ;  Benjamin  Sutton  and  one 
Eude,  two  of  the  Goshen  militia,  were  killed  at  Mini- 
sink;  Morgan  Owen  was  killed  and  scalped  about 
four  miles  from  Goshen ;  a  woman,  taken  prisoner  at 
Minisink,  was  killed  and  her  body  cut  in  halves  and 
left  by  the  highway  ;  Silas  Hulet's  house  was  robbed 
and  he  himself  narrowly  escaped.  "  From  about  the 
.Drowned  Lands  for  fifteen  miles  down  the  Wallkill, 
where  fifty  families  dwelt,  all  save  four  abandoned 
their  fields  and  crops."* 

Pending  negotiations  for  peace,  hostilities  were 
suspended  during  the  year  1756,  but  in  August  of  the 
succeeding  year,  says  Niles,  "one  James  Tidd  was 
scalped  in  the  Minisinks.  About  this  time  also,  one 
James  Watson,  with  James  Mullen,  went  out  on 
some  business,  and  were  fired  upon  by  a  party  of  In- 
dians. Watson  was  found  killed  and  scalped ;  Mul- 
len was  carried  off,  as  was  concluded,  not  being  found 
or  heard  of.  About  the  19th  of  September,  Patrick 
Karr  was  scalped  and  killed  at  a  place  called  Mini- 
sink  Bridge.  Some  time  in  October,  in  Ulster  County, 
the  Indians  fired  into  the  farthermost  house  in  Roch- 
ester, and  killed  two  women,  but  were  repulsed  by 
two  men.f 

"  On  the  16th  of  May,  1758,  about  two  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon,  about  thirteen  Indians  rushed  into  the 
house  of  one  Nicholas  Cole,  on  the  frontiers  of  the 
Jerseys,  if  I  mistake  not.  Cole  not  being  at  home, 
they  immediately  pinioned  his  wife,  and  tomahawked 
their  son-in-law,  about  eighteen  years  old,  and  drag- 
ged her  (Mrs.  Cole)  out  of  doors,  where  her  eldest 
daughter,  about  thirteen  years  old,  lay  murdered,  and 
a  boy  aged  eight,  and  her  youngest  daughter  aged 
about  four.  This  last — the  poor,  helpless  old  woman 
saw  the  cruel  savages  thrust  their  spears  into  the 
body  of  their  gasping  infant.  They  rifled  the  house, 
and  then  carried  her  and  her  son  off,  after  they  had 
scalped  the  slain  above  mentioned. 

"  Soon  after  they  were  joined  by  two  Indians  with 
two  German  captives  they  had  taken  that  day,  and 
killed  and  scalped  another,  in  one  Anthony  W^st- 
brook's  field,  near  Minisink,  so  called.  Not  long 
after.  Cole  returned  home,  where  to  his  great  surprise 
he  found  his  four  children  murdered,  and  his  wife 
and  other  son  missing.  Upon  which  he  went  to 
Minisink  (Napanoch)  rort,J  and  got  a  few  soldiers 

*  "  All  the  families  between  the  deponent's  house  and  Minisink,  to  the 
amount  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  persons,  have  deserted  those  settle- 
ments and  come  into  four  frontier  houses,  one  of  which  is  the  deponent's 
house,  -which  is  now  a  frontier  house  on  that  side,  and  which  was,  last 
year,  fifteen  or  sixteen  miles  within  the  settlements  at  Minisink,  and 
abont  sixteen  miles  from  Hudson's  Riyer."— Affidavit  of  James  Howell, 
N.  T.  MSS.,  Ixxxii. 

f  The  attack  here  spoken  of  was  on  the  house  of  Peter  Jan,  in  tlie 
southwestern  part  of  Eochester.  Jan's  house  was  burned  and  one  of  his 
daughters,  and  two  men  who  acted  as  scouts,  were  killed.  His  wife  and 
two  daughters,  and  himself  and  two  sons,  who  were  in  the  field,  escaped. 
— Doc.  iri8.,ii.  763,  764. 

J  Napanoch,  Neepenack,  and  Poenpack  refer  to  one  and  the  same 

to  assist  him  in  burying  his  children  and  the  Gerinfln. 
The  soldiers  joined  with  some  of  the  neighbors  that, 
evening  to  cross  the  Delaware  River  at  daylight,  and" 
waylay  the  road  to  Wyoming ;  and  as  four  of  them 
were  going  to  one  Chambers',  about  two  o'clock  M 
night,  they  heard  the  Indians  coming  down  a  hill  to 
cross  the  Delaware,  as  was  supposed,  when  one  of  tht 
four  fired  on  them.  They  immediately  fled,  giving  t 
yell  after  their  manner.  The  woman  they  led  with  tt 
string  about  her  neck,  and  the  boy  by  the  hand ;  who, 
finding  themselves  loose,  made  their  escape  along  the 
road,  and  happily  met  at  James  McCarty's,  the  boy 
first  and  afterward  the  woman. 

"  The  daughter  of  one  Widow  Walling,  living  near 
Fort  Gardiner,  between  Goshen  and  Minisink,  going 
out  to  pick  up  some  chips  for  the  fire,  was  shot  at  by 
three  Indians.  Her  shrieks  alarmed  the  people.  Her 
brother,  looking  out  at  a  garret  window,  and  seeing  a 
fellow  dispatching  and  scalping  his  sister,  fired  at 
them  and  was  pretty  certain  he  wounded  one  of  them. 
The  old  woman,  during  this,  with  her  other  daughter 
and  son,  made  off  and  escaped. 

"  About  this  time  (beginning  of  June),  a  sergeant 
went  from  Waasing?  to  Minisink  with  a  party  of  men, 
but  returned  not  at  the  time  they  were  expected. 
Upon"  which  a  larger  party  went  out  in  search  of 
them,  and  at  their  arrival  at  Minisink,  found  seven 
of  them  killed  and  scalped,  three  wounded,  and  a 
woman  and  four  children  carried  off.  Near  about  the 
same  time,  a  house  was  beset  by  a  party  of  Indians, 
where  were  seventeen  persons,  who  were  killed,  as  I 
remember  the  account.  A  man  and  a  boy  traveling 
on  the  road  with  their  muskets,  were  fired  on  by  some 
Indians  in  ambush.  The  man  was  killed,  but  the  boy 
escaped,  having  first  killed  one  of  the  Indians.  Not 
far  from  this  time— whether  before  or  after  I  am  not 
certain — the  Indians  killed  seven  New  York  soldiers. 
This  slaughter  was  committed  at  a  place  called  West- 

Such  is  the  imperfect  record  of  these  hostilities,  at- 
tested by  the  most  respectable  residents  of  the  dis- 
trict,— among  others  by  Col.  Thomas  Ellison  and  Col, 
Charles  Clinton,  of  the  settlements  on  the  Hudson, 
which,  though  exempt  from  the  brand  of  the  enemy, 
were  not  the  less  sufferers  by  the  war,  their  male  in- 
habitants being  in  almost  continual  service  on  the 
frontiers,  and  their  dwellings  converted  into  places  of 
defense.  That  the  incursions  of  the  Indians  on  the 
frontiers  were  not  continued  in  their  first  severity 
was  due  in  part  to  the  erection  by  Governor  Hardy, 
in  the  summer  of  1757,  of  a  series  of  block-houses 
along  the  western  frontier,]]  and  in  part  to  the  nego- 

§  Wawarsing  block-house,  probably. 

1  "  From  a  place  called  Machakamak  to  the  town  of  Boohester."— 
Gov,  Uardy's  Meuage.  Mr.  Guamer  states  that  at  this  time  there  were 
three  small  forts  in  the  Upper  Neighborhood  and  three  in  the  Lower 
Neighborhood.  "One  in  the  Upper  Neighborhood  was  on  the  Nevereink, 
at  the  northeast  end  of  the  settlement ;  one  at  the  house  of  Peter  Ouft* 
mer,  in  the  central  part  of  the  neighborhood,  and  the  third  at  the  aouth- 



tiations  which  had  been  instituted  with  Teedyuscung, 
the  king  of  the  Delawares,  who,  seeking  only  the  re- 
dress of  his  people,  was  ready  to  restrain  them  from 
war  could  that  end  be  secured  by  other  means.  In 
October,  1.758,  the  proprietaries  surrendered  their 
titles  and  recognized  the  right  of  the  government  to 
arrange  the  boundaries  of  the  lands  claimed  under 
them;  the  Minsis  were  paid  for  their  lands  in  the 
Minisink  country ;  an  exchange  of  prisoners  was 
agreed  to,  and  terms  of  peace  concluded.  Subse- 
quently the  Indian  allies  of  the  French  held  the 
frontier  under  terror  until  after  the  close  of  the  war, 
when  the  avocations  of  the  pioneers  were  resumed 
and  their  rude  forts  permitted  to  decay. 

The  services  of  the  militia  during  this  struggle  come 
down  to  us  in  imperfect  records.  Writes  Col.  Thomas 
Ellison  in  1757 :  "  It  is  but  too  well  known  by  the  late 
numerous  murders  barbarously  committed  on  our  bor- 
ders, that  the  county  of  Ulster  and  the  north  end  of 
Orange  is  become  the  only  frontier  part  of  the  pro- 
vince left  unguarded  and  exposed  to  the  cruel  incur- 
sions of  the  Indian  enemy,  and  the  inhabitants  of 
these  parts  have  been  obliged  to  perform  very  hard 
military  duty  for  these  two  years  past,  in  ranging  the 
woods  and  guarding  the  frontiers,  these  two  counties 
keeping  out  almost  constantly  from  fifty  to  one  hun- 
dred men ;  sometimes  by  forced  detachments  of  the 
militia  and  at  other  times  by  voluntary  subscriptions; 
nay,  often  two  hundred  men,  which  has  been  an  in- 
supportable burthen  on  the  poor  people.  And  yet  all 
the  militia  of  these  parts  were  ordered  to  march  to 
Fort  Edward,  while  the  oflScers  had  no  orders  to  leave 
a  detachment  to  guard  the  frontiers.  .  .  .  The  gener- 
ality of  them  marched  as  soon  as  it  was  possible  to 
get  so  scattered  a  people  together ;  and  I  would  say 
for  the  three  hundred  who  went  out  of  the  little  dis- 
tressed Second  Regiment  of  Ulster,  that  men  never 
marched  with  more  cheerfulness." 

From  Col.  Vincent  Mathews'  regiment  nothing 
appears  but  eloquent  bills  : 

£  s.  d. 

To  Lieut.  Samuel  Denton  and  Ck)mp)tn7 14  16  0 

Ensign  Thomu  Bull  and  Compeny.... 15  II  0 

Sergeant  Benj.  South  and  Compitny..'. 7  6 

Capt  George  De  Eay,  going  express  from  Goshen  to  Mini- 
sink  for  Got.  Hardy  in  1TS6 2  0  0 

Col.  Vincent  Uatbews  for  guides  for  regulars  posted  at 

Goshen,  from  October,  1767,  to  February,  1768 97  10  0 

Capt.  John  Wisuer  and  Company  as  scouts  in  1757 7  13  9 

Lieut.  Calvin  Bradner  for  taking  horses  home  from  Sara- 
toga, by  order  of  Col.  De  Kay,  1767 5  10  0 

Samuel  Gale,  for  proTisions  to  troops  on  frontiers,  near 

Goeheu 56  0  0 

Calvin  Carpenter,  in  Capt.  Case's  Company,  1768 ;  2  12  0 

Capt.  John  Bpll  and  detachment,  1758 17  8  0 

Lieot.  Bolwrt  Denton  and  detachment,  1768 1  7  d 

Daniel  Gale,  in  Capt.  Wiener's  Co.,  1757 10  0 

Doct  John  Gale,  attending  sick,  1766 30  0  0 

Maj.Wm.  Thompson  for  guarding  frontiers,  176S 40  0  0 

Col.  Beujamln  Tustio,  Capt.  Daniel  Case,  and  Capt.  J. 
Bull  for  money  advanced  in  building  block-houses 

Nos.  1  and  2  on  the  Western  frontiers  in  Jan.  1757 100  0  0 

weet  end  of  the  settlement.  These  forts  were  occupied  by  about  twelve 
families  and  a  few  soldiers  who  were  there  from  time  to  time.  The  loca- 
tions of  the  forts  in  the  Lower  Neighborhood  are  not  known.  They 
gave  protection  to  about  eighteen  familiee."  In  a  subsequent  paragraph 
he  says  that "  Westfall's  Fort"  was  in  the  lower  part  of  the  latter  neigh- 

Lieut.  'John  Denton  and  Company  for  guarding  Col. 
(Charles)  Clinton  and  De  Kay  in  laying  out  the 
ground,  etc.,  for  block-houses 6    12    0 

Hugh  Dobbin,  in  Capt.  Wiener's  Company,  for  pasturage 
of  115  horses  of  Col.  De  Kay'6  regiment  in  Albany 
when  Fort  William  Henry  was  taken 4      7    0 

Peter  Carter,  David  Benjamin,  Philip  Beid,  and  Francis 
Armstrong  for  guarding  Georc;e  De  Kay  as  Express 
from  Goshen  to  Minisink  in  1756 4      0    0 

James  Sayre  and  Ebenezer  Gilbert  and  Companies*  for 
guarding  block-houses  iu  February,  1757 46     4    0 

Further  research  is  unnecessary.  From  the  dark 
and  almost  forgotten  field  of  this  important  struggle 
we  turn  to 


It  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  say  that  the  people  of 
Orange  and  Ulster,  and  especially  of  the  district  now 
composing  the  county  of  Orange,  acted  with  great 
unanimity  in  the  war  for  independence,  not  only  in 
their  political  associations  but  in  their  military  organ- 
izations. During  the  earlier  years  of  the  struggle  the 
militia  were  almost  constantly  under  arms  or  engaged 
in  the  construction  of  the  forts  in  the  Highlands,  aijd 
in  preparing  obstructions  to  the  navigation  of  Hud- 
son's River.  It  was  during  this  period,  too,  that  the 
companies  already  named  as  belonging  to  the  first 
Continental  regiments  (1775)  took  part  in  the  Canada 
expedition.  In  July,  1776,  apprehending  a  move- 
ment of  the  enemy  up  the  Hudson,  the  Provincial 
Convention  ordered  that  "  one-fourth  part  of  the 
militia  of  the  counties  of  Orange  and  Ulster  be  drawn 
out  for  the  defense  of  this  State''  and  "  stationed  in 
the  Highlands  on  the  west  side  of  Hudson's  River  to 
guard  the  defiles."  Two  regiments  were  organized 
under  this  order:  one  from  Ulster,  Levi  Pauling, 
colonel,  and  one  from  Orange,  Isaac  Nicoll,  colonel ; 
Gilbert  Cooper,  lieutenant-colonel;  Samuel  Logan, 
major.  A  more  sweeping  requisition  was  made  in 
December,  when,  after  the  capture  of  New  York,  the 
British  followed  Washington  into  New  Jersey,  they 
were  ordered  to  co-operate  with  the  forces  under  Gens. 
Lee  and  Gates  in  that  State.  Assembling  at  Chester,* 
they  marched  thence  to  a  place  called  "the  City,  at 
the  parting  of  the  roads  leading  from  Tappan  to  Pyra- 
mus,"  under  command  of  Gen.  George  Clinton.f 
That  their  service  in  the  field  at  this  time  was  ardu- 
ous and  sacrificing  is  abundantly  shown  by  a  letter 
written  by  Henry  Wisner,  Jr.,  under  date  of  December 
24th :  "  I  have  been  visiting,"  he  writes,  "  the  differ- 
ent battalions  of  militia,  and  finding  them  so  uneasy 
that  I  am  afraid  that,  notwithstanding  everything  that 
can  be  said  and  done,  many  of  them  ■s^ill  go  home. 
The  situation  of  their  families  is  so  very  distressing 
that  no  argument  can  prevail  with  them.    Many  of 

*  "  Beaohedt  That  all  the  militia  of  Orange  and  Ulster  Counties  be 
forthwith  ordered  to  march,  properly  armed  and  accoutered,  to  Chester,  in 
Orange  County,  there  to  receive  further  orders  from  Gen.  George  Clinton 
for  effectually  co-operating  with  M^.-Gen.  Lee  and  MaJ.-Gen.  Gates,in 
harassing  and  distressing  the  enemy,  who  have  entered  the  State  of  New 
Jersey." — Bea.  Prov.  Cbnv.,  Dec.  9,  1776.  A  subsequent  order  confined 
them  to  the  limits  of  New  York. 

t  At  that  time  brigadier-general  of  militia  of  Ulster  County ;  subse- 
quently Governor  of  the  State. 



them  left  their  families  without  wood,  without  meal, 
and  without  fodder  at  home  for  their  cattle,  many  of 
their  families  without  shoes,  and  some  of  them  little 
better  here,"  and  he  might  have  added,  perhaps,  with- 
out proper  food,  for  he  takes  occasion  to  say  that  he 
had  stopped,  on  his  own  responsibility,  for  their  use  a 
drove  of  cattle  that  were  being  sent  to  Philadelphia. 
The  victory  of  Washiilgton  at  Trenton  changed  the 
aspect  of  the  campaign,  and  they  were  soon  after  re- 
turned to  their  homes.  Their  retirement,  however, 
was  only  temporary.  As  a  part  of  Clinton's  brigade 
they  were,  for  over  two  years,  practically  resolved  into 
minute  men  and  placed  under  orders  to  march  upon 
signal  to  the  defense  of  the  Highlands  ;*  special  ser- 
vices almost  innumerable  were  thrown  upon  them.f 
Rallying  after  the  loss  of  Fort  Montgomery,  we  see 
them  on  the  march  to  Kingston,  struggling  against 
hope  to  save  that  place  from  the  flames,  and  from 
thence  returning  to  build  anew  their  shattered  citadels, 
and  to  reappear  in  the  conflict  at  Minisink. 

Although  familiar,  an  abridged  narrative  of  their 
services  in  these  fields  may  not  be  omitted  in  this  con- 
nection. In  July,  1775,  the  British  ministry,  in  ar- 
ranging their  plan  for  the  suppression  of  the  rebellion, 
determined  "  to  command  the  Hudson  with  a  number 
of  small  men-of-war  and  cutters,  and  maintain  a  safe 
intercourse  and  correspondence  between  Quebec,  Al- 
bany, and  New  York,  and  thus  afford  the  finest  oppor- 
tunity to  their  soldiery,  and  the  Canadians  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  Indians,  to  make  continual  incursions 
into  Massachusetts,  and  divide  the  provincial  forces, 
so  as  to  render  it  easy  for  the  British  army  at  Boston 
to  defeat  them  and  break  the  spirits  of  the  Massachu- 
setts people,  desolate  their  country,  and  compel  an 
absolute  subjection  to  Great  Britain."  To  counteract 
this  plan,  the  Continental  Congress,  in  May  of  the 
same  year,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Convention  of 
New  York,  resolved,  "  that  a  post  be  taken  in  the 
Highlands,  on  each  side  of  Hudson's  River,  and  bat- 
teries erected,  and,  that  experienced  persons  be  imme- 
diately sent  to  examine  said  riVer  in  order  to  discover 
where  it  would  be  most  advisable  and  proper  to  ob- 
struct the  navigation."  During  the  succeeding  fall. 
Forts  Clinton  and  Montgomery  were  erected  under 

*  "  On  the  firing  of  two  cannon  at  Fort  Montgomery,  and  two  at  Fort 
Constitution,  to  be  answered  by  two  from  the  braas  twenty-four-pounder 
at  New  Windsor,  the  militia  on  the  west  side  of  Hudson's  Eiver,  in  the 
counties  of  Orange  and  Ulster,  as  far  as  Col.  Hasbrouclc's  regiment,  in- 
cluding the  same,  are  to  march  by  detachments,  without  further  notice, 
as  reinforcement  of  this  garrison." — Order  of  Brig-Gen.  Jamea  Clinton, 
commanding  at  Fort  Montgomery,  July  10, 1777.  From  December,  1776,  to 
April,  1778,  the  militia  were  called  out  twelve  times  and  spent  two  hun- 
dred and  ninety-two  days  in  the  field. 

t  A  single  instance  of  the  many  recorded  services  of  this  nature  is  the 
following,  which  occurred  on  the  morning  preceding  the  battle  of  Mini- 
sink,  and  which  accounts  for  the  limited  number  of  men  in  that  action: 
"  On  the  evening  of  the  2lBt  of  this  instant  I  received  an  order  fh)m  his 
excellency  Gen.  Washington,  together  with  a  requisition  of  the  Com- 
missary of  Prisoners,  to  furnish  one  hundred  men  of  my  regiment  to 
guard  the  British  prisoners  on  their  way  to  Easton.  I  ordered  three 
companies  of  my  regiment,  including  the  exempt  company,  to  parade 
for  that  purpose."— Mathom't  Report,  July  25, 1779. 

the  supervision  of  the  Convention  of  New  York,  and 
the  navigation  obstructed  by  means  of  chains,  booms, 
fire-ships,  and  vessels  of  war,  during  the  summer  of 
1776.t  The  forts  were  largely  garrisoned  by  the  mi- 
litia of  the  district,  who  were  called  together  by  ^. 
system  of  beacons  and  signals,  consisting  of  flags  and 
alarm-cannon  by  day,  and  beacon-fires  upon  the 
mountain  tops  at  night.  The  works  were  strengthenel'' 
during  the  summer  of  1777,  by  the  construction  of 
Fort  Constitution  on  Constitution  Island,  and  of  FoA' 
Independence  at  Peekskill,  and  the  command,  on  thS 
east  side  of  the  river,  intrusted  to  Gen.  Putnam; 
Governor  Clinton  and  Gen.  James  Clinton  and  the 
militia  retaining  the  west  side. 

Scarcely  had  the  work  been  completed  when  Biu^ 
goyne  swept  down  from  Canada  with  his  splendii? 
army,  and  the  campaign  for  the  possession  of  thi* 
Hudson  opened.  To  aid  in  the  movement,  Howe 
threatened  an  attack  on  Philadelphia,  by  way  of  Dela- 
ware River,  and  thus  forced  Washington  to  draw  men 
from  the  Highlands  until  only  fifteen  hundred  re- 
mained. About  the  20th  of  September,  while  Howe 
was  marching  into  Philadelphia  and  Burgoyne  had 
reached  Saratoga,  over  three  thousand  British  soldien 
arrived  in  New  York,  and  there  joined  the  armament 
of  Sir  Henry  Clinton,  then  in  waiting,  and  in  a  few 
days  started  to  force  their  way  up  the  Hudson.  Mis- 
leading Gen.  Putnam  by  attack  on  Peeks- 
kill,  the  forces  of  the  enemy  crossed  the  river  to  Stony 
Point,  marched  around  the  western  base  of  the  Dun- 
derberg  (October  7th),  and  appeared  before  the  forta. 
The  militia  of  the  district,  about  six  hundred  in 
number,  that  had  been  hastily  called  in  the  day 
previous,  united  with  the  garrisons  and  made  a  most 
heroic  defense,  fighting  against  superior  numbers  until 
twilight,  when  they  gave  way  and  made  a  scattered 
retreat,  leaving  behind  them  about  three  hundred  d^ 
their  number  in  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners.^ 

X  The  first  obstructions  consisted  of  a  chain  eighteen  hundred  feet  fD 
length  from  the  foot  of  the  rock  at  Fort  Montgomery  to  the  base  of  An* 
thony's  liose.  A  considerable  portion  of  it  was  brought  from  Fort  Ti. 
conderoga,  where  it  had  been  used  to  obstruct  the  river  Sorel;  the 
remainder  was  n^nufactured  at  Foughkeepsie.  It  was  protected  b;  s 
boom  of  logs,  and  guarded  by  batteries  on  the  shore.  From  Plum  Point 
to  Pallopel's  Island  a  chevaux-de-frise  was  constructed.  The  fire-sbip 
were  rafts  loaded  with  combustibles.  The  shipsof-war  were  two  armfd 
frigates,  two  galleys,  and  au  armed  sloop. 

g  The  following  report  of  the  action  was  made  by  Governor  Clinton  C 
Gen.  Washington :  W 

"  Nbw  Windsoe,  Oct.  9,  ITIT.* 

"  Dear  General, — 1  have  to  inform  you  that,  in  oonsequenue  of  Uflf 
telligence  received  by  Gen.  Putnam  from  Gen.  Parsons  (who  lay  ill^ 
his  brigade  at  the  White  Plains),  of  the  enemy's  having  received  k 
reinforcement  from  Europe  at  New  York,  and  that  by  their  niovemenfi" 
there  was  reason  to  believe  they  intended  an  attack  on  Peekskill,  and  to 
possess  themselves  of  the  passes  in  the  Highlands,  the  general  imtM" 
diately  wrote  to  me  these  circumstances ;  and  to  prevent  if  possible  tU 
disagreeable  consequences  that  might  arise  if  the  army  at  the  different 
posts  was  not  timely  reinforced,  I  ordered  that  part  of  the  militia  of  tliii 
State  that  had  not  already  marched  to  the  northward  to  move,  and  part 
of  them  to  join  Gen.  Putnam,  and  the  remainder  of  them  to  reiniMH 
the  posts  of  Fort  Montgomery  and  Fort  Clinton;  but,  it  being  a  critlolP 
time  with  the  yeomanry,  as  they  had  not  yet  sown  their  grain,  and  then 
being  at  that  time  no  appearance  of  the  enemy,  they  were  extremal^ 



The  regiments  engaged  were  Col.  Allison's,  from 
Goshen,  commanded  by  himself;  Col.  Jesse  Wood- 

resUen  anduDeasy.  They  solicited  Gen.  FutDam  for  leave  to  return, 
»nd  many  of  them  went  home  without  his  permiBsion.  Urged  by  these 
considerations  he  thought  proper  to  dismiss  a  part  of  them. 

*'  As  I  thought  it  essentially  necessary  that  they  should  remain  in  the 
field  for  some  time,- in  order  to  check  the  progress  of  the  enemy  should 
they  attempt  to  put  their  design  in  execution,  I  issued  another  order  for 
one-half  of  them  immediately  to  march,  part  of  ttaem  to  join  Gen.  Putnam 
and  a  sufficient  number  to  reinforce  the  foi-ts  and  the  pass  at  Sydman^s 
Bridge,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Clove ;  and,  in  order  to  induce  them  to  turn  out 
with  the  greater  alacrity,  I  thought  it'necessary  to  fix  their  time  of  ser- 
vice to  one  month,  at  the  expiration  of  which  time  they  were  to  be  relieved 
by  the  other  half.  While  this  arrangement  was  in  agitation,  and  before  a 
proper  arrangement  could  possibly  be  made  by  the  respective  officers  as 
to  \That  part  of  them  could  serve  for  the  first  month,  they  were  not  so 
expeditious  as  was  absolutely  necessary,  which  the  event  has  fully 
evinced.  A  number  of  the  enemy^s  ships  made  thoir  appearance  on 
the  3d  instant  in  Tarrytown  Bay,  where  they  weighed  anchor  the  next 
day,being  joined  by  several  shipe-of-war  and  transports  from  New  York. 
They  proceeded  up  the  river  as  high  as  King's  terry,  and  at  day-break  on 
Sunday,  the  5th,  landed  a  considerable  body  of  men  on  Verplanck^s 

"As  I  was  apprehensive  from  many  circumstances  that  an  attack  on 
the  forts  was  intended,  I  dispatched  Maj.  Logan,  an  alert  officer,  who 
was  well  acquainted  with  the  ground,  on  Sunday  evening,  through  the 
mountains  to  reconnoitre,  and  if  possible  gain  Intelligence  of  the  enemy's 
motion.  The  megor  returned  about  nine  o^cIock  on  Monday,  informing 
me  that,  from  the  beat  intelligence  he  could  procure,  and  the  rowing  of 
the  boats,  he  had  reason  to  believe  they  had  landed  a  considerable  force 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  at  King^s  Ferry,  and  between  that  and  Dun- 
derberg;  but,  as  the  morning  was  foggy,  it  was  impossible  to  discern 
them  80  as  to  form  any  judgment  of  their  uumbei-s. ,  As  soon  as  I  had 
obtained  this  intelligence,  I  immediately  dispatched  Lieut  Jackson  with 
a  small  party  td  discover  the  enemy's  movements ;  but  they  had  not  pro- 
ceeded morf*  than  two  miles  on  the  Haverstraw  Koad  when  they  were 
attacked  by  a  party  of  the  enemy,  who  had  formed  an  ambuscade  at  a 
place  called  Doodletown.  They  immediately  retreated  after  returning 
the  fire.  As  soon  as  the  firing  was  heard,  I  detached  Lieut.>CoI.  Bruyu 
with  fifty  Continental  troops,  and  as  many  of  the  militia  under  Lieut- 
Col.  McClaughry  to  sustain  Lieut.  Jackson;  the  garrison  at  that  time 
being  so  weak  that  we  could  not  afford  them  greater  aid  on  that  road,  and 
T  imagined  It  would  be  necessary  to  send  out  a  party  likewise  on  the  road 
which  leads  to  the  Forest  of  Dean.  The  detachment  under  Cols.  Bruyu 
and  McClaughry  were  soon  engf^fed,  but,  being  too  weak  to  withstand 
the  enemy's  great  force,  retreated  to  Fort  Clinton,  disputing  the  ground 
inch  by  inch.  Their  gallant  opposition,  and  the  roughness  of  the  ground, 
checked  the  progress  of  the  enemy  for  some  time. 

"While  matters  were  in  this  situation  in  the  neighborhood  of  Fort 
Clinton,  a  large  body  of  the  enemy  were  advancing  on  the  road  which 
leadfj  from  the  Forest  of  Dean  to  Fort  Montgomerj'.  As  I  had  only  one 
field-piece  at  the  above  fort,  I  ordered  Col.  Lamb  of  the  artillery  to  send 
it  off  to  an  advautngeons  post  on  that  road,  with  a  covering  party  of  sixty 
men,  and  another  of  the  same  number  to  sustain  them,  in  order  to  give 
the  enemy  a  check,  and  retard  their  movements  till  I  could  receive  rein- 
forcements from  Gen.  Putnam,  to  whom  I  had  sent  an  express  for  that 
purpose.  This  order  being  immediately  complied  with,  the  piece  had 
hardly  reached  the  place  of  its  destination,  and  the  covering  party  been 
posted  on  strong  ground,  when  the  enemy  were  seen  advancing  with 
hasty  strides ;  but  being  unexpectedly  annoyed  by  discharges  of  gniije- 
ehot  itom  the  field-piece  and  a  well-directed  fire  from  the  muskets,  which 
made  great  havoc  among  them,  as  ire  have  since  been  informed,  they 
were  repeatedly  driven  back,  till,  filing  off  through  the  woods  upon  the 
right  arid  left  with  a  view  of  surrounding  our  men,  and  the  handful  of 
bravo  fellows  being  alarmed  at  their  critical  situation,  they  were  con- 
strained to  abandon  the  field-piece,  after  rendering  it  useless  to  the 
enemy  by  spiking  It.  In  order  to  cover  the  men  who  were  retreating, 
and  to  check  the  farther  progreie  of  the  enemy,  I  ordered  out  a  twelve- 
pounder,  which  being  well-8er\-ed  wi^th  grape-shot,  an  noyed  them  greatly, 
and  gave  the  men  an  opportunity  of  retreating  into  the  garrison  with 
very  little  loss  on  our  side,  except  that  of  Capt  Fenno,  who  commanded 
the  field-piece,  and  was  made  a  prisoner. 

"This  was  about  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  the  enemy  ap- 
proached the  works  and  l)egan  the  attack,  which  continued  with  few  in- 
tervals till  about  five  o'clock,  when  an  officer  appeared  with  a  flag.  I 

hull's,  from  Cornwall,  under  command  of  Maj. 
Zachariah  DuBois ;  Col.  James  Clinton's,  from  New 
Windsor,  commanded  by  Lieut.-Col.  James  Mc- 
Claughry ;  Col.  Hasbrouck's,  from  Newburgh,  under 
Lieut.-Col.  Masten ;  three  regiments  from  other  dis- 

ordered Lieut.-Col.  Livingston  to  meet  him  jvithout  the  works  and  know 
his  business.  Col.  Livingston  having  demanded  his  rank  and  business, 
he  was  told  by  the  bearer  of  the  flag  that  he  was  Lieut.-Col.  Campbell, 
and  that  he  came  to  demand  the  surrender  of  the  fort  to  prevent  the  effu- 
sion of  blood.  Col.  Livingston  replied  that  he  had  no  authority  to  treat 
with  him,  but  if  they  would  surrender  themselves  prisoners  of  war  they 
might  depend  upon  being  well  treated,  and  if  they  did  not  choose  to 
accept  those  terms  they  might  renew  the  attack,  as  soon  as  be  should 
retire  within  the  fort,  he  being  determined  to  defend  it  to  the  last  ex- 
tremity. As  soon  as  Lieut.-Col.  Livingston  returned  the  attack  was 
renewed  with  great  violence,  and,  after  as  obstinate  a  resistance  as  our 
situation  and  the  weakness  of  the  garrison  wcfuld  admit,  having  de- 
fended the  works  f^om  two  o'clock  till  the  dusk  of  the  evening,  the 
enemy,  by  the  superiority  of  numbers,  forced  the  works  on  all  sides. 
The  want  of  men  prevented  us  from  sustaining  and  supporting  every 
part,  having  received  no  reinforcement  from  Gen.  Putnam. 

'•  Our  loss,  killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners,  is  not  so  great  as  might  have 
been-  expected,  when  the  strength  of  the  enemy  and  our  weakness  are 
properly  considered.  My  brother  was  wounded  with  a  bayonet.  Many 
officers  and  men,  and  myself,  having  the  advantage  of  the  enemy  by 
being  well  acquainted  with  the  ground,  were  so  fortunate  as  to  effect  our 
escape  under  cover  of  the  night,  after  the  enemy  were  possessed  of  all 
the  works.  I  was  so  happy  as  to  get  into  a  boat,  crossed  the  river,  and 
immediately  waited  on  Gen.  Putnam,  with  a  view  of  concerting  meas- 
ures for  our  future  operations,  to  prevent  the  designs  of  Gen.  Clinton, 
and  Impede  his  progress  in  facilitating  the  movements  of  Burgoyne  from 
the  northward.  I  can  assure  your  Excellency  that  I  am  well  convinced 
if  night  had  not  approached  rather  too  fast  to  correspond  with  our  wishes 
the  enemy  would  have  been  disappointed  In  their  expectations,  as  a  re- 
inforcement of  five  hundred  men  from  Gen.  Putnam's  army  were  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river  ready  to  cross  for  our  relief  when  the  works  were 
forced;  and  many  of  the  mHitia  were  in  the  mountains  ou  their  march 
to  join  us,  bad  not  the  communication  between  us  and  them  been  cut 

*'  I  have  to  add  that  by  some  fatality  the  two  Continental  frigates  were 
lost,  they  having  been  ordered  down  by  Gen.  Putnam  for  the  defense  of 
the  chain ;  but  being  badly  manned,  they  could  not  be  got  off  in  time, 
though  I  ordered  tlie  ship  *  Congress'  to  proceed  to  Fort  Constitution  the 
day  before  the  attack,  lest  she  should  meet  with  a  disaster;  and  the  ship 

*  Montgomery,'  which  lay  near  the  chain,  having  neither  anchor  nor 
cables  to  secure  her,  it  being  the  ebb  of  the  tide  and  the  wind  falling, 
fell  down  so  near  the  chain  that  Capt.  Hodge  was  constrained  to  set  her 
on  fire  to  prevent  her  from  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.    The 

*  Congress'  unfortunately  getting  aground  on  the  flat  near  Fort  Constitu- 
tion, shared  the  same  fate.  Fort  Constitution  being  destitute  of  troops 
to  defend  it  was  evacuated,  after  bringing  off  part  of  the  stores.  I  am 
now  about  three  miles  from  New  Windsor,  with  Col.  Samuel  B.  Webb's 
regiment  of  Continental  troops,  the  remains  of  Col.  Dubois',  about  one 
hundred  of  Col.  Lamb's  regiment,  who  escaped  from  the  fort,  and  some 
militia.  I  intend  to  collect  what  force  I  possibly  can  to  oppose  the  enemy, 
should  they  land  on  this  side  of  the  river. 

*'  Sir  Henry  Clinton  commanded  in  person.  Geu.  Tryon,  Gen.  Vauglian, 
and  two  other  general  officers  were  with  him.  The  army  who  attacked 
us,  by  the  lowest  account,  consisted  of  three  thousand,  chiefly  British 
and  Hessian  troops,  The  garrison  of  both  our  posts  did  not  exceed  six 
hundred  men,  and  many  of  these  unarmed  militia.  The  ordinary  gar- 
rison was  thus  reduced  by  detaching  Maj.  Moffat  with  two  hundred  men 
to  the  post  at  Sydman's  Bridge,  and  Col.  Malcom's  regiment  being 
ordered  from  thence,  and  sixty  men  on  Anthony's  Nose  by  Gen.  Put- 
nam's orders,  received  the  day  before  the  action.  I  have  only  to  add 
that  where  great  losses  are  sustained,  however  unavoidable,  public  cen- 
sure is  generally  the  consequence  to  those  who  are  immediately  con- 
cerned. If,  in  the  present  instance,  this  should  be  the  case,  I  wish,  m 
far  as  relates  to  Fort  Montgomery  and  its  dependencies,  it  may  fall  ou 
me  alono;  for  I  should  be  guilty  of  the  greatest  Injustice  were  I  not  to 
■  declare  that  the  officers  and  men  under  me,  of  the  different  corps,  be- 
haved with  the  greatest  spirit  and  bravery. 

"  I  am,  etc., 

"George  Clinton." 



tricts,  and  Col.  DuBois'  Continental  regimentj  and 
Col.  Lamb's  artillery.  No  list  of  the  killed  appears 
on  record,  the  return  being  of  prisoners,  as  follows : 


David  M.  HoUister. 

Thadeus  Kneely. 

John  McDonalds. 

John  Conkling. 

James  Montange. 

Henry  Oatrander. 

Jacobus  Lugner. 

David  Breviers. 

Vincent  Yiney. 

Jeremiah  Dunn. 

Robert  Patrick. 

William  Baxter. 

Benjamin  Wiltsie. 

David  Winchester. 

Lewis  Dickerson. 

John  Ivory- 
Nathaniel  Utter, 

Eliakim  Bush. 

Robert  Gillespie. 
Abraham  Wright. 
Jonathan  Hallock. 
James  Weldon. 
Thomas  Sinn. 
Martin  Shay. 
tTbomas  Hartwell. 
Patrick  Dirking. 
Samuel  Crosby. 
Moses  Shall. 
>  John  West. 
John  Mcintosh. 
Lieut.  Henry  Schoonmaker. 
Joseph  Morgan. 
Jonathan  Stockholm. 
Abel  Randall. 
Thomas  Kane. 
William  Banker. 
Peter  Wells. 
Joseph  Ten  Eyek. 
John  Weston. 
Michael  Burgle. 
Thomas  Smith. 
Thomas  Conkling. 
Ephraim  Adams. 
Francis  Sears. 
Samuel  Garrison. 
John  Ellison. 
William  Ivory. 
John  Stanly. 
Benjamin  Griffin. 
Edward  Allen. 
William  Bardie. 
Enos  Sniffin. 
Joseph  Belton. 
James  Hanna. 

William  Wilbig. 
Jacobus  Sanbush. 
John  Brown. 
George  Bolton. 
Aurie  Mass. 
James  Michael. 
John  Johnston. 
Nelich  Snifdn. 
Solomon  Shaw. 
James  Montieth. 
Daniel  Lowers. 
jQha  Hunt. 
Michael  Johnston. 
Joseph  Boeder. 
John  Price. 
Kobeit  Marshall. 
John  Satterly. 
Lieut.  Traverse. 
James  Amerman. 
Herman  Crums. 
Samuel  Griffing. 
Cornelius  Acker. 
Jacob  Lawrence. 
Francis  Gowans. 
Samuel  Turner. 
Daniel  Dimmock. 
John  Whitlock. 
Jacobus  Terwilligcr. 
James  Steel. 
Thomas  Crispell. 
Enos  Luguier. 
Jacob  Lent. 
John  Albigh. 
Afex.  De  Kay. 
Samuel  Boyd. 
William  Werner. 
Abraham  Jordan. 
John  Storm. 
Thomas  McCarty. 
Thomas  Hendricks. 
*John  Chamberlain,  sergeant. 
Zebulon  Woodruff. 
Paul  Kryler. 
George  Heck. 
John  Miller. 
William  Slutt. 
Lieut.  Henry  Swartwout. 
M^.  Samuel  Logan. 
Benjamin  ChicheBter. 
Francis  Drake. 
Jasper  Smith. 
William  Casselbon. 
Lieut  Samuel  Pendleton. 


Col.  William  Allison. 
Samuel  Taylor. 
James  Bell. 
Robert  Cater. 
Richard  Shorter. 
Richard  Koyle. 
James  Thompson. 
Timothy  Comon. 
Michael  Dannon. 
James  Sardyer. 
Joseph  Moore. 

Jesse  Danon. 

Peter  Jones. 

Uriah  Black. 

Caleb  Ashley. 

Frederick  Noohton. 

David  Weller, 

Peter  Stage. 

Isaac  Ketchufii. 

Henry  Brewster,  lieutenant. 

Frederick  Pelllger. 

James  McClaughry,  Ueuten-  Henry  M.  Neely 

an^coloDel.  William  Scott. 

Matthew  DuBois. 
Francis  McBride. 
Robert  Huston. 
Andrew  Wilson. 
Christopher  Sypher. 
John  Dankins. 
William  Stenson. 
William  Humphrey. 
George  Humphrey. 
Moses  Cantine. 
James  Miller. 
James  Humphrey,  captain. 
John  Skinner. 
Gradus  Vinegar. 
Bolton  Van  Dyk. 
Cornelius  Slutt. 
William  Howell. 
John  Hanna. 

Robert  Barkley, 
James  Wood. 
David  Thompson . 
Ellas  Wood. 
John  Carmichael. 
William  McMuUen. 
Isaac  Denton. 
George  Brown. 
Ethan  Sears. 
^  Philip  Millspaugh. 
John  Van  Arsdell. 
George  Coleman. 
Albert  Weeks. 
Hezekiah  Kane. 
John  Manney.    . 
Isaac  Kimbark. 
Samuel  Falls. 


Cornelius  Rose.  Beigamin  Lawrence. 

George  Wilkin.  Robert  Cooper. 

Simeon  Ostrander.  Cornelius  Stevens. 

John  Stevenson.  John  Bingham. 

Zachariah  Terwilliger.  John  Snyder. 
William  Warren. 


Zachariah  DuBois,  major. 
John  Brooks. 
John  Lamoreux. 
Henrj'  Cunningham. 
Joline  Crooks. 
William  Prince. 
Lyman  Cavin?. 
Israel  Cushman. 
Asa  Barnsly. 
Thomas  Hector. 
Jesse  Carpenter. 

Benjamin  Simmons. 
Isaac  Cooley. 
Joshua  Currey. 
James  Thompson. 
Stephen  Clark. 
James  Michael. 
John  Armstrong. 
Peter  Gillen. 
Edward  Thompson. 
Randal  Hawes. 
Isaac  Hoffman. 

Many  of  these  prisoners  were  wounded  in  the  action 
and  died  of  their  wounds,  and  many  of  them  died  in 
the  sugar-house  prison  in  New  York;  others  were  ex- 
changed after  years  of  confinement.  But  of  the  killed 
in  action  no  list  was  possible, — on  the  rolls  of  their 
regiments  when  called  could  only  be  entered  "  miss- 
ing" opposite  the  names  of  many  noble  men  whose 
places  were  thereafter  forever  vacant.  Rev.  Timothy 
Dwight,  chaplain  in  Parson's  brigade,  who  visited  the 
scene  of  conflict  in  March  following,  telld  the  story  of 
their  fate.  He  writes :  "As  we  went  onward,  we  were 
distressed  by  the  fcetor  of  decayed  human  bodies.  To 
me  this  was  a  novelty,  and  more  overwhelming  and 
dispiriting  than  I  am  able  to  describe.  As  we  were 
attempting  to  discover  the  source  from  which  it  pro- 
ceeded, we  found  at  a  small  distance  from  the  fort  a 
pond  of  moderate  size,  in  which  we  saw  the  bodies  of 
several  men  who  had  been  killed  in  the  assault  upon 
the  fort.  They  were  thrown  into  this  pond  the  pre- 
ceding autumn  by  the  British,  when  probably  the 
water  was  sufficiently  deep  to  cover  them.  Some  of 
them  were  covered  at  this  time,  but  at  a  depth  BO 
small  as  to  leave  them  distinctly  visible.  Others  hftd 
an  arm,  a  leg,  and  part  of  the  body  above  the  surfece. 
The  clothes  they  wore  when  they  were  killed  were 
still  on  them,  and  proved  that  they  were  militia,  being 
the  ordinary  dress  of  farmers.  Their  faces  were 
bloated  and  monstrous,  and  their  postures  uncouth 



and  distorted,  and  in  the  highest  degree  aflflictive.  To 
me,  a  novice  in  scenes  of  this  nature,  it  was  over- 

Fortunately  for  the  district,  the  regiments  were  hy 
no  means  full ;  probably  not  over  one-fourth  of  the 
militia  was  present  in  the  actions.    Fortunately,  too, 
the  Clintons  escaped, — Governor  George  by  a  boat,  in 
which  he  gained  the  eastern  shore  and  made  his  way 
to  Putnam's  headquarters ;  and  Gen.  James  by  slip- 
ping down  the  rocks  to  the  bed  of  Poplopen's  Kill 
and  thence  up  the  same  into  the  hills.    Wounded  in 
the  thigh  by  a  bayonet  thrust,  he  reached  his  home  at 
Little  Britain  covered  with  blood,  after  a  detour  of 
sixteen  miles.    Defeated  as  they  were — overwhelmed 
by  numbers  rather — they  were  by  no  means  crushed. 
From  Gen.  Putnam  Governor  Clinton  obtained  Col. 
Webb's  brigade,  and  with  them  crossed  the  river  to 
New  Windsor  on  the  8th  (the  day  after  the  battle). 
Meanwhile  by  alarms  and  signal-guns  the  militia  that 
had  not  been  in  the  actions  were  brought  together  at 
Little  Britain,  where  they  were  joined  by  fugitives 
from  the  forts,  and  by  the  time  the  British  had  de- 
stroyed the  obstructions  to  the  navigation  a  respecta- 
ble force  was  again  under  the  Clintons  on  the  west 
shore  to  prevent  the  enemy  from  landing,  while  on 
the  eastern  side  Putnam  was  able  to  successfully  pro- 
tect the  army  stores  at  Fishkill  and  at  points  above. 
As  the  enemy's  fleet  moved  north,  Putnam's  and 
Clinton's  commands  moved  with  them.     Unfortu- 
nately, the  roads  leading  north  were  more  circuitous 
than  the  course  of  the  river,  and  while  Clinton  "  forced 
the  march"  of  his  troops,  they  had  only  reached  Eo- 
sendale  Creek  when  the  ascending  smoke  gave  evidence 
that  they  were  too  late  to  save  Kingston.    Here  the 
enemy  stopped.    Advices  from  the  north  conveyed  to 
them  the  fact  that  they  too  were  "  too  late," — that  Bur- 
goyue  had  surrendered  and  that  their  further  advance 
was  useless.    Their  return  voyage  to  the  Highlands 
was  watched  by  Putnam  and  Clinton,  and  on  the  23d 
of  October,  when  the  enemy  had  passed  below  Pallo- 
pel's  Island,  the  forces  of  the  latter  (then  under  Gen. 
James)  were  at  New  Windsor,  occupying  stations  as 
follows :  Gen.  Webb's  command  at  New  Windsor  vil- 
lage; Capt.  Nicoll's  company  at  Murderer's  Creek; 
Col.  Tusten  with  the  remains  of  Col.  Allison's  regi- 
ment, and  Col.  Woodhull's  regiment,  from  Murderer's 
Creek  to  Smith's  Clove ;  Col.  McClaughry's  regiment 
at  Haabrouck's  mill ;  and  Col.  Hasbrouck's  regiment 
from  Newburgh  along  the  river  north.    Tarrying  only 
a  few  days  in  the  Highlands  to  complete  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  fort,  the  enemy  sailed  for  New  York,  and 
the  militia  returned  to  their  homes. 

While  these  events  were  transpiring  on  the  Hudson, 
the  western  frontier  was  harassed  by  the  incursions  of 
Indians  and  Tories.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  war  the 
colonists  made  no  little  effort  to  induce  the  more 
important  tribes,  as  well  as  the  resident  Indians,  to 
remain  neutral.  To  some  extent  this  effort  was  suc- 
cessful, but  ultimately  the  rude  savages,  always  easily 

debauched  by  rum  and  trinkets,  yielded  to  the  solici- 
tations and  rewards  of  the  English  agents,  and  ac- 
cepted service  in  their  ranks.    The  bulk  of  the  Six 
Nations  were  more  immediately  employed  in  the 
northern  and  western  parts  of  the  province,  in  com- 
pany with  the  Tories,  in  an  independent  organization 
known  as  "  Tories  and  Indians."    This  organization 
was  extended  to  the  southwestern  frontiers  in  1777, 
when  a  rendezvous  was  established  by  Brant  and  But- 
ler at  Oghkawaga  (now  Binghamton),  where  was  soon 
gathered  a  motley  crew  of  whites  and  savages,  from 
the  Delaware  and  its  branches,  whose  field  of  opera- 
tions was  to  embrace  the  frontier  settlements  with 
which  its  members  were  best  acquainted.    In  antici- 
pation of  the  events  which  subsequently  followed,  the 
settlers  in  the  western  part  of  Orange  erected,  soon 
after   hostilities    commenced,  a  number   of  block- 
houses,* while  others  stockaded  their  dwellings  with 
a  view  to  defense.    The  first  invasion  of  the  district  is 
said  to  have  occurred  on  the  13th  of  October,  1778, 
when  two  dwellings  were   attacked,  three  persons 
killed,  and  the  inhabitants  despoiled  of  their  grain 
and  stock.f    Count  Pulaski,  with  his  .legion  of  cav- 
alry, was  then  sent  to  Minisink  for  the  protection  of 
the  settlers,  and  remained  during  the  winter  of  1778- 
79,  and  Col.  Van  Cortlandt's  regiment  was  sent  to 
Wawarsing.    Hostilities  were  renewed  in  the  spring ; 
the  valley  of  the  Susquehanna  was  devastated ;  Wy- 
oming became  the  scene  of  frightful  massacres;  north- 
western Ulster  was  invaded,  and  the  Fantinekill  and 
Woodstock  settlements  visited.    The  withdrawal  of 
Count  Pulaski  from  Minisink  left  the  lower  frontier 
exposed,  and,  on  the  night  of  July  19th,  Brant,  with 
sixty-five  of  his  warriors,  and  twenty-seven  Tories 
disguised  as  savages,!  stole  upon  what  was  then  known 
as  the  Lower  Neighborhood,^  and  before  the  people 
were  aroused  from  their  slumbers  several  dwellings 
were  set  on  fire,  and  the  work  of  death  begun.    With- 
out means  of  defense,  the  inhabitants  fled  to  the  moun- 
tains, leaving  all  their  worldly  goods  a  spoil  to  the  in- 
vaders.   Their  church,  mills,  houses,  and  barns  were 
burned ;  several  persons  were  killed  and  some  taken 
prisoners ;  cattle  were  driven  away,  and  booty  of  every 
kind  carried  to  Grassy  Brook  on  the  Delaware,  where 
Brant  had  his  headquarters. 
Alarmed  by  fugitives,  Lieut.-Col.  Tusten,  of  Col. 

*  Hr.  Gumaer  states  tbat  three  small  forts  were  erected  in  the  Peen- 
pack  neighborhood, — "one  at  the  house  of  Jacob  Ruteen  DeWitt,  one 
at  the  house  of  Benjamin  B.  DePuy,  and  one  at  the  house  of  Ezekiel 
Gumaer."  He  intimates  thj^t  there  was  none  at  the  Lower  Neighborhood 
or  Little  Minisink.  Sauthier's  map  of  1779  locates  "  Col.  Jersey  Fort" 
at  the  "  Lower  Neighborhood,"  and  "  Fort  Ootenco"  north  of  the  "  Upper 
Neighborhood."  Besides  the  "Col.  Jersey  Fort,"  there  were  several 
forts  (so  called)  at  the  "  Lower  Neighborhood,"  erected  by  individuals  for 
their  own  protection.  Among  others  one  at  Daniel  Van  Auken*8,  and 
one  at  Martinas  Decker's. 

f  This  statement  is  on  the  authority  of  Mr.  Gumaer.  We  find  no 
other  record. 

X  The  number  of  the  attacking  party  was.  never  definitely  known. 

g  Now  in  Deerpark,  south  of  the  Neversink  Biver,  and  so  called  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  the  Upper  Neighborhood,  or  original  settlement  on  the 
Cuddeback  Patent. 



Allison's  Goshen  regiment,  Col.  Hathorn  of  the  War- 
wick regiment,  and  Capt.  Meeker  of  the  New  Jersey 
militia,  with  such  number  of  their  commands  as  could 
be  brought  together  in  so  brief  a  time,  met  in  council 
at  Minisink  the  following  morning.  Col.  Tusten  re- 
garded the  force  as  being  too  small  to  attempt  the 
pursuit  of  the  invaders,  but  he  was  overruled,  and  the 
line  of  march  taken  up  under  command  of  Col.  Hath- 
orn, and  continued  until  the  high  hills  overlooking 
the  Delaware,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen, 
were  reached,  where  the  enemy  was  discovered.  Or- 
dering his  force  into  three  divisions,  Hathorn  made 
preparations  for  the  attack;  but  was  anticipated  by 
Brant,  who  having,  it  is  said,  received  reinforcements, 
threw  his  warriors  into  action  before  Hathorn's  dis- 
positions were  fully  made,  and  compelled  his  rear  di- 
vision to  break  and  fly.  Hathorn  rallied  his  men  as 
best  he  could ;  but  Brant  had  the  advantage  of  posi- 
tion and  superior  numbers,  and  drew  his  fire  closer 
and  closer  until  Hathorn  was  hemmed  in  within  the 
circumference  of  an  acre  of  ground,  upon  a  rocky 
hill  that  sloped  on  all  sides,  where,  with  only  forty- 
five  men,  he  maintained  the  conflict  for  over  five 
hours,  when,  £he  ammunition  of  his  men  being  ex- 
hausted, he  formed  them  in  a  hollow  square,  and  pre- 
pared for  a  final  defense  with  clubbed  muskets. 
Broken  at  one  corner,  the  square  became  a  rout,  and 
the  flying  fugitives  sought  safety  in  all  directions. 
Behind  a  rock  on  the  field,  Tusten  dressed  the  wounds 
of  his  neighbors,  but  his  occupation  was  no  protec- 
tion ;  the  Indians  rushed  to  the  spot,  killed  him  and 
the  wounded  men  in  his  charge,  seventeen  in  number, 
and  completed  the  bloody  work  which  they  had  com- 
menced. Of  those  who  heroically  took  part  in  the 
action,  only  about  thirty  returned  to  relate  the  expe- 
riences through  which  they  had  passed  in  the  scourg- 
ing conflict, — the  whistle  of  bullets,  the  moans  of  the 
wounded,  the  yells  of  savage  foes,  grafting  them  for- 
ever upon  the  memory  of  their  descendants  and 
weaving  them  imperishably  into  the  traditions  and 
the  history  of  the  county.  Engraved  on  the  monu- 
ment to  their  memory*  at  Goshen  are  the  names,  so 
far  as  known,  of  those  who  perished  in  the  action : 

Benjamin  Tusten,  lieuteDant- 

Samuel  Jones,  captain. 
Sphraim  Maaten,  eneign. 
John  Duncan,  captain. 
Gabriel  Wiener. 
Natbaniel  Terwilliger. 
Ephmini  Ferguson. 
Samuel  Knapp. 
Bei^amin  Bennett. 
Jacub  DuDDing. 

James  Little. 
Gilbert  S.  Vail. 
Abram  Shepherd. 


Daniel  Talmage. 
David  Harney. 
Abram  Williams. 
Isaac  Ward. 
Gamaliel  Bfdley. 
Eleazer  Owens. 
Samuel  Little. 

*  In  1822  tbe  bones  of  the  fallen  were  gathered  from  the  battle-field 
and  interred  at  Goshen  under  a  monument  inscribed,  "Erected  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Orange  County,  July  22, 1822.  Sacred  to  the  memory  of 
forty-four  of  their  fellow-citizens  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Minisink, 
July  22, 1779."  No  positive  identification  of  the  remains  could  be  made. 
The  pretieut  monument  was  the  gift  of  the  late  Dr.  M.  H.  Cash,  and  was 
erected  by  the  board  of  superrisura  in  1862.  The  battle-ground  is  in  the 
present  county  of  Sullivan. 

Daniel  Reed. 
Bozaliel  Tyler,  captain. 
John  Wood,  lieutenant. 
Natbaniel  Finch,  oc^utant. 
Ephraim  Hiddaugh,  ensign. 
Stephen  Mead. 
Joshua  Lockwood. 
Roger  Townsend. 
James  Enapp. 
William  Barker. 
Jonathan  Fierce, 

Joseph  Norris. 
Joel  Decker. 
Nathan  W^ade. 
Simon  Wait. 
John  Carpenter. 
Jouathan  Haskell. 
James  Morher. 
Baltus  Nierpofl. 
Moses  Thomas. 
Adun  Embler. 
Benjamin  Dunning. 

An  account  of  the  engagement  which  shall  satis- 
factorily harmonize  the  traditions  concerning  it  cau- 
not  be  attempted  with  the  hope  of  success.  The 
stories  which  have  been  repeated  by  sire  to  son  for 
four  generations  cannot  be,  and  perhaps  should  not 
be,  uprooted.  The  only  statement  that  has  the  sem- 
blance of  authority  upon  the  subject  is  the  official 
report  of  Col.  Hathorn,  made  ^ve  days  after  the  ac- 
tion, and  while  yet  the  account  of  the  dead  and  misa* 
ing  was  incomplete.    The  following  is  this  report :    ?  ^■ 

»*  Warwick  27  July,  1779. 

"  Gov.  Clinton — Dear  eiR :  In  conformity  to  the  Militia  Law  I  em* 
brace  this  first  opportunity  to  communicate  to  your  Excellency  my 
proceediDgH  on  a  late  tour  of  duty  with  my  Regiment.  Oo  the  Ereoing 
of  the  21st  of  this  instant  I  received  an  order  from  his  Excellency  Q«n- 
eral  Washington,  together  with  a  requisition  of  the  Commissary  of  Frit- 
oners,  to  furnish  one  hundred  men  of  my  Regiment  for  to  guard  the 
British  Prisouers  on  their  way  to  Easton,  at  the  same  time  received  an 
Express  from  Minisink  that  the  Indians  were  ravaging  and  burning  that 
place.  I  ordered  three  companies  of  my  Regiment  including  tbe  Exempt 
Company  to  parade  for  the  purpose  of  the  Guard.  The  other  three  Con^ 
panics  to  March  Immediately  to  Minisink.  On  the  22  I  arrived  with 
a  part  of  my  people  at  Minisink,  where  I  found  Col.  Tustin  of  Goshen 
and  Major  Meeker  of  New  Jersey  with  parts  of  their  Regiments  who 
had  marched  with  about  Eighty  men  up  the  river  a  few  mile.  I  joined 
this  paity  with  about  Forty  men  the  whole  amountiug  to  one  hundta4 
and  twenty  men  Officers  included.  A  spy  come  in  and  informed  me  tho 
Enemy  lay  about  four  hours  before  at  Mungaup,  six  miles  distant  fitm 
us.  Our  people  appeared  in  High  Spirits.  We  marched  in  pursuit  with 
an  intention  either  to  fall  on  them  by  surprise  or  to  gain  in  frout  and 
Ambush  them.  We  were  soon  informed  that  they  were  on  their  march 
np  the  River.  I  found  it  impracticable  to  surprise  them  on  the  ground 
they  now  were  and  took  my  Rout  along  the  old  Keahethtou  path.  Tbe 
Indians  encamped  at  the  month  of  the  half-way  brook.  We  encamped 
at  12  o'clock  at  night  at  Skinners  Saw  Mill  three  miles  and  a  half  from 
the  Enemy  where  we  lay  the  remainder  of  the  night.  The  Mountains 
were  so  exceedingly  rugged  and  high  we  could  not  possibly  get  at  them 
as  they  had  paased  the  grounds  the  most  favourable  for  us  tb  attack  them 
on  before  we  could  overtake  them.  Skinners  is  about  eighteen  miles 
from  Minisink.  At  daylight  on  the  morning  of  the  23,  after  leaving  our 
horses,  and  disengaging  of  every  thing  heavy,  we  marched  on  with  in* 
tentioQ  to  make  the  attack  the  moment  an  opportunity  offered.  Th* 
Indians,  probably  from  some  discovery  f hey  had  made  of  us,  marched 
with  more  alacrity  than  usual,  with  an  intention  to  get  their  Frisonera, 
Cattle  and  plunder  taken  at  Minisink  over  tbe  river.  They  had  almost 
effected  getting  their  Cattle  and  baggago  across,  when  we  discovered  ttaen 
at  Lacawack,  27  miles  from  Minisink,  some  Indians  in  the  river  and  sous 
had  got  over.  It  was  determined  in  council  to  make  au  attack  at  this 
place.  I  therefore  disposed  of  the  men  into  three  divisions,  ordered 
Col.  Tustin  to  command  tbe  one  on  tbe  right  and  to  take  post  about 
three  hundred  yards  distance  on  an  eminence  to  secure  our  Right;  ml 
Col.  Wisner  with  another  Division  to  file  out  to  the  Left  and  to  dispoN 
of  himself  in  the  like  manner.  In  order  to  prevent  the  Enemy  tnm 
gaining  any  advantage  on  our  flank,  the  other  Division  under  my  coin- 
maud  to  attack  them  with  that  vigor  necessary  to  Strike  Terror  in  soflh 
a  foe. 

"  Capt  Tyler  with  the  advance  Guard  unhappily  discharged  his  piece 
before  the  division  could  be  properly  posted,  which  pnt  me  under  th9 
necessity  of  bringing  on  the  Action.  I  ordered  my  Division  to  fix  their 
Bayonets  and  push  forcibly  on  them,  which  order  being  resolutely  exe* 
cuted  put  the  Indians  in  the  utmost  confusion  great  numbers  took  to 



the  river,  who  fell  fVom  the  well  directed  fire  of  our  Bifle  men,  and  in- 
ceaeant  bluie  from  our  Musketry  without  returning  any  fire.  The  Di- 
Tluons  in  the  rear,  not  subject  to  order  brokCi  some  advanced  down  the 
hill  toward  me,  others  fled  Into  the  woods.  I  soon  perceived  the  enemy 
rally  on  our  right  and  recroseing  the  river  to  gain  the  heights.  I  found 
myself  under  the  necessity  to  rally  all  my  force  whicl^  by  this  time  was 
much  less  than  I  expected.  The  enemy  by  this  time  had  collected  in 
force  and  from  the  beat  accounts  can  be  collected  received  a  reinforce- 
ment from  KeshethoD  began  to  fire  on  our  left.  We  returned  the  fire 
and  kept  np  a  constant  bush  flreing  up  the  hill  from  the  rivei^  in  which 
the  brave  Capt.  Tyler  fell,  several  were  wounded.  The  people  being 
exceedingly  fatigued  obliged  me  to  take  post  on  a  height,  which  proved 
to  be  a  strong  and  advantageous  ground.  The  enemy  repeatedly  ad- 
vanced in  ftt>m  40  to  100  yards  distance  and  were  as  repeatedly  repulsed. 
I  had  now  but  45  men  (officers  included)  who  had  lost  their  command 
naturally  drew  toward  me.  The  spirits  of  these  few  notwithstanding 
their  fatigue,  situation,  and  unallayed  thirst,  added  to  that  cruel  yelling 
of  those  bloody  monetera,  the  seed  of  Anak  in  size,  exceed  thought  or 
description.  We  defended  this  grouBd  near  three  hours  and  a  half 
during  the  whole  time  one  blaze  without  intermission  was  kept  up  on 
both  sides.  Here  we  had  three  men  killed  and  nine  wounded.  Among 
the  wounded  was  Lt.  Col.  Tustin,  in  the  hand,  Mig.  Meeker  in  the  shoul- 
der, Ac^.  Finch  In  the  leg,  Capt.  Jones  in  the  foot,  and  Ensign  Wood  in 
the  wrist.  The  chief  of  our  people  was  wounded  by  Angle  shots  from 
the  Indians  from  behind  Bocks  and  Trees.  Our  Bifles  here  were  very 
nsefiil.  I  found  myself  under  the  necessity  of  ceasing  tho  fire,  our  Am- 
munition from  the  continual  fire  of  more  -than  five  hours*  naturally 
suggested  that  it  must  be  Exhausted,  ordered  no  person  to  shoot  without 
having  his  object  sure  that  no  shut  might  be  lost.  This  gave  spirits  to 
the  Enemy,  who  formed  their  whole  strength  and  forced  the  North  East 
part  of  opr  Linra.  Here  we  gave  them  a  severe  Gaul.  Our  people  not 
being  able  to  support  the  lines  retreated  down  the  hill  precipitately 
towards  the  Biver.  The  Enemy  kept  up  a  constant  fire  on  our  Bight 
which  was  returned.  The  people  by  this  time  was  so  scattered  I  found 
myself  unequal  to  rally  them  again,  consequently  every  man  made 
choice  of  his  own  way.    Thas  Ended  the  Action. 

"  The  following  are  missing  in  the  whole  from  the  last  accounts : 
"Col.  Ellison's  Regiment— Lt.  Col.  Tustin,  Capt.  Jones,  Capt.  Wood, 
Capt  Little,  Capt.  Buncanr  and  twelve  privates.    One  private  of  New 
Jersey.  Adjutant  Finch,  Ensign  Wood,  and  one  private  of  my  Regiment. 
In  the  whole  twenty-one  men. 

**  Several  wounded  men  are  in.  I  hope  others  will  be  yet  found.  I 
received  a  wonnd  on  my  head,  one  in  my  leg  and  one  in  my  thigh — 
slightly.  The  one  in  my  thigh,  frvm  inattention,  is  a  little  troublesome, 
fieveral  spies  that  lay  near  the  enemy  the  night  following  the  action  in- 
form us  that  they  moved  off  their  wounded  In  canoes,  on  the  day  follow- 
ing: that  on  the  ground  where  they  lay  there  was  great  quantities  of 
blood,  and  the  whole  encampment  was  marked  with  wounded  men. 
Oreat  numbers  of  plasters  and  bloody  rags  was  found.  Although  we 
suffered  by  the  loss  of  so  many  brave  men,  the  best  for  the  number,  with- 
out sensible  error,  in  the  Precinct.  It's  beyond  doubt  the  enemy  suf- 
fered much  more.  From  the  various  parts  of  the  action  can  be  collected 
a  greater  number  of  Indian  dead  than  we  lost,  beeidea  their  wounded. 
The  number  of  Indians  and  Tories  is  not  ascertained ;  some  accounts  say 
DO,  others  120,  others  160.  Col.  Seward  of  New  Jersey,  with  93  men, 
was  within  five  or  dx  miles  of  the  action,  on  the  Pennsylvania  side,  did 
not  hear  the  firing ;  approached  and  lay  near  the  Indians  all  night  follow- 
ing, and  from  their  conduct  and  groaning  of  the  wounded  gave  rise  to 
the  belief  that  they  had  been  in  some  action  where  they  had  suffered, 
and  would  have  attacked  them  round  their  fire,  but  a  mutiny  arose 
among  some  of  his  people  which  prevented — a  very  nnfortanate  and  to 

*  A  question  has  been  raised  as  to  the  time  of  the  continuance  of  the 
action.  It  wl|I  be  observed  that  in  another  place  Col.  Hathorn  gives  the 
line  of  his  march  as  extending  twenty-seven  miles,  nine  of  which  were 
traveled  on  the  day  of  the  action  before  the  enemy  was  discovered. 
Some  time  was  also  spent  in  countermarching  and  forming  line  of  battle, 
the  whole  probably  occupying  the  day  until  near  noon.  A  "  continued 
fire  of  more  than  five  bonis"  would  have  taken  the  time  to  nbout  half- 
past  five.  It  Is  evidout  that  the  object  was  to  hold  the  place  to  as  late 
an  hour  as  possible  that  escape  might  be  attended  with  the  best  advan- 
tages, and  It  is  to  this  fact,  perhaps,  that  no  pursnit  was  made  by  the  In- 
dians, aod  that  so  many  fugitives  made  their  way  to  their  homes.  Me^, 
Wood,  in  his  journal,  says  the  "  confiict  lasted  almost  the  whole  day," 
which  apparently  confirms  the  current  account  of  the  continuance  until 
near  twilight. 

be  lamented  circumstance.  If  in  their  situation  he  had  attacked  them, 
with  the  common  smiles  of  Providence  he  mnst  have  succeeded  and  put 
them  to  total  rout. 

"  Dear  Governor,  it's  not  in  my  power  to  paint  out  to  you  the  disagree- 
able situation  I  was  in,  surrounded  by  a  foe,  with  such  a  handfull  of 
valuable  men  not  only  as  soldiers  but  as  fellow  citizens  and  members  of 
society,  and  nothing  to  be  expected  but  the  hatchet,  spear  and  scalping 
knife.  The  tremendous  yells  and  whoops,  all  the  fiends  in  the  confines 
of  the  Infernal  Regions,  with  one  united  cry,  could  not  exceed  it.  Add 
to  this  the  cries  and  petitions  of  the  wounded  around  me  not  to  leave 
them,  was  beyond  parallel  or  idea.  My  heart  bleeds  for  the  unfortunate 
wounded  who  fell  into  their  hands.  However,  circumstances  give  me 
a  little  consolation.  Mr.  Roger  Townsend,  of  Goshen,  received  a  wound 
in  his  thigh;  being  exceedingly  thirsty,  making  an  attempt  to  go  to 
find  some  water,  was  met  l^  an  Indian  who  very  friendly  took  him  by 
the  hand  and  said  he  was  his  prisoner  and  would  not  hurt  him.  A  well- 
directed  ball  from  one  of  our  men  put  the  Indian  into  a  dose,  and  Mr. 
Townsend  ran  back  into  the  lines.  I  hope  some  little  humanly  may 
yet  be  found- in  the  breastsfof  the<  savagts. 

"  I  should  be  at  the  greatest  loss  was  I  to  attempt  to  point  out  any  offi- 
cer or  soldier  that  exceeded  another  in  bravery  during  tt^e  time  of  the 
general  action.  Too  much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  them  for  their  at- 
tention in  receiving  orders  and  alacrity  in  executing  them. 

"  I  have  acquiesced  with  Col.  Woodhull  in  ordering  one-eighth  of  our 
Regiments  to  Minisink  as  a  temporary  guard  until  your  excellency's 
pleasure  is  known  on  the  subject. 

"The  Indians  were  under  the  command  of  Brant,  who  was  either 
killed  or  wounded  in  the  action.  They  burnt  Major  Decker's  house  and 
barn,  Saml.  Davis's  house,  barn  and  mill.  Jacobus  Van  Vleck's  bouse 
and  barn,  Daniel  Yanoker's  barn,  (here  was  two  Indians  killed  from  a 
little  Fort  round  the  house,  which  was  saved,}  Esquire  GuykindaH'B 
house  and  bam,  Simon  Westfall's  house  and  barn,  the  Church,  Peter 
Guykindall's  house  and  bam,  Mertinus  Decker's  fort,  house,  bam  and 
saw  mills,  and  Nehemiah  Patterson's  saw  mill ;  killed  and  scalped  Jere- 
miah Vanoker,  Daniel  Cole,  Ephraim  Ferguson  and  one  Tavem,  and 
took  with  them  several  prisoners,  mostly  children,  with  a  great  number 
of  horses,  cattle  and  valuable  plunder.  Some  of  the  cattle  we  rescued 
and  returned  to  the  owners. 

"  I  hope  your  Excellency  will  make  allowances  for  the  imperfect  stile, 
razurea  and  blotts  of  this  line,  whilst  I  have  the  honor  to  subscribe 
myself,  with  the  most  perfect  esteem,  in  haste, 

"  Tour  Excellency*s  Most  Obedt  Servt, 

"  John  Hathorn,  Cot.^* 

Detachments  from  Woodhull's,  Allison's,  and  Ha- 
thorn's  regiments  were  immediately  sent  to  guard  ttie 
frontier  from  further  incursions.  Their  continuance 
in  the  field,  however,  was  of  short  duration,  for  the 
moving  of  Sullivan's  expedition  up  the  Susquehanna, 
and  of  Clinton's  co-operating  command  through  the 
Mohawk  Valley,  drew  the  attention  of  Brant  and  his 
Tory  allies  to  their  own  protection,  and  the  scourging 
which  they  then  received  deterred  them  from  again 
venturing  upon  the  war-path. 

A  reason  of  quite  an  opposite  character  tended  to 
relieve  the  militia  of  eastern  Orange  and  southern 
Ulster  from  the  active  service  in  which  they  had  par- 
ticipated for  three  years.  The  forts  in  the  High- 
lands having  become  of  the  utmost  strategic  impor- 
tance, Washington,  with  the  main  body  of  the  Conti- 
nental army,  encamped  in  their  vicinity,  and  held  in 
check  the  movements  of  the  enemy.  But  without 
further  service  in  the  field, — a  duty  from  which  they 
were  not  fiiUy  relieved, — the  record  of  their  part  in 
the  drama  of  the  Revolution  will  rank  them  with  the 
most  heroic  of  that  heroic  era. 





Events  connected  with  the  war  of  the  Revolution, 
aside  from  military  organizations  and  their  services, 
mainly  cluster  around  the  associations  which  were 
formed  in  1775  to  maintain  civil  government  and  sus- 
tain the  action  of  the  Continental  Congress,  and  the 
operations  of  Claudius  Smith's  band  of  "cow-boys." 
True,  there  were  other  events  which  transpired  in  the 
district  now  constituting  the  county,  as  well  as  in  that 
which  was  then  embraced  within  its  limits.  The  part 
taken  by  the  people  in  erecting  the  forts  in  the  High- 
lands and  in  obstructing  the  navigation  of  Hudson's 
River;  the  story  of  Stony  Point;  the  treason  of  Ar- 
nold and  the  capture  and  execution  of  Andr6 ;  the 
encampment  of  the  Continental  army  in  Smith's 
Clove  and  in  New  Windsor;  the  headquarters  of 
Washington  in  New  Windsor  and  Newburgh;  the 
Temple,  the  Newburgh  Letters,  and  the  Society  of  the 
Cincinnati  have  their  place  in  tbe  county's  annals. 
Nevertheless,  they  were  events  that  have  properly 
been  remanded  to  the  domain  of  general  history,  and 
have  therein  been  exhaustively  chronicled,  and  it 
would  be  a  work  of  supererogation  to  repeat  their  de- 
tails.   We  turn,  therefore,  to  the  organization  of  the 



The  war  of  the  Revolution  may  be  said  to  have 
been  inaugurated  by  the  Continental  Congress  of 
1774.  No  matter  what  may  have  been  the  steps 
which  led  the  colonists  up  to  that  point,  the  passage 
of  the  non-importation  resolutions  of  1774  was  the 
point  of  departure  from  which  neither  the  govern- 
ment nor  the  colonies  could  recede,  —  the  issue  of 
compulsion  and  resistance  was  by  that  act  estab- 
lished. One  of  the  leading  features  of  these  res- 
olutions was  the  call  for  the  organization  in  every 
city,  county,  town,  and  precinct  of  a  "  Committee  of 
Safety  and  Observation."  The  city  of  New  York 
took  the  lead  by  organizing  a  committee  of  one  hun- 
dred, of  which  Isaac  Low  was  chairman,  and  by 
sending  circulars  to  all  the  towns  and  precincts  in  the 
province  urging  the  formation  of  similar  committees. 
About  the  same  time  a  pamphlet  entitled  "  Free 
Thoughts  on  the  Resolves  of  Congress"  made  its  ap- 
pearance and  was  scattered  broadcast  over  the  land. 
The  people  thus  had  the  question  fairly  before  them, 
and  in  their  local  meetings  discussed  the  points  in- 
volved. The  district  now  included  in  the  county  was 
ripe  for  the  movement.  In  original  Orange  the  gen- 
eral sentiment  was  especially  one  of  approval,  for, 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  city  of  New  York 
had  selected  the  delegates  to  the  Congress  of  1774, 
the  people  of  Orange  determined  to  send  a  delegate 
of  their  own,  and,  at  a  convention  held  at  Goshen, 
appointed  Henry  Wisner  to  represent  them,  whose 
voice  and  signature  were  given  for  non-importation, 

while  southern  Ulstet,  the  home  of  George  Clintoi^ 
had  approved  his  every  act  of  opposition  to  the  de^ 
mands  of  the  ministry.  It  is  not  with  surprise,  there- 
fore,  that  we  read  that  in  the  precincts  of  Newburgh; 
New  Windsor,  Hanover,  Wallkill,  Goshen,  and  Corn- 
wall the  pamphlet  referred  to  was  publicly  burned 
and  committees  of  safety  organized.  i 

The  first  duty  of  these  committees  was  to  provide 
for  sending  delegates  to  a  provincial  convention  to  b^ 
held  in  New  York  for  the  purpose  of  appointing  del-; 
egates  to  the  Second  Continental  Congress  at  Phila- 
delphia. Scarcely  had  this  work  been  completed) 
when,  on  the  29th  of  April,  the  committee  of  Nev? 
York  drew  up  and  signed  a  pledge  to  observe  and 
maintain  the  orders  and  resolutions  of  both  the  Con- 
tinental and  Provincial  Congresses,  and  sent  it  for  sig- 
natures to  all  the  precincts  and  counties  in  the  prov* 
ince.  It  was  an  important  proceeding.  While  local 
committees  of  safety  had  their  place  in  giving  expres^ 
sion  to  the  popular  voice,  the  pledge  of  association^ 
bearing  the  individual  signatures  of  the  people,  was 
an  evidence  that  could  not  be  impeached.  Another 
important  feature  was  that  it  was  virtually  the  organ'; 
ization  of  a  revolutionary  government.  It  was  in  the 
following  form  : 

"  Persuaded  that  the  salvation  of  the  rights  and  liberties  of  Americs 
depend,  under  God,  on  the  firm  union  of  ita  inhabitants  in  a  vigorooB 
prosecution  of  the  measures  necessary  for  its  safety;  and  convinced  of 
the  necessity  of  preventing  anarchy  and  confusion,  which  attend  the 
dissolution  of  the  powers  of  government,  we,  the  freemen,  freelioldera, 

and  inhabitants  of ,  do,in  the  most  solemn  manner,  resolve  never  to 

become  slaves ;  and  do  associate,  under  all  the  tlee  of  religion,  honor, 
and  love  of  our  country,  to  adopt  and  endeavor  to  carry  into  execntion 
whatever  measures  may  be  recommended  by  the  Continental  Congress, 
or  resolved  upon  by  our  Provincial  Convention,  for  the  purpoee  of  pr^ 
serving  our  ConsUtutioD,  and  opposing  the  execution  of  the  several  ar* 
bitrary  acts,  of  the  British  Parliament,  until  «  reconciliation  between 
Great  Britain  and  America,  on  constitutional  principles  (which  we  most 
ardently  desire),  can  be  obtained;  and  that  we  will  in  all  things  follow 
the  advice  of  our  General  Committee  respecting  the  purposes  aforesaid, 
the  preservation  of  peace  and  good  order,  and  the  safety  of  individuals 
and  property." 

With  the  return  of  the  signatures  to  the  general 
committee  of  New  York  the  local  organizations  were 
complete,  presenting  as  their  representatives  commit- 
tees of  safety  and  observation  charged  with  the  exe-. 
cution  of  whatever  measures  might  be  regarded  as 
necessary  by  the  general  committee  of  New  York. 
Almost  immediately  following  this  organization  they 
were  recognized  by  the  Provincial  Convention,  and 
the  local  committees  invested  with  power  to  appoint 
assessors  and  collectors,  while  the  county  committees 
were  to  be  "  considered  as  supervisors  according  to 
the  police  of  the  city,  county,  town,  or  precinct"  in 
which  they  had  been  chosen,  and,  with  the  assessors 
and  collectors,  were  directed  to  assess,  raise,  and  col- 
lect the' quotas  to  be  raised  for  the  support  of  the 
revolutionary  government,  and  were  empowered  to 
enforce  collection  "  by  distress  upon  the  goods  and 
chattels  of  the  defeulters,"  as  had  been  previously 
practiced  in  the  collection  of  taxes  for  the  crown. 
The  power  to  arrest  persons  "  inimical"  to  the  meas- 



ures  which  had  been  or  might  be  taken  was  vested 
in  the  local  committees;  subsequently  (1777)  this 
power  was  greatly  enlarged  by  the  Continental  Con- 
gress, and  the  local  committees  practically  constituted 
marshals  of  the  United  States,  with  power  to  arrest 
under  warrants  charging  the  "  levying  of  war  against 
the  United  States  of  America,  holding  correspond- 
ence with  and  assisting  the  enemies  of  the  said 
States,"  and  of  being  "inimical  to  the  cause  of 
America.''  Whatever  may  have  been  their  purpose 
and  action  in  other  provinces,  in  New  York — where 
a  government  had  to  be  created  to  supplant  that  which 
had  been  established  by  England — they  became  the 
government,  the  town  committees,  where  it  was  ne- 
cessary, taking  upon  themselves  the  powers  of  town 
oflicers,  county  committees  becoming  boards  of  su- 
pervisors, the  general  committee  of  the  province  per- 
forming legislative  duties  in  the  recess  of  the  Provin- 
cial Qonvention,  the  latter  body  becoming  the  supreme 
head  of  the  Revolutionary  movement  until  1777,  when 
a  constitution  was  adopted, — the  first  republican  con- 
stitution of  the  State  of  New  York. 

It  may  be  proper  to  add  that  the  county  commit- 
tees were  not  all  constituted  in  the  same  manner.  In 
counties  where  the  precincts  had  chosen  committees, 
the  latter  bodies  composed  the  county  committee ;  in 
counties  where  there  were  no  precinct  organizations, 
county  committees  might  be  formed  of  any  number 
of  the  "friends  of  liberty;''  in  other  counties,  where 
a  majority  of  the  precincts  had  chosen  committees, 
it  was  provided  that  "  if  there  be  any  district  or  dis- 
tricts that  have  not  chosen  committees,  the  county 
committee  are  to  proceed  in  like  manner  as  if  such 
district  or  districts  were  actually  represented  in  said 
county  committee"  in  the  assessment  of  taxes,  etc. 
Many  of  the  duties  conferred  upon  county  commit- 
tees were  not  operative  where  the  local  authorities 
acted  in  accord  with  the  opponents  of  the  crown,  and 
the  assessment  and  collection  of  taxes  was  in  their 
interest ;  but  in  other  respects  they  had  powers  grow- 
ing out  of  the  necessities  of  the  situation,  among 
which  was  the  following : 

"  If  any  person  or  persons  shall  hereafter  oppose  or  deny  the  authority 
of  the  Continental  or  of  this  (Provincial)  Congress,  or  the  Committee  of 
Safety,  or  the  committees  of  the  respective  counties,  cities,  towns,  manors, 
precincts,  or  districts  in  this  colony,  or  dissuade  any  person  or  persons 
from  obeying  the  recommendations  of  the  Continental  or  this  Congress, 
or  the  Committee  of  Safety,  or  the  committee  aforesaid,  and  be  convicted 
thereof  before  the  committee  of  the  cownty,  or  any  thirteen  or  more  of 
their  number,  who  shall  or  may  meet  upon  a  general  call  of  the  chairman 
of  suc^i  committee  where  such  person  or  persons  may  reside,  that  such 
committee  shall  cause  such  offenders  to  be  disarmed;  and  for  the  second 
ofTunae  they  shall  be  committed  to  close  confiaement,  at  their  respective 
expenae,"  • 

This  explanation  is  given  for  two  purposes :  first,  that 
the  true  character  of  the  associations  and  committees 
may  appear ;  and,  second,  that  the  impression  which 
many  entertain  that  a  signature  to  the  pledge  is  to  be 
regarded  as  positive  evidence  of  the  loyalty  of  the  per- 
son making  it  to  the  cause  of  independence,  may  be 
corrected.  In  the  great  majority  of  cases  the  impression 

referred  to  is  no  doubt  in  accordance  with  the  facts, 
in  others  it  is  not.  There  were  a  few — whose  names 
appear  as  refusing  to  sign — ^who  could,  perhaps,  be 
classed  as  "  Tories"  prior  to  the  adoption  of  the  Dec- 
laration of  Independence.  Men  were  only  asked  to 
give  their  approval  to  proposed  measures  "until  a 
reconciliation  should  be  effected."  When  the  Decla- 
ration was  adopted,  John  Alsop,  in  resigning  his  seat 
in  the  Continental  Congress,  voiced  the  sentiments  of 
a  minority  of  respectable  members  in  saying,  "  As 
long  as  a  door  was  left  open  for  a  reconciliation  with 
Great  Britain,  upon  honorable  terms,  I  was  willing 
and  ready  to  render  my  country  all  the  service  in  my 
power ;  but  as  you  have,  by  that  declaration,  closed 
the  door  of  reconciliation,  I  must  beg  leave  to  resign." 
Perhaps  it  is  fortunate  that  an  analysis  of  the  lists 
cannot  now  be  made  with  a  view  to  show  the  position 
of  each  person  in  the  broader  field  of  rebellion  to 
which  the  country  was  carried  by  the  Declaration. 
That  there  were  many  and  violent  opponents  raised 
up  who  had  previously  acquiesced  in  the  measures 
for  redress,  will  not  be  questioned  by  those  familiar 
with  the  history  of  the  Revolution.  "  Loyalists"  and 
"  Tories"  then  became  familiar  terms, — "  Indians  and 
Tories"  a  terror  on  the  frontiers.  Perhaps  the  Whigs 
committed  excesses,  or  were  too  severe  in  committee 
administration ;  but  this  at  least  is  true,  that  they 
discriminated  between  their  opponents,  driving  one 
class  from  the  country,  but  suffering  the  other  to  en- 
joy their  possessions,  and  their  descendants  to  stand 
as  the  peers  of  their  own  children  in  the  national 
temple  which  they  had  erected.  It  is  not  for  the 
present  or  for  future  generations  to  appeal  from  the 
justice  of  that  discrimination. 

One  other  explanation.  The  signatures  in  Goshen 
precinct  embraced  the  present  town  of  Goshen,  Ches- 
ter, Warwick,  Wawayauda,  Greenville,  and  part  of 
Blooming-Grove  ;  Mount  Hope  and  Deerpark  appear 
in  the  precinct  of  Mamakating ;  Cornwall  precinct 
embraced  the  present  towns  of  Cornwall,  Highlands, 
Monroe,  part  of  Blooming-Grove,  and  a  portion  of 
the  present  county  of  Rockland;  the  precincts  of 
Newburgh,  New  Windsor,  and  Wallkill  will  be  rec- 
ognized as  present  towns,  while  the  precinct  of  Han- 
over included  the  present  towns  of  Montgomery  and 
Crawford.  It  is  this  subdivision  of  the  old  precincts 
that  prevents  the  assignment  of  names  to  towns  as 
now  constituted.    The  following  were  the  signatures : 


Col.  Jona.  Hasbrouck. 
Thomas  Palmer. 
Isaac  Belknap. 
William  Darling. 
Wolvert  Acker. 
John  Belknap. 
John  Robinson. 
Saml.  Clark. 
Beqj.  Birdsall. 
Benjamin  Smith. 
James  Waugh. 
Abel  Belknap. 

Martin  Weigand. 
Wm.  Foster. 
Wm.  Wilson. 
Wm.  Stillwell,  Jr. 
Peter  Bonally. 
Charles  Tooker. 
Leonard  Smith,  Jr. 
Henry  Smith. 
James  Wooden. 
Thomas  Smith, 
Caleb  Case. 
David  Green. 



Moses  Higby,  M.D. 
Henry  Oropsey. 
Wm.  Harding. 
Josepli  Belknap. 
John  StrattOD. 
Lewie  Holt. 
Samnel  Hallock. 
Samuel  Spragne. 
Burroughs  Holmes. 
Samuel  Bond. 
Thomas  Campbell. 
James  Coaman. 
Lewis  Clark. 
Jonathan  Sweet. 
Seuben  Tooker. 
David  Belknap. 
Daniel  Birdaall. 
"Robert  Lockwood, 
Benj.  Knap. 
Saml.  Westlake. 
Joalah  Ward. 
Silas  Gardner. 
Jacob  Gillie. 
Wm.  Kencaden. 
James  Denton. 
John  Foster. 
Hope  Mills. 
John  Gosman. 
Wm.  Wear. 
Thomas  Fish. 
Wm.  Lawrence,  Jr. 
John  Kernoghan. 
Bobert  Hanmer. 
Robert  Rose. 
John  Crowell. 
Obadiah  Weeks. 
Francis  Hanmer. 
William  Bloomer. 
Abraham  Garrison, 
Jamee  Marston. 
Samuel  Gardiner. 
Anning  Smith. 
Richard  Albertson. 
Benj.  Lawrence. 
Richard  Buckingham. 
Jacob  Morewiae. 
Nicholas  Stephens. 
Johannis  Snider. 
Benjamin  Itobinson. 
Andrew  Spragne. 
Thomas  Beaty. 
Solo.  Buckingham. 
Wm.  Bowdieh. 
Jona.  Belknap. 
Jacob  Tremper. 
Abraham  Smith. 
Cornelius  Wood, 
John  Lawrence. 
George  Hack. 
John  Shaw. 
Corns.  Hasbrouck. 
Isaac  Demott. 
David  Smith. 
John  Strattoii. 
[  Absalom  Caee. 
Joseph  Dunn. 
Daniel  Morewise. 
k  Jonathan  Owen. 
Jehiel  Clark. 
Reuben  Holms, 
Nathaniel  Coleman. 
George  Leonard. 
Elnathan  Foster. 
Neal  McLean. 
Wm.  Palmer. 

John  Stillwell. 
Luff  Smith. 
John  Gates. 
Beqj.  Darby. 
Israel  Smith. 
Thads.  Smith. 
Jacob  Myers. 
Saml.  Concklin. 
Isaac  Brown,  M.D, 
Peter  Tilton. 
Jolin  Douaghy, 
Ste.  Stephenson. 
John  Grigge. 
Saml.  Smith. 
Jeremiah  Ward. 
Wm.  Ward. 
Wm.  Rneael. 
John  Tremper, 
Charles  Willett. 
Jeremiah  Dunn. 
Wm.  Lawrence. 
Robert  Wangh. 
Wiggins  Conklin. 
Robert  Realty,  Jr. 
Abr'm  Johnston. 
Silas  Sperry. 
Jamee  Clark. 
David  Mills. 
Caleb  Coffin. 
James  Harris. 
Theo.  Hagaman, 
Wm.  Dunn. 
Nehemiah  Carpenter. 
Leonard  Smith. 
Wm.  Day. 
John  Wandel, 
Abel  Thrall. 
Phineas  Gorwln. 
Moses  Hunt. 
Samuel  Sands. 
Jacob  CoDckliQ. 
Joseph  Price. 
John  Saunders. 
George  Weetlake. 
Burger  Weigand. 
Tunis  Keiter. 
Hugh  Quigly. 
Daniel  Darby. 
Isaac  Brown,  Jr. 
Hezekiah  Wyatt. 
Wm,  Whitehead. 
Daniel  Goldsmith. 
Gabriel  Travis. 
Nathaniel  Weed. 
John  Weed, 
Daniel  Duboise. 
Arthur  Smith. 
Isaac  Fowler, 
Stephen  Outnian. 
Saml.  Stratton. 
Joseph  Carpenter. 
Daniel  Thuretin. 
John  Fowler. 
Daniel  Clark. 
Isaac  Donaldson. 
Wm.  Concklin. 
Charles  Tooker. 
John  Smith. 
Isaac  Fowler,  Jr. 
William  Wright. 
Wm.  White. 
Daniel  KnifTen. 
Rob.  Morrison,  M.D. 
John  Dolson. 
Leonard  Smith. 

Nehemiah  Fowler. 
Stephen  Wiggins. 
Isaiah  Purdy. 
♦Gilbert  Purdy. 
Nathan  Purdy. 
*John  Wiggins. 
*James  Leonard. 
*MoriiB  Flewwelling. 
*Anthony  Beatlebron. 
*Daniel  Hains. 
*Daniel  Denton. 
Daniel  Denton,  Jr. 
*GeorgA  Merritt. 
Adam  Patrick. 
*Gabriel  Travis. 
John  Wiggins,  Jr. 
Joseph  Gedney,  Jr. 
George  Devoll. 
Thomas  Fowler. 
Stephen  Wood. 
*Abel  Flewwelling. 
Jonathan  Pine. 
*Samue1  Fowler. 
Joseph  Cope. 
Hazael  Smith. 
Jonathan  Brnnbridge. 
Joseph  Headley, 

Be/using  to  Sign. 

Benjamin  Lewis. 
Peter  Aldrige. 
*John  Flewwelling. 
Jacob  Fry, 
James  Perry. 
James  Patterson. 
David  Gedney. 
George  Elms. 
Nathan  Purdy,  Jr. 
Daniel  Purdy. 
Daniel  Purdy,  Jr. 
John  Hendrick. 
*lBaac  Barton. 
William  Roach. 
David  Horton. 
Theophilus  Mozer. 
*Jona8  Totten. 
Daniel  Dorland. 
Daniel  Bounds. 
John  Morrel. 
Moses  Knap. 
David  Wyatt. 
Samnel  Denton. 
Thomas  Orr,  Jr. 
*Daniel  Gedney. 
John  Elms. 
Joseph  Penny. 

The  "  Committee  of  Safety  and  Observation*'  was 
appointed  Jan,  27, 1775,  and  was  composed  of  Wolvert 
Acker,  Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  Thomas  Palmer,  Jolm 
Belknap,  Joseph  Coleman,  Moses  Higby,  Samuel 
Sands,  Stephen  Case,  Isaac  Belknap,  Benjamin  Bird- 
sail,  and  John  Robinson, 


Jamra  Ginton. 
John  Nicholson. 
James  McClaughry. 
Matthew  DuBois. 
Robert  Cook. 
John  Umphrey. 
James  Umphrey. 
George  Umphrey. 
Oliver  Humphrey. 
James  McDowell. 
Alexander  Telford. 
Robert  Smith. 
Jonah  Park. 
Scndder  Newman. 
James  Humphrey  (2).f 
John  Davis. 
John  Coleman. 
Joseph  Toung. 
Andrew  Robinson. 
William  Fulton. 
James  Taylor. 
Hugh  Polloy. 
Samuel  Given. 
Robert  Burnet,  Jr. 
Timothy  Mills. 
William  Buchanan. 
Matthew  Bell. 

Walter  McMichael. 
George  Coleman. 
James  Gage. 
Jamee  Dunlap. 
Robert  Stuert. 
Samnel  Wood. 
Nathaniel  Garrison. 
Andrew  Dickaon. 
George  Coleman  (2). 
Peter  John. 
Samuel  Lamb. 
William  Crawford. 
John  W.  Miblan. 
Francis  Mains. 
James  Miller. 
John  Morrison. 
Hugh  Waterson. 
Caleb  Dill. 
John  Dill. 
Edward  Miller. 
Robert  Wbigham. 
John  Cnidge. 
Robert  Boyd,  Sr. 
Silas  Wood. 
Richard  Wood. 
John  Johnston. 
David  Crawford. 

*  Those  marked  with  asterisk  subsequently  came  before  the  committM 
and  made  affidavit  of  their  intention  to  abide  by  the  measures  of  the 
Continental  Congress,  and  pay  their  qnota  of  all  expenses.— a  pledge 
which  some  of  them  subwquently  reconsidered. 

t  (2)  indicates  that  name  appears  twice  without  suffix  of  Jr.  or  flr. 
The  names  are  from  the  original  list,  which  was  not  returned  to  tht 
General  Committee.  It  does  not  appear  to  be  a  complete  list,  there  belns 
known  residents  at  the  time  whose  names  do  not  appear,  nor  Is  tbers  ft 
return  of  those  refusing  to  sign. 



Bobert  ThompBon. 
Charles  Nicholson. 
William  Bobinaoii. 
Arthur  Carecftdden. 
Edward  Lyal. 
Henry  McNeelej. 
William  Niclos. 
Robert  Boyd,  Jr. 
Nathan  Smith. 
Samuel  Logan. 
James  Denntston. 
Jacob  Mills. 
Thomas  Cook. 
Daniel  Clemence. 
Bobert  Cuuhan. 
John  Waugh. 
William  Gage. 
Alexander  Kemahan. 
William  Stinson. 
Henry  Roberson. 
Benjamin  Homan. 
William  Miller. 
William  Telford. 
John  Burnet. 
Joseph  Beatty. 
John  Smith. 
Jamee  M.  Oliver. 
William  Miller  (2). 
Charles  Bym. 
Jonathan  Parshall. 
James  Greer. 
John  Hills. 
Thomas  Eliot. 
Robert  Campbell. 
Nathaniel  Boyd. 
Charles  Kemaghan. 
Eltphalet  Leonard. 
William  Nichols. 
Thomas  McSowel. 
James  Crawford. 
Joseph  Belknap. 
John  Nicoll. 
Samuel  Brewster. 
Samuel  Sly. 
Matthew  McDowell. 
Daniel  Mills. 

John  Morrison  (2). 
Henry  McNeeley,  Jr. 
Alexander  Taylor. 
James  Perry. 
Samuel  Boyd. 
John  Cunningham. 
James  Jackson,  Jr. 
Isaac  Stonehonse. 
John  Hiffeman. 
James  Smith. 
William  Park. 
David  Thompson. 
Nathaniel  Liscomb. 
William  Hnlliner. 
Isaac  Belkni^. 
Nathaniel  Boyd  (2). 
Edward  Petty. 
Bobert  Johnston. 
Joseph  Sweezey. 
Alexander  Fulton. 
James  Faulkner. 
David  aark. 
Nathan  Sargent. 
Gilbert  Peet. 
James  Docksey. 
Solomon  Smith. 
Samuel  Woodward. 
Jonathan  White. 
Alexander  Beatty, 
John  Close  (Rev.). 
William  Moflfat. 
William  Beatty. 
George  Harris. 
Stephen  King. 
John  Murphy. 
Benjamin  Burnam. 
Austin  Beardsley. 
Thomas  Swafford. 
Timothy  White. 
Dennis  Furahay. 
George  Havings. 
Samuel  Brewster,  Jr. 
David  Mandevill. 
William  Welling. 
Peter  Welling. 
Hugh  Turner. 

(Deerpark  and  Mount  Hope.) 

"Committee  of  Safety  and  Observation,"  May  6, 
1775,  was  composed  of  Col.  James  Clinton,  Capt. 
James  McClaughry,  John  Nicoll,  John  Nicholson, 
Nathan  Smith,  Robert  Boyd,  Jr.,  Samuel  Brewster, 
Samuel  Sly,  Samuel  Logan.  May,  1776:  Samuel 
Brewster,  Robert  Boyd,  Jr.,  Nathan  Smith,  Hugh 
Humphrey,  Greorge  Denniston,  John  Nicoll,  Col. 
James  McClaughry,  and  Samuel  Arthur.  Samuel 
Brewster,  chairman. 


No  return  of  names  made.  "  Committee  of  Safety 
and  Observation,"  May  8, 1775:  Dr.  Charles  Clinton, 
chairman,  Alexander  Trimble,  Arthur  Parks,  William 
Jackson,  Henry  Smith,  Jacob  Newkirk,  James  Latta, 
Philip  Mole,  John  Wilkin,  James  McBride,  James 
Milliken,  Samuel  Barkley. 


No  return  of  names.  Committee :  Abimael  Young, 
chairman,  James  Wilkins,  Hezekiah  Gale,  Moses 
Phillips,  and  Henry  Wisner,  Jr.,  Jan.  30,  1775. 

John  Young. 
Capt.  John  Crage. 
Benj.  Cuddeback,  Jr. 
T.  K.  Westbrook. 
William  Johnston. 
Johan.  Stufflebane. 
Johan.  Stufnebane,  Jr. 
John  Thompson. 
Wm.  Cuddeback. 
Elisha  Travis. 
Eli  Strickland. 
Capt.  J.  B.  DeWitt. 
Abner  Skinner. 
Thomas  Kytte. 
Joseph  Drake. 
Isaac  Van  Twill. 
Joseph  Westbrook. 
Daniel  Van  Fleet,  Jr. 
Jacob  Van  Inwegen. 
Com.  Van  Inwegen. 
Reuben  Babbett. 
Robert  Milliken. 
John  Williams. 
Wm.  Smith. 
Jep.  Fuller. 
Joseph  Thomas. 
Joseph  Skinner. 
John  Travis. 
John  Travis,  Jr. 
Robert  Comfort. 
Eph.  FurgisoD. 
Moses  Miller. 
Jno.  Barber. 
John  Fry. 
George  Gillespy. 
Henry  Newkirk. 
Philip  Swactwout,  Esq. 
Wm.  Haxton. 
Robert  Cook. 
William  Rose. 
James  Williams. 
James  Blizard. 
Thomas  Combs. 
Ebenezer  Halcomb. 
Abr.  Cuddeback. 
Aldert  Bosa. 
David  Gillaspy. 
Abrm.  Cuddeback,  Jr. 
Fred.  Benaer. 
Jonathan  Brooks. 
Ebenezer  Parks. 
PetruB  Gnmaer. 
J.  DeWitt  Gumaer. 
Ezekiel  Gumaer. 
Elias  Gumaer. 
Moses  Depiiy,  Jr. 
Jonathan  Wheeler. 
Thomas  Lake. 
Matthew  Neely. 
John  Harding. 
Eph.  Thomas. 
Abm.  McQuin. 
Joseph  Arthur. 
Daniel  Decker. 
John  Brooks. 
David  Daley. 

Jacob  Comfort. 

Jonah  Parks. 

Saml.  Patteraon. 

Joel  Adams. 

James  Cnnen. 

Peter  Simpson. 

Bei^amin  Depny, 

John  McEinstry. 

Harm.  Van  Inwegen. 

Samuel  Depuy. 

Chas.  Gillets. 

James  McCivers. 

Joseph  Hubbard. 

G.  Van  Inwegen. 

Eliphalet  Stevens. 

Adam  Rivenburgh. 

Stephen  Larney. 

Samuel  King. 

Valentine  Wheeler. 

John  Wallis. 

Jacobus  Swartwout. 

Gerardus  Swartwout. 

Phil.  Swartwout,  Jr. 

Jacobus  Cuddeback. 

Petrus  Cuddeback. 

Rufus  Stanton. 

Asa  Kimball. 

Zeh.  Holconib. 

Samuel  Daley. 

Nathan  Cook. 

Henry  Ellsworth. 
John  Seybolt. 
David  Wheeler. 
Elisha  Barber. 
Jonathan  Davis. 
Gershom  Simpson. 
Jacob  Stanton. 
John  Gillaspy. 
Abraham  Smedes. 
Joseph  Shaw. 
Abraham  Rosa. 
Jacob  Rosa. 
Stephen  Halcomb. 
Moses  Boberts. 
Daniel  Roberts. 
Jeremiah  Shaver. 
Joseph  Ogden. 
Elias  Miller. 
George  I.  Denniston. 
Jonathan  Strickland. 
Johannes  Miller. 
John  Douglass. 
Joseph  Bandall. 
Thos.  Gillaspy. 
Daniel  Walling. 
Daniel  Walling,  Jr. 
Matthew  Terwilliger. 
Johannes  Wash. 
Daniel  Woodworth. 
Nathaniel  Travis. 
Ezekiel  Travis. 
Joseph  Travis, 
Isaac  Rosa. 
Abr.  Smith. 
Leonard  Hefinessey. 

"  Committee  of  Safety  and  Observation,"— John 
Young,  president,  who  certified  that  the  association 
was  "  unanimously  signed  by  all  the  freeholders  and 
inhabitants  of  the  precinct,  June  26,  1776." 




William  Satterly. 

John  Minthoru. 

Gideon  Salmon. 

Abraham  Chandler. 

Minidnk  District. 

Phineas  Salmon. 

Jacobus  Laine. 

J.  Westbrook,  Jr. 

Isaac  Davis. 

John  Brown. 

Jacob  Demareet. 

Beqjamin  Cox. 

George  Quick. 

Silas  Horton. 

Joseph  Todd. 

Johu  Prys. 

Jacobus  Davis. 

John  Cravens. 

John  Bigger. 

Levi  Decker. 

JacobUB  Vanfliet. 

Ezra  Keeler. 

Elijah  Doan. 

Samuel  Davis. 

Levi  Van  Etten. 

James  Aspell. 

James  Smith. 

Keuben  Jones. 

Daniel  Cole. 

Zephaniah  Huff. 

John  Carvey. 

Petnis  Cole. 

Benjamin  Corson. 

Wm.  Marshall. 

Benjamin  Forgesson. 

A.  Van  Etten. 

Joel  Westbrook. 

Joseph  Case. 

Elijah  Truman. 

John  Dennett. 

A.  C.'Van  Aken. 

Benjamin  MacVea. 

David  Moore. 

Fetrus  Cuykendal. 

Johannes  Decker,  Jr. 

Christo.  Springsteen. 

Nathaniel  TuthlU. 

Sylvester  Oortright. 

Jacob  Quick. 

Hezekiah  Watkins. 

Joseph  McCane. 

Jacobus  SchoonhoTen. 

Timothy  Wood. 

Daniel  Seeve. 

Joel  Cross. 

Jacobus  Vanfliet,  Jr. 

Benjamin  Wood. 

Samuel  Bartholf. 

Caleb  Goldsmith. 

Thomas  Hart. 

James  Carpenter. 

Henry  Buemer. 

Henry  Smith. 

John  Van  Tuyle. 

Esee  BronsoD. 

Robert  McCane. 

John  Finch. 

S.  Cuykendal,  Jr. 

Isaac  Uptegrove. 

Peter  Gale. 

Hoses  Smith. 

Martinas  Decker,  Jr. 

Solomon  Cuykendal. 

Stephen  Meeker. 

Robert  Thumpeon,  Jr. 

WilhelmuB  Westfall. 

Martinas  Decker. 

Joseph  Smith. 

George  Little. 

Moses  Kortright 

Benjamin  Boorman. 

Thomas  McCane. 

James  Knap. 

Jacob  Harraken. 
G.  Bradcock. 
Ificholas  Slyter. 
Daniel  St.  John. 
Albert  Oaterhoust. 
JohaaneB  Westbrook. 
Simon  Westfall. 


Alexander  Smith. 
Joseph  Gonkling. 
Jonathan  Huxton. 
Oohn  Case. 
Phineas  Bumsey. 
Benjamin  Harlow. 
William  Hubbard. 
Garrett  Duryea. 
David  ToungB. 
Jamea  Miller. 
James  Mapes. 
Joseph  Drake. 
Samuel  Hainee  Smith. 
Increase  Wyman. 
Jonathan  Smith. 
John  Barker. 
Moses  Carpenter. 
Joshua  Corey. 
John  Corey. 
John  Pain. 
Daniel  Pain. 
William  Warne. 
Hezekiah  Warne. 
Zeba  Owen. 
Jonathan  Jayne. 
Caleb  Coleman, 
David  Bngera. 
Henry  Wisner. 
Thomas  Goldsmith. 
Jacobus  Bartholf. 
Gullian  Bartholf. 
Abraham  Dalsen,  Jr. 
Isaac  Dalsen. 
Goroelius  Decker. 
David  Demarest. 
John  Denton. 
Corns.  Van  Ordsdale. 
Joseph  Elliot. 
John  Slliot. 
Abraham  Springsteen. 
Gapt.  Nathaniel  Roe. 
Lieut.  John  Jackson. 
Joseph  Dixon. 
David  Godfrey. 
Silas  Fierson. 

Nehemiah  Pattisou. 
Arthur  Van  Tuyle. 
Wilhelmus  Cole. 
Petnis  Decker. 
Asa  Astly. 
Daniel  Kortright 
Bphraim  Middagh. 

Grove  District. 

George  Duryea. 
John  Eetchum,  Jr. 
William  Heard. 
Phineas  Heard. 
Joshua  Beeve. 
Obadiah  Helm^. 
William  Forbes. 
Coleman  Curtis. 
David  Jones. 
Francis  Baird. 
Stephen  Lewis. 
Nathaniel  Minthorn. 
Gamaliel  Tansdell. 
Andrew  Ohi-iaty. 
Hendrick  Bartholf. 
Peter  Bartholf. 
Beubeu  Hall. 
Solomon  Carpenter. 
Martin  Myer. 
Joshua  Smith. 
Ebenezer  Beer. 
Samuel  Moffat. 
Lieut.  John  Wood. 
Ensign  Daniel  Drake. 
Daniel  Tooker. 
Isaiah  Smith. 
William  Lesly. 
David  Bumsey. 
John  Meeker. 
Joseph  Browne. 
David  Horton. 
Solomon  Smith. 
John  King, 
Guppe  Brooka. 
Samuel  Wickham. 
Silas  Horton. 
Charles  Tookor. 
John  Budd. 
William  Hortoi^ 
Joshua  BrowD. 
Joshua  Brown,  Jr. 
James  MarkeL 
John  Bull. 
Richard  Bull. 
Jeremiah  Butler. 

Samuel  Smith, 
Jacob  Dunning. 
Joshua  Davis. 
John  Williama. 
Bichard  Jones. 
Philip  Borroughs. 
Thomas  Engles. 
Oliver  Heady. 
Bichard  Sheridan. 
Jonathan  Owen. 
Joshna  Wells. 
Jonah  Seely. 
Wright  Smith. 
Silas  Stewart. 
Benjamin  Carpenter. 
Squire  Whitaker. 
Silas  Hulse. 
Elisha  Hulse. 
Benjamin  Smith. 
Samuel  Cooley. 
John  Ferger. 
David  Kendle. 
Samuel  Cole. 
Peter  Miller. 
Bobert  Thompson. 
Matthew  Dilllng. 
James  Little,  Jr. 
Benjamin  Whitaker. 
Henry  David. 
Samuel  Demarest. 
John  Hopper. 
William  Wisner. 
Israel  Wells. 
Daniel  Carpenter. 
Samuel  Carpenter. 
Peter  Arnout. 
Jamea  Bell. 
Jeremiah  S.  Conkling. 
William  Howard. 
James  Dolsen. 
Isaac  Dolsen. 
Beuben  Hall,  Jr. 
Jacob  Fegate. 
Jeremiah  Smith,  Jr. 
Amos  Smith. 
Matthias  Carrey. 
John  Carvey. 
Francis  Myapjoy. 
Solomon  Tracey. 
Amos  Hubbs. 
Thomas  Barker. 
William  Morris. 
John  Kennody. 
Joseph  Wilson. 

Jeremiah  Smith,  Sr. 
Amos  Woolcocks. 
Jeremiah  Ferger. 
Zephaniah  Drake. 
John  Van  Cleft. 
Israel  Holley. 
William  Seely. 
John  Van  Cleft,  Jr. 
David  Cooley,  Jr. 
Nicholas  Van  Tassel. 
Joshua  Weeks. 
Benjamin  Gurrie. 
Samuel  Jones. 
M  ichael  Carpenter. 
Samuel  Webb. 
John  Owen. 
Benjamin  Dunning. 
Wm.  Kimber. 
Gilbert  Bradner. 
Jacob  Finch. 
Hidley  Spencer. 
William  Walworth. 
Corns.  Bartholf,  Jr. 
Stephen  Bartholf. 
Joseph  Allison. 
Michael  Allison. 
Jamea  Allison. 
William  Carpenter. 
Casper  Writer. 
Jonas  Wood. 
David  Linch. 
John  Boyle. 
Michael  Coleman. 
Abraham  Harding. 
Henry  David,  Jr. 
Jonathan  David, 
James  Thompson. 
Jonathan  Cooley. 
John  Whitaker. 
Nathaniel  Mathers. 
Increase  Matthews. 
James  Gardiner. 
John  Little. 
James  Beeves. 
John  Knap. 
Jonathan  Oomey. 
Solomon  Boe. 
Saven  Tracey. 
Obadiah  Smith. 
Henry  Bartholf. 
David  Demarest. 
Jacob  Demareat. 
William  King. 
Ohristopher  Decker. 



James  Steward. 

James  McCane. 

David  Howell,  Jr. 

Joseph  Oldfleld. 

Joseph  Steward. 

John  Thompson. 

John  Howell. 

Joseph  Chilson. 

John  Clark. 

Thomas  Gale. 

Samuel  Harman. 

Silas  Holley. 

John  Felgler. 

Charles  Webb. 

Jabez  Knap. 

Benjamin  Dunning. 

BeqjamiD  Demareat. 

Samuel  Chandler. 

Nathaniel  Knap,  Jr. 

Daniel  Holley. 

Peter  Demarest, 

KIchard  Allison. 

Peter  Barlow. 

Joshua  Drake. 

Saltier  David. 

Henry  Hall. 

Elias  Oldfleld. 

Wait  Smith. 

Edward  David. 

John  Kinnett. 

Samuel  Sawyer, 

Stephen  Jackson. 

John  David. 

Benjamin  Halsted. 

'Jeremiah  Oakley. 

Daniel  Myers. 

Jacob  Cole. 

David  Miller. 

Timothy  Smith. 

Cornelius  Myers. 

George  Eemble. 

Henry  Dobbin. 

John  Smith. 

'  Phineas  Case. 

Wm.  Dill. 

Solomon  Finch. 

Jonathan  Bawson. 

William  Knap. 

Christopher  Myers. 

Solomon  Ho£f. 

William  Reed. 

Gilbert  Aldrige. 

Thomas  Wood. 

Joseph  Currie. 

William  Egger  (Eager). 

James  Kinner. 

Philip  Redrick. 

James  Ramsey. 

Daniel  Egger. 

Joshua  Hallock. 

William  MoCane. 

James  Masters. 

Anning  Owen. 

John  Mory. 

James  McCane. 

James  Clark. 

Jacob  Hulse. 

Oliver  Smith. 

Martin  McConnely. 

Michael  Dunning. 

Solomon  Smith. 

Isaac  Smith. 

William  Horton. 

James  Schoonover, 

Thomas  Denton. 

Cain  Mehany. 

Philip  Horton. 

John  Morrison. 

Asa  Derba. 

Ebenezer  Holly. 

Benjamin  Carpenter. 

Joseph  Coleman. 

Moses  Clark. 

Joshua  Herbert. 

Henry  Samis. 

Jonathan  Coleman. 

William  Helms. 

John  Armstrong. 

Samuel  Knapp. 

William  Kirby. 

Boolof  Van  Brunt. 

Orinus  Bartholf. 


Abel  Jackson. 

James  Bartholf. 

Daniel  Denton. 

Hope  Rhodes.^^ 
Jesse  Oweu^^ 

Nathaniel  Knapp,  Jr. 

Joseph  Halsted. 

Jonas  Denton. 

James  Parshall. 

Michael  Halsted. 

John  Boo. 

Alexander  Coxe. 

Anthony  Swartwout. 

Gershon  Owen. 

Alexander  Jackson. 

Isaac  Cooley. 

Beiuamin  Jackson. 

Samuel  Westbrook. 

Joseph  Grummon. 

Charles  Durland. 

George  Howell. 

Anthony  Westbrook. 

Nathan  Baily. 

John  Springsteed. 

James  Mosier. 

Joshua  Hill. 

Thomas  Beach. 

William  Jackson. 

Samnel  Finch. 

Benjamin  Gabrelis. 

Henry  Jayne. 

Nehemiah  Carpenter. 

Samuel  Beed. 

David  Shephard. 

Richard  Green. 

Samuel  Wells. 

Jabez  Finch. 

Abraham  Dolsen,  Sr. 

James  Hannes. 

Anthony  Swartwout,  Sr. 

Benjamin  Wallworth. 

John  Kinman. 

James  Forgas. 

Jacob  Swartwout 

Daniel  Bosegrout. 

Benjamin  Attwood. 

Samuel  Baily. 

James  Howell. 

John  Davie. 

Gilbert  Howell. 

Isaac  Rhodes,  Jr. 

Oliver  Arnold. 

David  Lowren. 

Isaac  Hoadley. 

William  Drake. 

Jonathan  Archey. 

Moses  Whitehead. 

Nathan  Arnout. 

Daniel  Holly. 

Nathaniel  Sulton. 

John  Myers. 

William  Little. 

John  Kinna. 

Gilbert  V.  Hone. 

David  Stephens. 

Caleb  Smith. 

Isaac  Rhodes. 

Amariah  Fuller. 

Jeremiah  Trickey. 

Stephen  Smith. 

Barnabas  Hortoni^ 

William  Chambers. 

Henry  Clark. 

David  Caeer. 

William  Fullerton. 

AbUah  Telverton. 

John  Carpenter  Smith. 

Matthew  Tyrel. 

David  Benjamin. 

James  Smith. 

Nathan  Roberts. 

Andrew  Miller. 

Hugh  Dobbin. 

James  Drake. 

John  Shepherd. 

Asa  Vail. 

Uriah  Satterly. 

John  Gemer. 

Bazaliel  Seely. 

Hezekiah  Lawrence. 

Francis  Gallow. 

Persona  refuting  to  Sign. 

Nathan  Pemberton. 

John  McDowell. 

Isaac  Bull. 

Matthew  Dillon. 

Benjamin  Cole. 
Caleb  Smith. 
Peter  ArnouL 
Matthew  Howell. 

William  HofT. 
John  Kimball. 
James  Miller. 
James  Stewart. 

John  Myers. 
Isaac  Aylie. 
Jacobus  Demerest. 

David  Howell. 
Christopher  Springsteed. 
David  Jones. 

Matthew  Howell,  Jr. 
Thomas  Angel. 
Isaao  Trecey. 

Abraham  Johnston. 
Stephen  Conkling. 
Joshua  Howell. 

Jacobus  Demerest,  Jr 
Nehemiah  Baily. 
Daniel  Wood. 
Abner  Wood. 

William  Wickham. 
ColviU  Shepherd. 
Charles  Brannon. 
Charles  Brannon,  Jr. 

Eiyah  Egars. 
James  Hulse. 

Samuel  Titus. 
Jonathan  Hallock. 

Eliphalet  Wood. 

John  Newberry. 

Mark  Chambers. 

John  Miller. 

George  Wood. 

Ed.  Newberry. 

David  Cooley. 
Nathaniel  Cooley. 

r^ohn  Rhodes. 
David  Mapes. 

"Committee  of 


and  Observation :"  Isaac 

Nathan  Bailey. 

ZacheuB  Horton. 

NicoU,  Benjamin  Gale,  Moses  Hetfield,  Daniel  Ever- 

Nathan Bailey  (2). 

Joshua  Wells. 

ett,  James  Little, 


Davis.    Daniel    Everett, 

Zephanlah  Kelly. 
Samuel  Satterly. 

Benjamin  Hill. 
Nathaniel  Allison. 

chairman,  Sept.  14 


It  is  presumed  there  were 

William  Vail. 

William  Kinna. 

others  on  the  committee. 

as   the  names  of  John 

James  Hamilton. 

John  Bailey. 

Hathorn,  John  Jackson,  Henry  Wisner,  John  Min- 

Joseph  Beckas. 

Landrine  Eggeis. 

thorne,  and  Nathaniel  Ketchum  appear  as  chairmen 
at  diflferent  times,  but  a  complete  list  is  not  given. 

Ellas  Clark. 
Alexander  ClmpbelL 

John  Conner. 
Peter  Mann. 

Elihu  Horton. 

Daniel  Cooley,  Jr. 

Hugh  Fulton. 

William  Buff. 



Phlneas  Parshall. 

Jacob  Cole. 

John  Brewster,  Jr. 

Samuel  Mapes. 

Peter  Tawnsend. 

Edward  David,  Jr. 

Silas  Benjamin,  Jr. 

Justus  Stevens. 

John  Gardner. 

Daniel  David. 

Smith  Clark. 

David  Stevens. 

Michael  Brooks.  \ 

Richard  Halsted. 

Thomas  Clark. 

Jonathan  Stevens. 



Ephraim  Clark. 
BQDJamin  Mapes. 
Betbuel  Mapes. 
Isaac  Gorley. 
Patrick  Casaaday. 
Joseph  Wilcox. 
Timothy  Smith,  Jr. 
Richard  Honiman. 
Nehemiah  Clark. 
John  Seely. 
James  Peters. 
James  Matthews. 
William  Boe. 
Joseph  Smith. 
John  McWhorter, 
Joaiah  Pell. 
John  Pell,  Jr. 
Abr'm  Ketcbam. 
Thomas  Clark,  Jr. 
William  Hunter. 
Archibald  Little,  Jr. 
Jon^  Seely. 
Israel  Hodges. 
Samuel  Knights. 
James  Sayre. 
Isaac  Corley,  Jr. 
Jesse  Marvin. 
Jeremiah  Clark. 
Joseph  Wood. 
Archibald  Little. 
Stephen  Gilbert. 
Abraham  Loce. 
John  Mapes. 
Joseph  Ketcham. 
Samuel  Ketcham,  Jr. 
Benjamin  Ketcham,  Jr. 
Benjamin  Ketcham. 
Joseph  Morrell. 
James  TathilL 
Brewster  Helme. 
William  Brown. 
Asahel  Coleman. 
Samuel  Sacket. 
Micah  Coleman. 
John  Smith. 
Gersbom  Clark. 
Timothy  Little. 
James  Little. 
Thaddeus  Seely. 
^  Betgamin  Gregoiy. 
William  Nicholson. 
Silvanus  White. 
Daniel  Coleman. 
John  Brewster. 
Christopher  Van  Duzer. 
Isaac  Van  Buzer,  Jr. 
Boger  Barton. 
Obadiah  Thorn. 
Solomon  Sheldon. 
Absalom  Townsend. 
James  Hall. 
Silas  Hall. 
John  W.  Clark. 
Paul  Howell. 
Silaa  Howell. 
Bazaliel  Seely. 
Elijah  Hudson. 
Samuel  Moffat,  Jr. 
Hugh  Murray. 
Bennis  Cooley. 
Silvanus  Sayles. 
Matthew  Sweny. 
Isaac  Brewster. 
Ebenezer  WoodhnU. 
Nathaniel  Strong. 
Daniel  Tntblll. 

Daniel  Mapes. 
Smith  Mapes. 
Isaiah  Mapes. 
Nathan  Marvin. 
Samuel  Gibson. 
Solomon  Little. 
Jesse  Woodhull. 
Nathan  Brewster. 
Jonathan  Brooks. 
Elihu  Marvin. 
Seth  Marvin. 
Elihu  Marvin,  Jr. 
David  Beggs. 
Timothy  Brewster. 
Isaac  Brown. 
Jesse  Teed. 
Bepjamin  Budd. 
Beqjamjn  Lester. 
Joab  Coleman. 
Phineaa  Helmee. 
Silas  Youngs. 
Silas  Youn^,  Jr. 
Beuben  Youngs. 
Abimael  Youngs,  Jr. 
John  Callay. 
Thomas  Sullivan. 
Jeremiah  Howell. 
Geoi^e  Baitman. 
Josiab  Seely. 
John  McCarty. 
John  Wood. 
Thomas  Moffat. 
Samuel  Smith. 
David  Mandevil. 
Vincent  Matthews. 
Samuel  Ketcham. 
Eleazer  Youmans. 
Stephen  Youmans. 
John  Marvin. 
Jonathan  Hallock. 
John  Pecham. 
John  Burges. 
Patrick  Odey. 
Isaiah  Howell. 
Samuel  Seely. 
Israel  Seely. 
Nathaniel  Seely. 
Nathaniel  Seely,  Jr. 
Jesse  Seely. 
Obadiah  Smith. 
Nathaniel  Satterly. 
Hezekiah  Howell,  Jr. 
Patrick  McLaughlin. 
Daniel  Devon. 
James  Davidson. 
Bn.  Cnift. 

Nathaniel  Sayre,  Jr. 
David  Clark. 
Bichard  Drake. 
Joslah  Beeder. 
Peter  Boeder. 
Stephen  Beeder. 
Jacob  Beeder. 
Samuel  Beeder. 
Francis  Vantine. 
Alexander  Sutton. 
Samuel  Smith. 
Thomas  Smith. 
Jacob  White. 
Justus  Philby. 
Beojamin  Corey. 
Frederick  Tobias. 
Gilbert  Weeks. 
Nathan  Birchard. 
Zebulon  Birchard, 
Robert  Haight 

Maurice  Hearen. 

Daniel  Thome. 

James  Smith. 

Timothy  Wood. 

Henry  Dler,  Sr. 

Samuel  Moffat. 

Silaa  Pleraon. 

Sylvanns  Halsey. 

Silas  Pienon,  Jr. 

Barnabas  Many. 

Bichard  Coleman. 

Luther  Stuart. 

Francis  Dral^e. 

James  Sayre,  Jr. 

Benoni  Brock. 

John  Sayre. 

Justus  Hulse. 

Birdseye  Young. 

Stephen  Howell. 

Aaron  Howell,  Jr. 

Stephen  Sayles. 

WilUam  King, 

Daniel  Smith. 

Isaao  Bower. 

Daniel  Jones. 

Thaddeus  Cooley. 

John  Brooks. 

Wm.  HcLsnghlin. 

John  HolTat. 

Naasiad  Curtis. 

Michael  Kelly. 

Elijah  Green. 

John  Leonard. 

Jonathan  Tuthill. 

Lewis  Donnovan. 

Francis  TuthiU. 

John  Close  (BeT.). 

Zachariah  DuBois. 

John  Pride. 

Francis  Brewster. 

Joseph  Callings. 

John  McLean. 

Thomas  Ceilings. 

Austin  Smith. 

James  Moore. 

Joseph  Lamoreux. 

Benjamin  Thome. 

Eleazer  Taylor, 

John  Parker. 

William  Bradley. 

Hezekiah  Howell. 

Nathaniel  Pease. 

Bichard  Collingwood. 

Cbarlee  Howell. 

Silas  Benjamin. 

B.  Taylor. 

John  Beiuamin. 

Wm.  Cook. 

John  Kelley. 

Thomas  Chatfield. 

Aaron  Howell. 

James  Wilkins. 

John  Carpenter. 

WUliam  Moffat 

Benjamin  Carpenter. 

Isaac  Molbt. 

Timothy  Carpenter. 

John  Moffat. 

Joseph  Carpenter,  Jr. 

Thomas  Lenington. 

^         Bobert  Gregg. 

Jesse  Brewster. 

Samuel  Bartlett. 

Joseph  Chandler. 

^William  Owen. 

William  Gregg. 

Silas  Coleman. 

Silvanus  Bishop. 

Hugh  Gregg. 

Samuel  Smith. 

s         Francis  Drake. 

John  Faren. 

Charick  Yanduzen. 

Isaac  Yandusen  (3d). 

Azariah  Martin. 

John  Lightbody. 

^Abraham  Butler. 

Gabriel  Lightbody. 

Zachariah  Burwell> 

Isaac  Lightbody. 

Joshua  Barwell.  v^ 
Joseph  Beeder. 
John  Beeder. 
William  Beeder. 
Joseph  Beeder,  Jr. 
Samuel  Tuthill. 
Bei^amin  Tuthill. 
Joshua  Sandstar. 
Isaac  Lamoureux. 
John  Lamoureux. 
John  Lamoureux  (2d). 
Peter  Lamoureux. 
Luke  Lamoureux. 
Peter  Lamoureux,  Jr. 
Philip  Miller. 
John  Carpenter. 
Eiyah  Carpenter. 
William  Carpenter. 
Joseph  Halstead. 
Jonathan  DuBois. 
Thomas  Foley. 
Thomas  Herley. 
Zacheus  Horton. 
Jonas  Qarrison. 
Samuel  Bobbins. 
William  Bedall. 
Thomas  Smith. 
Jacob  Comten. 
Jacob  Comten,  Jr. 
Thomas  Cooper. 
William  Clark. 

Andrew  Lightbody. 
Jamee  Lightbody. 
Thomas  Hulse.  , 

Selab  Satterly. 
Joel  Tuthill. 
John  Miller. 
Arch.  Cunningham. 
James  Galloway. 
Abner  Thorp. 
John  Johiuon. 
Arche.  GoDcham,  Jr. 
George  Whi  taker. 
Henry  Myers. 
Henry  Brewster,  Jr. 
Joseph  Van  Nort. 
William  Conkling. 
John  Brooks. 
Neal  Anderson. 
James  Mttcholl. 
Jamee  Overton. 
Mosee  Strain. 
,  Caleb  Ashley. 
Bei^amin  Chichester. 
Jacob  Devo. 
Thomas  Willett. 
Thomas  Hortun. 
Hanes  Bartlett. 
Reuben  Taber. 
Solomon  Cornwell, 
John  W.  Tuthill. 
Joseph  Davis. 



Abraham  Sneden. 
Adam  Belsher. 
Stephen  Hulae. 
EleaMr  Luce. 
Timothy  Corwin. 
Jailiee  Lndis. 
Daniel  Btimsey. 
John  Tuthill. 
'William  Owens. 
'William  Bartlett. 
James  StoughC. 
John  Carpenter. 
James  McOtugin. 
'William  Hooge. 
Jamee  McGuffack. 
Silas  Corwin. 
Henry  Brewster. 
Stephen  Haleey. 
James  Haleey. 
Jacob  Brown. 
John  Earll.^ — "^ 
Peter  Karll^— - 
Abraham  Cooley. 
Silas  Tucker. 
George  Everson. 
Thomas  Sversoa. 
Reuben  Tucker. 
David  Wilson. 
Peter  Lowrie. 
Elisha  Smith. 
Aaron  BeOrauw. 
Amos  Wood. 
John  Williams. 
Togidah  Dickens. 
Samuel  Howard. 
William  Howard. 
Francis  Bourk. 
John  Daynes. 
Aaron  Miller. 
Owen  Nohlen. 
Edward  Robben. 
Isaac  Horton. 
Hugh  McDonel. 
Jamee  Wilke. 
James  Wilke,  Jr. 
Bichard  Wilka. 
William  Tompson. 
John  Johnson. 
John  Wageut. 
John  Wagent  (2d). 
Joseph  Stevens. 
ThoniQfl  Smith. 
Silas  Beynolds. 
John  Woolly. 
Peter  Stevens. 
WilUam  Obadge. 
John  Boucke. 
Silas  Mills,  Jr. 
Charles  Field. 
Henry  Maudeville. 
Jacob  Maudeville. 
Francis  Uandeville. 
Peter  Eeynolds. 
Thomas  Powell. 
Benjamin  Pringle. 
Daniel  Prindle. 
Fnoa  Prindle. 
Oliver  Davenport. 
Cheater  Adams, 
Joseph  Canfield. 
Beqjamin  Canfield. 
John  Canfield. 
Amos  Miller. 
Com  well  Sands. 
Thomas  Liuch. 
George  Galloway. 

Nathaniel  Jayne. 
Stephen  Jayne. 
Daniel  Jayne. 
Joseph  Hildreth. 
Adam  Miller. 
Isaac  Tobias. 
David  Bloomfield. 
Gilbert  Boberts. 
Lawrence  Ferguson. 
Daniel  Harrison. 
Daniel  Miller. 
•  Joeeph  Gold. 
Henry  Davenport. 
Israel  Osmun. 
Ezekiel  Osmun. 
Henry  HaU. 
William  Cooper. 
Samuel  Lows. 
Jacob  Lows. 
Tobias  Wygant. 
James  Lewis. 
Nathaniel  Bigga. 
James  Hufi'. 
Daniel  Curtis. 
Nathan  Strong. 
Solomon  Sarvis. 
Bichard  Earll. 
Benjamin  Earll. 
John  Brase. 
Robert  Brock. 
Neal  Anderson  (2d). 
Bei^amin  Jayne. 
Joseph  Patterson. 
Thomas  Gregg. 
Jacob  Vanduzer. 
Andrew  Stuart. 
Henry  Atwood. 
Isaac  Vanduzer. 
William  Ayres. 
William  Miller. 
Jonas  Smith. 
Francis  Plumsted. 
Samuel  Whitmore. 
Amos  Whitmore. 
George  Everitt 
David  Miller. 
Zabud  June. 
Francis  Smith. 
Thomas  Dearin. 
Jeremiah  Fowler. 
Martin  Clark. 
Bichard  Langdon. 
Stephen  Feet. 
John  Cronckhite. 
Andrew  Sherwood. 
William  Sherwood. 
Samuel  Strung. 
Thomas  Oliver. 
John  Car. 
Garret  Miller. 
David  Causter. 
Joshua  Miller. 
William  Bell. 
Zophar  Head. 
John  Hall. 
Beqjamin  Kelley. 
Henry  Dier. 
William  Gompten. 
Philip  Boblin. 
Samuel  Hall. 
Matthias  Tyson. 
Yincent  Helme. 
L.  Can  field. 
Daniel  Adams. 
Patrick  Ford. 
Amoe  Mills. 

John  Smith. 
Dariah  Stage. 
Garret  Willem,  Jr. 
William  Horton. 
Bei\j.  Miller. 
James  Miller. 
Asa  Buck. 
Robert  Miller. 
John  McEelvey. 
Benjamin  Goldsmith. 
Joeeph  Miller. 
Timothy  Owens. 
John  Gee. 
John  Arkils. 
John  Earll,  Jr. 
David  Standley. 
James  Unels. 
James  Arnold. 
Nathan  June. 
Fan  ton  Horn. 
Thomas  Davenport. 
Oliver  Davenport. 
Robert  Davenport 
Gideon  Florence. 
Criah  Wood. 
Amos  Wood. 
Benjamin  Wood. 
John  Wood  (3d). 
Daniel  Wood. 
James  Scoldfield. 
Uriah  Crawford. 
Thomas  Lamoureux. 
James  Tuttle. 
John  Florence. 
Francis  Miller. 
Thomas  Gilbert. 
Alexander  Galloway. 

John  Barton. 
Andrew  Southerland. 
James  Southerland.*' 
Alex.  Southerland.    4 
David  Southerlaud  (&_ 
John  Southerland.     ^ 
David  Southerland.  ^ 
Henry  Cunningham. 
Henry  Beynolds. 
David  June. 
Bichard  Sheldon. 
John  Celley. 
Stephen  C.  Clark. 
Reuben  Clark. 
Joseph  Plumfield. 
John  Wood. 
Stephen  Wood. 
Amos  Pains. 
Joseph  Cupper. 
Joseph  Canfield,  Jr. 
Francis  Welton. 
John  J.  Hammond. 
Solomon  Siles. 
Thomas  Porter. 
Juhn  Samson. 
Micah  Seaman. 
Jonathan  Earll. 
John  Haman. 
Alexander  Johnson. 
Samuel  Earll. 
Samuel  Raymond. 
WilUam  Douglas, 
Patrick  McDowell. 
Elijah  Barton. 
Benj.  Quackenbush. 
William  White. 
Jacob  Vanduzer. 

Persons  refusing  to  Sign, 

Isaac  Howell. 
John  Veltman. 
Robert  McAdell. 
Thomas  Coin. 
William  Wood. 
Thomas  Biggs. 
Saml.  Smith. 
Hop.  Smith. 
Aaron  Cunningham. 
Beiijamin  Darling. 
Langford  Thorn. 
Thomas  Coleman. 
Silas  Bagley. 
Josiah  Gilbert. 
Isaiah  Reeve. 
John  McCay. 

Benjamin  Leveridge. 
James  Smith. 
Sol.  Thompson. 
John  Dave. 
Moses  Clark. 
William  Boley. 
Samuel  Rockwell 
James  Jurdin. 
Ebenezer  Seely. 
Simon  Bumsey. 
Theophilus  Wood. 
Oliver  Patterson. 
(Seot^e  Leonard. 
David  Smith. 
David  Sands. 
Nathaniel  Sands. 

"Committee  of  Safety  and  Observation,"  1775: 
Hezekiah  Howell,  Archibald  Little,  Elihu  Marvin, 
Nathaniel  Satterly,  Nathaniel  Strong,  Jonathan 
Brooks,  Stephen  Gilbert,  Zachariah  DuBois,  Thomas 
Moffat.    Thomas  Moffat,  chairman. 

The  "  County  Committee"  of  Orange,  in  1776,  had 
for  its  chairman  Elihu  Marvin,  of  Cornwall,  and 
David  Pye  "  deputy  chairman  for  south  side  of  moun- 
tain,"— i.e.,  for  Haverstraw  and  Orangetown.  In 
Ulster  County,  Robert  Boyd,  of  New  Windsor,  was 

In  regard  to  the  action  or  causes  of  action  of  the 
committees  of  the  precinct,  or  of  the  county  commit- 
tee, there  is  little  of  record  except  inferentially.  The 
first  duty  upon  which  the  former  entered  was  the 
organization  of  military  companies   and   the  pro- 



curing  of  arms  and  ammunition ;  their  second,  was 
the  arrest  of  the  disaffected.  In  October,  1775,  Ste- 
phen Wiggins  and  David  Purdy,  of  Newburgh,  were 
arrested  for  inimical  conduct  and  principles.  In 
1776,  Samuel  Devine  was  committed  to  jail,  he  having 
"  repeatedly  drank  damnation  to  the  Congress  and  all 
the  Whigs."  In  1778,  Samuel  Fowler  and  Daniel 
Denton  were  arrested  as  persons  of  "  equivocal  and 
suspected  characters;"  Silas  Gardner  for  "levying 
war  against  the  United  States  of  America,  and  hold- 
ing correspondence  with  and  assisting  the  enemies  of 
the  said  States," — his  real  offense  being  that  he  had 
assisted  the  wife  of  Sir  John  Johnston  in  passing  the 
American  lines  to  her  husband  in  New  York,  for 
which  he  was  sentenced  to  be  hung,  and  was  par- 
doned under  the  gallows.  The  next  were  James 
Flewwelling,  Elnathan  Foster,  John  Flewwelling, 
David  Wyatt,  Solomon  Combs,  Benjamin  Smith,  Ste- 
phen Wood,  John  Moffat,  Benjamin  Darby,  Timothy 
Wood,  Robert  Denton,  James  Cosman,  and  Amos 
Ireland,  who,  it  was  alleged,  were  on  their  way  to 
join  the  enemy.  Cadwallader  Colden,  Jr.,  for  gen- 
eral conduct  inimical  to  the  popular  cause,  and  for 
having  concealed  weapons,  was  arrested  by  the  New 
Windsor  committee,  it  appearing  that  the  committee 
of  Hanover  Precinct,  in  which  he  lived,  had  some 
fear  in  undertaking  proceedings  against  him.  He 
was  kept  on  parole  for  the  remainder  of  the  war,  and 
ultimately  returned  to  the  possession  of  his  estates. 
Elnathan  Foster  and  Benjamin  Smith  took  the  oath 
of  allegiance  and  returned  to  their  homes  after  a 
period  of  iiicarceration  in  Kingston  jail,  and  lived 
and  died  respected  by  their  neighbors.  James  Flew- 
welling ultimately  joined  the  cow-boys,  and  was  hung 
at  Goshen.  James  Cosman  found  refuge  in  Tarleton's 
Legion,  and,  after  the  war,  in  Nova  Scotia. 

Meagre  as  are  these  details,  they  serve  to  show  that 
the  committees  were  not  idle,  a  fact  which  more 
clearly  appears  from  general  records.  Joshua  Hett 
Smith,  arrested  for  complicity  in  Arnold's  treason, 
writes  in  his  narrative,  that  the  jail  at  Goshen  "  was 
filled  with  those  who  professed  themselves  to  be  the 
king's  friends, — Tories,  and  those  who  were  prisoners 
<Jf  war, — felons,  and  characters  of  all  colors  and  descrip- 
tions." The  jail  at  Kingstoil  overflowed  with  similar 
prisoners,  and  the  surplus  were  removed  to  vessels 
which  were  anchored  in  Eondout  Creek  and  termed 
the  "Fleet  Prison."  Notwithstanding  the  arrests 
•which  were  made,  those  who  were  opposed  to  the 
revolutionary  movement  continued  to  be  troublesome. 
Thomas  Palmer,  under  date  of  March  11,  1777,  re- 
ferring to  the  precinct  of  Newburgh  more  especially, 
but  with  evident  application  to  adjacent  country, 
writes : 

"Toil  are  not  altogether  strangers  to  the  nest  of  Tories  which  has, 
since  the  troublesome  times,  infested  this  precinct  in  particular.  The 
necessary  precautions,  however,  heretofore  taken  for  curbing  their  in- 
solence has  humbled  some,  while  a  number  of  others,  not  being  able  to 
retain  their  venom,  have  gone  over  to  the  enemy  and  left  their  families 
vith  us,  who,  being  chiefly  women  and  children,  speak  the  language  of 

their  absconded  husbands  and  parents.  But  in  the  midst  of  onr  titnbli 
with  these  rebels  we  are  greatly  satisfied  to  hear  that  their  leader  thi 
mischievous  Mnjor  Colden,  is  apprehended  and  secured;  but  still  even 
day  seems  to  bring  along  with  it  new  evidences  of  their  rebellions  in. 
tentions,  for  numbers  of  those  who  have  gone  off  to  the  enemy  have  1^ 
behind  them  at  their  farms  near  the  river  crops  of  wheat  and  othv 
grain,  and  as  they  refuse  selling  it  at  any  rate,  no  doubt  their  intenVn 
are  to  reserve  it  for  the  enemy,  as  many  of  them  baldly  say  thattht; 
expect  the  shipping  up  daily.  It  is  not  only  those,  but  many  othera  who 
are  not  gone  off,  no  doubt  act  upon  the  same  principle,  as  they  xefuse  [n 
like  manner  to  psrt  with,  their  grain." 

To  what  extent "  the  necessary  precautions"  adopted 
by  the  committees  had  a  beneficial  ^ect  cannot  be 
stated,  but  that  they  were  not  sufficient  to  prevent  no 
small  number  from  joining  the  British,  army  in  activt 
hostilities  is  only  too  evident.  The  occupation  of 
New  York  City,  Long  Island,  and  the  eastern  part  of 
New  Jersey  by  the  British  gave  to  this  class  of  their 
allies  peculiar  opportunities  for  predatory  warfare, 
and  from  their  operations  the  Highland  districts  of 
Orange  were  especially  harassed.  Gathering  in  small 
bands  under  some  chosen  leader,  they  sallied  forth  on 
their  errands  of  plunder  from  New  Jersey  and  ftom 
secure  retreats  in  the  lower  Highlands,  covered  by 
the  enemy's  works  at  Stony  Point  and  at  Fort  Lee, 
and  became  a  terror  to  the  inhabitants.  The  names 
of  the  captains  or  leaders  of  these  several  bands  have 
not  in  all  cases  been  preserved.  Conspicuous  among 
them,  however,  were  Capts.  Moody,  John  Mason,  and 
Claudius  Smith,  and  his  son,  Richard  Smith.  Capt 
or  Ensign  Moody  is  introduced  by  Joshua  Hett  Smith, 
who  writes  of  him : 

"  The  Clove  was  celebrated  for  the  attachment  of  the  inhabitants  in 
general  to  the  British  interests,  who  had  frequently  encouraged  aai 
protected  parties  from  New  York  in  their  mountainous  recesses,  andlt 
was  in  this  defile  that  the  celebrated  Capt  Moody,  lu  May,  1781,  !•• , 
tercepted  an  express  from  Gen.  Washington  to  Congrese,  commuid» 
ting  the  result  of  his  interviews  with  the  commanders  of  the  land  sod 
naval  forces  of  France." 

Subsequently  we  find  him  in  New  Jersey,  at  the 
head  of  a  party  of  nine  men,  bearing  a  commission 
from  Gen.  Knyphausen,  "  to  carry  off  the  person  of 
Governor  Livingston,  or  any  other  person  acting  in 
public  station"  that  he  might  meet  with  whose  arrest 
he  might  deem  necessary  to  secure  his  own  safety  and 
that  of  his  party.  He  failed  in  the  undertaking,  and 
barely  escaped  capture.  When  the  facts  became 
known  Governor  Livingston  offered  a  reward  of  two 
hundred  dollars  for  his  apprehension,  or  for  any  or 
either  of  his  associates,  whose  names,  so  far  as  known, 
were  recited  as  Caleb  Sweesy,  James  O'Hara,  John 
Moody,  and  Gysbert  Eyberlin.  Moody  retaliated 
with  a  proclamation  offering  two  hundred  guineaslH 
the  delivery  of  Livingston  alive  into  the  custody  of 
Cunningham,  the  provost-keeper  in  New  York,  and 
thus  the  matter  ended.*  It  may  be  remarked  that 
the  dispatches  which  he  captured  were  designed  by 
Washington  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  British,  and 
had  the  effect  to  lead  Sir  Henry  Clinton  to  withdraw 
a  portion  of  the  forces  under  Cornwallis,  renderiiig 

*  "  Diary  of  the  Revolution,"  ii.  308, 466. 



the  capture  of  the  latter  at  Yorktown  a  matter  of 
much  easier  accomplishment. 

Of  John  Mason  nothing  appears  of  record  farther 
than  the  fact  stated  by  one  of  his  accomplices  under 
arrest  that  he  was  a  leader  of  one  of  the  bands  which 
had  their  headquarters  in  the  Clove,  and  is  said  to  have 
been  engaged  in  several  robberies  and  at  least  one 
murder.    The  theme  of  local  interest  and  history  is 

Who  was  Claudius  Smith  ?  His  family  is  said  to 
have  been  of  English  origin,  and  to  have  been  among 
the  early  settlers  of  Brookhaven,  L.  I.,  where  he  was 
bom,  and  from  whence  he  removed  with  his  father 
some  years  anterior  to  the  Revolution,  and  took  up 
his  residence  at  a  place  more  recently  known  as  Mc- 
Knight's  Mills,  in  the  present  town  of  Monroe,  where 
he  grew  up  to  manhood,  married,  and  had  sons  of  suf- 
ficient age  to  unite  with  him  in  his  predatory  excur- 
sions. ,  It  is  not  necessary  that  his  identification 
should  be  made  more  complete,  and  an  attempt  to  do 
so,  in  the  absence  of  positive  evidence,  might  result 
in  injustice.  It  may  safely  be  stated,  however,  that 
the  family  of  Smiths  were  early  settlers  in  and  gave 
their  name  to  Smith's  Clove.  Claudius  is  described 
as  "  a  man  of  large  stature  and  powerful  nerve,  of 
keen  penetration ;  one  upon  whom  nature  had  be- 
stowed abilities  worthy  to  be  exerted  in  a  better  cause. 
He  conducted  his  expeditions  with  such  cautiousness 
as  scarcely  to  be  suspected  until  in  the  very  execu- 
tion of  them ;  and  if  a  sudden  descent  was  made  upon 
him,  by  some  bold  stroke  or  wily  manoeuvre  he  would 
successfully  evade  his  pursuers  and  make  his  escape." 
That  he  had  the  credit  of  doing  much  that  he  did  not 
do  is  no  doubt  true ;  murder  was  not  one  of  his 
offenses,  although  murder  was  committed ;  he  was  a 
"  cow-boy,"  a  stealer  of  horses  and  cattle,  perhaps  of 
silverware,  and  money,  if  he  could  find  it,  and  as  a 
thief  he  was  tried  and  executed  at  Goshen  on  the  22d 
of  January,  1779.  his  indictment  being  "  for  burglary 
at  the  house  of  John  Earle ;  for  robbery  at  the  house 
of  Ebenezer  Woodhull ;  for  robbery  of  the  dwelling 
and  still-house  of  William  Bell."  Whatever  other 
sins  he  may  have  committed  were  not  charged  against 
him.  He  had  good  qualities.  It  is  said  "  that  the 
poor  man  found  in  him  a  friend  ready  to  share  both 
his  meal  and  his  purse,  and  it  is  believed  that  much 
of  what  he  extracted  from  the  wealthy  he  bestowed 
upon  the  indigent."  He  was  hospitable.  "  The  late 
Judge  Bodle,  of  Tompkins  County,  a  former  resident 
of  Orange,  related  a  circumstance  which  occurred 
with  himself.  On  the  morning  following  the  capture 
of  Fort  Montgomery  by  the  British,  he  was  pursuing 
his  way  homeward  from  the  neighborhood  of  the  dis- 
aster, when  he  suddenly  met  Claudius  Smith  in  the 
road.  They  knew  each  other.  Judge  Bodle  was  per- 
plexed ;  to  escape  was  impossible,  and  putting  on  a 
bold  front  he  approached  Claudius,  who  addressed 
him  with  a  friendly  good-morning,  and   after  in- 

quiring the  news  from  the  river,  continued,  'Mr. 
Bodle,  you  are  weary  with  walking :  go  to  my  dwel- 
ling yonder  (directing  to  a  place  off  the  road)  and  ask 
my  wife  to  give  you  a  breakfast,  and  tell  her  that  I 
sent  you.' "  He  hated  meanness,  and  when  one  whom 
he  knew  had  money  refused  to  lend  that  which  was 
necessary  to  Mrs.  Col.  James  McClaughry  to  relieve 
her  husband,  then  a  prisoner  in  the  hands  of  the 
British,  it  is  said  that  he  sent  members  of  his  band 
and  abstracted  the  money  the  loan  of  which  had  been 

At  what  time  Claudius  Smith  commenced  his  dep- 
redations in  the  interest  of  the  British  government  is 
not  known ;  he  is  first  met  in  public  records  in  July, 
1777,  as  a  prisoner  in  Kingston  jail,  in  company  with 
one  John  Brown,  "  charged  with  stealing  oxen  be- 
longing to  the  continent."  From  Kingston  he  was 
transferred  to  the  jail  at  Goshen,  from  whence  it  is  said 
he  escaped.  In  anything  like  a  tangible  record,  he 
is  next  met  on  his  capture  on  Long  Island,  in  the  fall 
of  1778,  and  the  official  narrative  closes  with  his  exe- 
cution. The  immediate  act  which  led  to  his  arrest  was 
the  murder  of  Maj.  Nathaniel  Strong,  of  Blooming- 
Grove.  Immediately  following  this  outrage,  and  with 
a  view  to  break  up  the  band,  Governor  Clinton  (Oct. 
31,  1778)  offered  a  reward  for  the  apprehension  of 
Claudius  and  his  sons,  Richard  and  James.  Claudius 
fled  to  Long  Island,  where  he  was  recognized  by  Maj. 
John  Brush,  at  that  time  visiting  Long  Island  from 
his  residence  in  Connecticut,  who,  having  previously 
read  Governor  Clinton's  proclamation,  returned  across 
the  Sound  and  made  up  a  party,  who  visited  the  island 
in  the  night,  seized  Smith  in  his  bed,  and  conveyed 
him  to  Connecticut,  where  he  was  placed  under  guard. 
By  direction  of  Governor  Clinton,  to  whom  the  arrest 
was  immediately  reported,  Smith  was  taken  through 
Connecticut  to  Fishkill  Landing,  where  he  was  met 
by  Col.  Isaac  Nicoll,  sheriff  of  Orange  County,  and, 
under  guard  of  Capt.  Woodhull's  troop  of  light-horse, 
taken  to  Goshen,  where  he  was  ironed  and  placed  in 
jail.  His  trial  was  held  at  the  Oyer  and  Terminer, 
Jan.  13,  1779,  and  his  execution  followed  on  the  22d 
of  the  same  month. 

Smith's  associates  were  greater  criminals  than  him- 
self. Five  of  them,  viz. :  "  Matthew  Dolson,  John 
Ryan,  Thomas  Delamar,  John  Gordon,  and  Amy  Au- 
gor,  late  Amy  Jones,''  were  executed  with  him.  His 
son  James  is  believed  to  have  been  executed  at  Go- 
shen soon  after  his  father,  in  company  with  James 
Flewwelling  and  William  Cole ;  his  son  William  was 
shot  in  the  mountains  before  his  father  was  executed, 
and  also  Benjamin  Kelley,  another  member.  Not  one 
of  the  band  was  ever  tried  for  murder,  although  mur- 
der was  committed  by  them  in  the  case  of  Maj.  Strong, 
and  also  in  the  case  of  one  John  W.  Clark,  who  re- 
sided near  the  Stirling  Iron- Works.*    Richard,  the 

*  The  following  is  from  the  Fiahkill  Packet,  April  28, 1779 :  "  We  hear 
fh>m  Goshen  that  a  horrible  murder  was  committed  near  the  Stirling 



youngest  son  of  Claudius,  with  several  members  of 
the  band,  escaped  to  Nova  Scotia  after  peace  was  de- 
clared. Traditions  of  the  mode  of  procedure  and 
operations  of  these  men  are  numerous  and  varied. 
One  of  the  best  authenticated  is  supplied  by  Mr. 
Quinlan  in  his  "  History  of  Sullivan  County,"  who 
recites  the  story  of  the  attack  on  Henry  Eeynolds, 
of  Monroe  (subsequently  of  Sullivan  County).  On 
one  occasion  the  "  avengers  of  Claudius  Smith"  sur- 
rounded Eeynolds'  house  and  endeavored  to  effect 
an  entrance,  but  the  doors  and  windows  were  securely 
bolted  and  barred.  Determined  not  to  be  baffled, 
they  got  upon  the  roof,  and  were  descending  inside 
the  wide,  old-styled  chimney,  when  one  of  the  family 
threw  a  basket  of  feathers  on  the  fire,  and  the  in- 
truders were  literally  smoked  out,  and  gave  up  further 
operations.  A  second  attempt,  in  July,  1782,  was 
more  successful.  Benjamin  Kelley,  Philip  Eoblin, 
and  several  others  went  to  Eeynolds'  house  in  the 
night,  and  pretending  that  they  were  a  detachment 
from  Washington  in  search  of  deserters,  he  opened 
the  door  to  them.  They  had  scarcely  entered  when 
they  discovered  their  true  character  by  attacking 
Eeynolds,  who  endeavored  to  escape.  The  noise 
aroused  the  family,  consisting  of  Eeynolds'  wife, 
seven  children,  and  a  lad  who  lived  with  him,  but 
they  were  powerless  in  such  hands.  In  their  pres- 
ence Eeynolds  was  cut  and  wounded  with  knives  and 
swords,  and  finally  hung  by  the  neck  on  the  trammel- 
pole  of  his  fireplace.  They  then  proceeded  to  search 
the  house  for  valuables,  and,  in  their  absence  from 
the  room,  Eeynolds'  daughter,  Phebe,  cut  the  rope 
and  released  her  father  and  got  him  upon  a  bed.    Ee- 

IrOQ-WorkB  on  the  night  of  Saturday,  the  26th  of  March,  by  a  party  of 
viUainB,  five  or  Bix  in  number,  the  principal  of  whom  was  Bichard  Smith, 
eldest  surviving  son  of  the  late  Claudius  Smith,  of  infamous  memory, 
his  eldest  son  having  been  shot  last  fall  at  Smithes  Clove,  in  company  with 
several  other  villains,  by  one  of  our  scouting  parties  sent  out  in  search 
of  them.  These  bloody  miscreants,  it  seems,  that  night  intended  to 
murder  two  men,  who  had  shown  some  activity  and  resolution  in  appre- 
hending these  robbers  and  murderers  who  infested  the  neighborhood. 
They  first  went  to 'the  house  of  John  W.  Clark,  near  the  iron-works, 
whom  they  dragged  from  his  house  and  then  shut  him,  and  observing 
some  remains  of  life  in  him,  one  of  them  saying, '  he  is  not  dead  enough 
yet,*  shot  him  through  the  arm  again  and  left  him. .  He  lived  some 
hours  after,  and  gave  an  account  of  their  names  and  behavior.    They 

then  went  to  the  house  of ,  who,  hearing  some  noise  they  made  in 

approaching,  got  np  and  stood  on  his  defense  with  his  gun  and  bayonet 
fixed,  in  a  corner  of  his  little  log  cabin.  They  burst  open  the  door,  but 
seeing  him  stand  with  his.gun  were  afraid  to  enter,  and  thought  proper 
to  mai-ch  off.    The  following  was  pinned  to  Clark*s  coat : 

"  *  A  Warning  to  (he  Rebels. — You  ale  hereby  warned  at  your  peril  to 
desist  from  hanging  any  more  friends  to  government  as  you  did  Claudius 
Smith.  You  are  warned  likewise  to  use  James  Smith,  James  Flewwel- 
ling,  and  William  Cole  well,  and  ease  their  irons,  for  we  are  determined 
to  hang  six  for  oue,  for  the  blood  of  the  innocent  cries  aloudfor  vengeance. 
Your  noted  friend,  Capt.  Williams,  and  his  crew  of  robbers  and  murderers, 
we  have  got  in  our  power,  and  the  blood  of  Claudius  Smith  shall  be  re- 
paid. There  are  particular  companies  of  us  who  belong  to  Col.  Butler's 
army,  Indians  as  well  as  white  men,  and  particularly  numbers  from  New 
York,  that  are  resolved  to  be  avenged  on  you  for  your  cruelty  and  murder. 
We  are  to  remind  you  that  you  are  the  beginners  and  aggressors,  for  by 
your  cruel  oppressions  and  bloody  actions  you  drive  us  to  it.  This  is  the 
first,  and  we  are  determined  to  pursue  it  on  your  heads  and  leaden  to 
the  last,  till  the  whole  of  you  are  murdered.*  '* 

turning  to  the  room  and  discovering  what  had  been 
done,  they  whipped  the  daughter  with  the  rope  until 
they  thought  she  was  disabled,  and  again  hung  Key. 
nolds  to  the  trammel-pole,  from  which  his  heroic 
daughter  again  rescued  him.  They  then  flew  at  Key. 
nolds  with  knives  and  swords,  and  only  ceased  their 
work  when  they  supposed  he  was  dead.  After  de^ 
stroying  Eeynolds'  papers,  and  taking  whatever  of 
value  that  he  had,  they  left  the  building,  and  after 
fastening  the  door  on  the  outside  set  it  on  fire.  The 
daughter,  Phebe,  again  proved  a  heroine  by  extin- 
guishing the  fire.  Then,  finding  that  her  father  was 
not  yet  dead,  she  devoted  herself  to  him  and  suc- 
ceeded in  stanching  his  wounds.  With  the  coming 
of  morning  she  started  out  and  alarmed  the  neighbor- 
hood, and  shortly  after  sunrise  a  company  of  armed 
men  was  in  pursuit  of  the  marauders,  who  were  fbl- 
lowed  to  the  mountains  and  overtaken.  A  well-di- 
rected shot  from  a  man  named  June  wounded  one  of 
them,  Benjamin  Kelley.  His  body  was  subsequently 
recovered  and  identified  by  a  suit  of  Quaker  clothes 
which  he  had  stolen  from  Eeynolds.  Meanwhile  a 
physician  had  reached  Eeynolds'  house  and  dressed  his 
wounds.  He  was  found  to  be  wounded  in  over  thirty 
places.  One  of  his  ears  were  so  nearly  severed  that 
it  hung  down  to  his  shoulder.  It  was  put  back  in  its 
place,  but  healed  in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  him  dis- 
figured for  life.  One  of  his  hands  was  also  so  badly 
cut  that  he  never  recovered  its  use.  He  lay  for  weeks 
on  the  brink  of  the  grave,  but  ultimately  recovered, 
and  lived  to  see  his  eighty-fifth  year.  Phebe,  who  was 
then  only  twelve  years  of  age,  married  Jeremiah  Drake 
after  her  removal  to  Sullivan  County,  where  she  died 
in  1853.  It  may  be  added  that  Phebe's  mother  was 
brought  to  confinement  by  the  excitement  of  the  ter- 
rible night  through  which  she  had  passed,  and  that 
the  daughter  then  born  to  her  (Polly)  subsequenfly 
became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Blake  Wales.* 

From  tradition  we  turn  to  the  written  record, — the 
"  confession  of  William  Cole,  taken  at  New  Barba- 
does,  March  29,  1779,"  which  was  as  follows: 

"  William  Cole  saith  that  about  the  3d  day  of  April,  1777,  he,  ap^ 

conipanied  by  John  Bahoock,  William  Jones,  and  John  Ellison,  at ,. 

where  he  enlisted  in  Col.  John  Bayard's  regiment  (loyalists),  iu  which  fat- 
continued  until  the  battle  of  Fort  Uontgomery.  That  at  the  surreuderof. 
the  fort,  and  at  the  departure  of  the  British  troops  from  there,  he,  thenii 
William  Cole,  and  one  James  Babcock,  being  left  sick  about  two  milM* 
from  the  fort  at  Moses  Clements*,  Esq.,  went  to  the  house  of  the  said  JamN- 
Babcock  at  Stirling,  where  the  said  James  Babcock  continues  (having iaa. 
short  time  thereafter  delivered  himself  up  to  justice).  That  from  thsoM- 
he,  the  said  William  Cole,  went  to  Fompton  Plains,  where  he  resided  about 
a  month,  being  suspected  of  having  been  with  the  enemy.  That  from. 
Pompton  he  returned  to  the  Clove,  and  from  thence,  In  company  with  sndii 
by  the  persuasion  of  one  David  Babcook  and  one  Jonathan  Gage,  he  well|( 
to  New  York.  That  some  time  in  the  latter  end  of  last  fall  he  left  Nor 
York  in  company  with  Thomas  Ward,  John  Everett,  Jacob  Acker,  Janu^- 
Cowen,  George  alias  Thomas  Harding,  David  Babcock,  James  Twaddls, 
Martinus  Lawsou,  and  Peter  Lawson,  and  a  certain  John  Mason,  who 
was  the  bead  of  the  gang.  That  he  parted  company  with  them  at  till 
Clove  about  amile  beyond  Sidman's,  being  something  indisposed,  and  re- 
mained in  the  house  of  Edward  Bohlin  in  the  Clove,  while  the  afaoTti- 

•  "  History  of  Sullivan  County,"  472,  etc. 



meationed  peraoos  robbed  Mr.  Erekiue  and  Mrs.  Sidman.  That  the 
above-named  George  Harding  made  a  present  of  Mrs.  Grskine's  gold 
walrh  to  DftTid  Matthews,  Esq.,  mayor  of  New  York,  and  that  Mr.  Er- 
Skiiie*s  I  ifle  was  given  by  Mason  to  Lord  Cathcart.  That  the  same  party  to- 
gellier  with  Weat,  and  Banta,  and  Richard  and  James  Smith,  sons  of  Clau- 
dius Smith,  and  a  certain  Nathaniel  Biggs,  were  the  persons  who  robbed 
Muster-Master  General  Ward,  &c.,  for  wliicb  they  received  one  hundred 
guineas  from  Lord  Cathcart,  aa  be,  the  said  Cole,  was  informed  by  them 
on  their  return  from  New  York.  Tliat  just  before  he  was  taken  he  met 
witti  John  Masou,  David  Babcock,  Thomas  Ward,  and  Richard  Smith, 
near  the  bridge  commonly  called  the  Dwaas,  who  threatened  vengeance 
for  the  execution  of  Claudius  Smith,  from  whence  he  conjectures  them 
to  have  been  the  penons  who  murdered  Mr.  Clark  ;  soon  after  tliat  Da- 
vid Babcock,  Richard  Smith,  and  Jonas  Ward,  with  about  eleven  of  Gen. 
Burguyne's  meu,  were  the  persons  that  fired  upon  Mfg.  Goebbius,  some 
time  in  last  January,  as  he  was  informed  by  said  persons,  in  New  York 
after  the  fact  That  as  he  heard  from  them,  one  Henry  McManus,  who 
generally  had  his  haunts  near  Stirling,  one  William  Stagg,  and  one  or 
two  of  Burgoyne*8  men,  were  the  persons  who  robbed  a  certain  Light- 
body,  towards  Wallkill,  and  that  David  Babcock  aud  Richard  Smith 
brought  two  lioives,  robbed  ft>om  Nathaniel  Seely,  in  Smith's  Clove,  into 
New  York,  in  January  last,  which  they  sold  to  John  Day,  who  for- 
merly lived  in  Tine  Valley.  That  when  he  robbed  Mr.  Ackerman  he 
was  accompanied  by  George  Bull,  Jacob  Low,  James  Flewwelling,  all 
of  whom  formerly  lived  at  Wallkill,  That  the  above  robbery  was  the 
only  one  in  which  he  was  ever  concerned  in,  except  that  he  took  Hen- 
drick  Odell's  gun. 

"  That  the  persons  who  harbor  these  gangs  are  Benjamin  Demarest, 

Tunis  Ilelme,  John  Harring,  John  Johnston  (under mountain}; 

William  Ounkling,  £lisha  Babcock,  Elisha  Babcock,  Jr.,  John  Dobbs 

(near );  Edward  Roblin,  in  the  Clove;    Peter  Nail,  Benjamin 

Eelley,  and  Powers ,  all  in  the  Clove;  Edward  Enuers  and  John 

Winter  in ;  Peter  Acker  in  Paskock;  and  Jacobus  Peak.    That 

there  is  a  cave  dug  under  ground  by  the  sons  of  Isaac  Maybee  and  on 
the  said  Maybee's  land,  about  half  a  mile  from  John  Harriog's,  and  an- 
other at  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  distant  from  the  former,  dug  by  the 
same  persons,  and  a  third  about  three  miles  from  the  house  of  Joseph 
Weseets  in  the  Clove,  and  well  known  by  Rohlins  in  the  Clove,  each  of 
which  nwy  contain  about  eight  persons,  where  these  robbers  generally 
resort;  and  that  John  King,  Jacob  Acker,  and  John  Staatare  now  in  the 

Clove  at ,  or  in  the  bouees  around  it.    That  Harding,  Everett,  he 

as  soon  as  the  weather  grows  warm,  intend  to  plunder  Col. at 

Wallkill,  to  bum  Col.  Nicolls'  house,  the  gaol,  and  some  other  houses 
in  and  near  Goshen,  and  to  remain  in  the  county  fur  that  purpose.  That 
there  is  a  gang  of  the  same  kind  on  the  east  side  of  Hudson's  River, 
whose  names  are  Mandeville ,  Peter  Wood,  William  Hulliker,  Wil- 
liam Danforth,  Aaron  Williams,  James  Houston,  and  others,  who  plun- 
dered and  brought  some  cattle  and  horses  from  Tarrytowu  to  New  York 
the  diiy  before  the  said  Cole  left  it." 

"  William  Welcher  says  that  some  time  last  January,  Wiert  Banta  and 
others  applied  to  him  to  go  with  them  to  take  Governor  Livingston,  for 
whose  capture  r  reward  of  two  hundred  guineas  was  offered  by  the  mayor 
of  New  York,  which  he  refused.  That  he  never  was  concerned  in  any 
robberies  but  that  for  which  he  is  condemned.  Mentions  the  same  per- 
sons who  harbor  gangs  as  named  in  Cole's  confession,  and  besides,  one 
Arie  Ackerman,  at  Paskock,  where  the  wife  of  one  of  those  robbers 
(John  Mason)  lives." 

It  was  for  many  years  a  current  belief  that  the  val- 
uable plunder  obtained  by  these  bands  was  buried  in 
the  mountain!?,  and  among  other  articles  a  silver  stand, 
aquantity  of  pewter  plates,  and  a  large  number  of  mus- 
kets. The  story  of  searches  for  the  buried  articles  by 
the  grandsons  of  Claudius  Smith,  and  also  by  sons  of 
one  of  the  Roblins,  is  told  with  no  little  minuteness 
of  detail,  but  there  is  no  evidence  that  anything  more 
than  guns  were  ever  found.  Like  the  buried  treas- 
ures of  Kidd,  they  have  failed  to  be  revealed  to  the 
earnest  gaze  of  credulous  searchers.  It  is  apparently 
the  fact  that  they  never  stole  much  besides  cattle,  as 
there  was  very  little  of  gold  or  silver,  money  or  stocks, 
in  the  possession  of  the  people  whose  houses  they 

visited.  They  may  have  become  infamous,  but  they 
were  never  made  rich  by  the  business  in  which  they 
engaged.  It  is  said  that  their  operations  were  con- 
tinued until  the  permanent  encampment  of  the  Amer- 
ican army  in  the  Highlands  (October,  1781)  rendered 
their  operations  extremely  hazardous,  and  finally 
ceased  on  the  exchange  of  the  preliminary  articles  of 
peace  (1782),  which  obliged  the  British  officers  in  New 
York  to  withdraw  the  encouragement  which  they  had 
previously  extended. 



Perhaps  less  is  known,  at  the  present  time,  in  re- 
gard to  the  second  war  with  England,  commonly  called 
the  war  of  1812,  than  there  is  in  regard  to  the  Eevo- 
lution.  Two  reasons  may  be  assigned  for  this, — the 
Revolution  gave  birth  to  the  nation,  and  participants 
in  it  have  commanded  that  respect,  and  its  influence 
upon  the  world  has  been  such,  that  the  most  thorough 
attention  has  been  devoted  by  historians  to  the  collec- 
tion of  facts  and  records  with  a  view  to  preserve  its 
most  minute  details ;  and,  second,  whatever  of  docu- 
mentary evidence  exists  touching  any  of  its  details  is 
accessible  to  those  wishing  to  make  examinations. 
The  second  war  has  not  been  so  fortunate.  Its  suc^ 
cesses  were  mainly  through  the  navy  on  the  ocean. 
But  two  triumphs  occurred  on  land  of  any  consid- 
erable importance — ^the  victories  at  Plattsburgh  and 
New  Orleans — -to  compensate  for  many  humilia- 
tions, not  the  least  of  which  was  the  capture  by  the 
British  of  the  capital  of  the  nation,  and  the  burning 
of  the  national  records,  an  event  which,  by  drawing 
from  the  States  whatever  records  they  possessed  to 
supply  the  place  of  those  which  were  thus  destroyed, 
has  rendered  them  almost  wholly  inaccessible. 

The  causes  of  the  war  were  manifold.  It  was  not 
without  some  prophetic  accuracy  that  Franklin,  re- 
plying to  congratulations  on  the  success  of  the  colo- 
nies in  their  struggle  for  independence,  remarked, 
"  Say,  rather,  the  war  of  the  Revolution — the  war  for 
Independence  is  yet  to  be  fought,"  for  at  no  time  until 
after  the  war  of  1812  did  England  fully  recognize 
the  independence  of  the  United  States.  There  was  a 
constant  friction  between  the  two  governments,  grow- 
ing out  of  the  weakness  of  the  one  and  the  powerful- 
ness  of  the  other,  which  culminated  in  the  impress- 
ment of  American  seamen  and  the  enforcement  of  the 
claimed  right  to  search  every  vessel  bearing  the  flag 
of  the  United  States  and  the  involvement  of  the 
United  States  in  the  war  between  England  and 
France.  This  involvement  did  not  grow  out  of  any 
act  of  the  United  States  government  further  than  was 
necessary  for  the  protection  of  American  commerce. 
The  English  government  issued  its  famous  Orders  in 



Council,  which  declared  that  all  American  vessels 
going  to  and  from  the  ports  of  France  and  her  allies, 
without  first  touching  at  or  clearing  from  an  English 
port,  should  be  considered  lawful  prizes.  These  or- 
ders provoked  the  Berlin  and  Milan  Decrees,  on  the 
part  of  France,  by  which  all  vessels  that  had  touched 
at  an  English  port,  or  submitted  to  be  searched  by  an 
English  cruiser,  were  pronounced  to  be  the  property 
of  France ;  while  British  goods,  wherever  found, 
were  made  subject  to  seizure  and  confiscation. 

Under  such  circumstances  the  American  govern- 
ment could  not  remain  inactive  and  allow  its  com- 
merce to  be  ruled  or  ruined  by  the  policy  or  pride  of 
Britain  or  of  France.  Accordingly,  in  December, 
1809,  Congress  resolved,  as  a  matter  of  protection,  to 
lay  an  embargo  upon  all  American  vessels  and  mer- 
chandise. This  embargo  prohibited  American  vessels 
from  sailing  from  foreign  ports,  and  all  foreign  ships 
from  carrying  away  American  cargoes.  Its  effect  was 
suddenly  to  suspend  commerce,  to  expose  thousands 
of  merchants  to  the  risk  of  bankruptcy,  and  to  check 
at  once  the  flow  of  produce  from  the  interior  to  the 
sea-board, — results  which  were  severely  felt  by  the 
people  and  which  tried  their  patriotism  to  the  utmost. 
The  navy  of  the  United  States  was  actively  employed 
in  enforcing  this  embargo  on  the  coast,  and  in  the 
course  of  its  operations  brought  on  the  historic  con- 
test between  the  "  President"  and  the  "  Little  Belt," 
on  the  16th  of  May,  1811,  which  tended  materially  to 
the  alienation  of  the  nations.  "  In  the  winter  of  1812, 
a  plot  on  the  part  of  English  agents  to  sever  the  Amer- 
ican Union  was  revealed  to  the  government,  and  at  a 
later  day  the  determination  of  the  English  ministry 
to  adhere  to  her  Orders  in  Council  was  formally  com- 
municated to  the  President.  At  the  same  time  the 
claim  to  impress  English  seamen  out  of  American 
ships  on  the  high  seas  was  maintained  in  theory, 
while  in  practice  the  impressment  was  constantly  ex- 
tended to  natives,  the  boarding  officers  claiming  that 
the  seaman  who  failed  to  prove  that  he  was  an  Amer- 
ican should  be  seized  as  an  Englishman."  From 
this  determination  there  could  be  but  one  appeal,  and 
on  the  18th  of  June,  1812,  Congress  formally  declared 
war  against  England. 

Throughout  the  controversy  preceding  the  declara- 
tion of  war,  and  in  the  subsequent  efforts  to  maintain 
it,  the  great  majority  of  the  people  of  the  county  were 
unwavering  in  their  support  of  the  national  authori- 
ties. From  first  to  last,  by  resolutions  passed  in  con- 
ventions, by  the  expression  of  their  sentiments  through 
the  ballot-box,  by  the  prompt  offer  of  volunteers,  and 
by  the  contribution  of  men  to  actual  service,  they 
evinced  their  purpose  to  resist  the  "  attacks  of  domes- 
tic enemies  and  the  insolent  aggressions  of  foreign 
powers."  The  first  formal  manifestation  of  local  sen- 
timent occurred  in  1807,  when  the  "Republican 
Blues,"  of  Newburgh,  tendered  their  services  to  the 
Governor  of  the  State,  as  volunteers.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  overwhelming  defeat  of  the  Federal 

party,  which  was  charged  with  being  in  sympathy 
with  the  English  (though  perhaps  without  sufScient 
reason),  at  the  election  in  1808  and  1809,  and  again 
in  1814,  when  Jonathan  Fisk,  representing  the  Wu 
party,  obtained  a  majority  of  1785  for  congressman 
over  Jonas  Storey.  The  issue  was  perhaps  mote 
fairly  joined  in  1809  than  in  1814.  In  that  year 
(March  9th)  the  Republicans  held  a  county  conven- 
tion at  Goshen,  preparatory  to  the  State  election,-- 
Gen.  Hathorn,  chairman,  and  Jonathan  Fisk,  Esq. 
Col.  John  Nicholson,  Gen.  Reuben  Hopkins,  Capt 
Josiah  Brown,  and  Judge  Nathan  H.  White,  commit- 
tee on  resolutions, — and  resolved,  "  That  we  view  the 
laying  of  an  embargo  as  a  wise  and  patriotic  measure, 
imperiously  demanded  by  the  exposed  condition  of 
Our  seamen,  shipping,  and  trade  to  the  audacious  out- 
rages of  foreign  powers ;  that  it  has  saved  thousands 
of  our  seamen  from  imprisonment  and  slavery,  and 
millions  of  property  of  our  countrymen  from  capture 
and  confiscation.''  On  the  <5ther  hand,  the  Federal 
party — Daniel  Niven,  chairman,  and  John  Barber, 
Alex.  R.  Thompson,  Alanson  Austin,  John  Bradner, 
J.  N.  Phillips,  John  Morrison,  John  Duer,  Samuel 
Sayer,  Jonas  Storey,  Solomon  Sleight,  John  Decker, 
and  Samuel  B.  Stickney,  committee  on  resolutions- 
resolved,  "That  the  act  for  enforcing  the  embargo, 
passed  Jan.  9,  1809,  in  our  deliberate  opinion,  is  un- 
just, illegal,  and  oppressive,  subversive  of  the  rights 
and  dangerous  to  the  liberties  of  the  people."  When 
the  war  filially  came  on,  many  of  the  anti-embargo 
men  of  1809  sustained  the  administration,  holding 
with  the  majority  that  it  was  "just  and  necessary  to 
redress  our  grievances  and  avenge  our  violated  right*." 
The  minority  who  withheld  their  assent  are  perhaps 
correctly  represented  by  the  vote  in  1814  for  Mr. 
Storey.  We  have  no  criticism  to  make  on  the  course 
of  any  men  or  body  of  men,  but  believe  it  to  be  the 
highest  prerogative  of  an  American  citizen  to  apjirove 
or  refuse  to  approve  of  any  war  which  may  be  declared' 
by  Congress,  or  into  which  the  nation  may  be  plunged. 
The  citizen  only  becomes  criminal  by  the  commission 
of  acts  of  treason,  of  which  the  expression  of  opinion 
is  not  a  recognized  element. 

During  the  continuance  of  the  war  the  militia  were 
not  without  service  in  the  field,  while  in  the  navy 
and  in  the  volunteer  regiments  recruited  by  order  of 
the  government  the  county  was  honorably  repre- 
sented. For  the  reasons  already  stated,  an  accurate 
account  of  the  movements  of  the  militia  during  the 
war  cannot  now  be  obtained.  The  plan  for  raising 
troops  was  simple  enough.  The  coast  fortifications 
were  to  be  well  garrisoned  by  the  local  militia,  as- 
sisted, .when  necessary ,  by  regular  troops,  while  aggres- 
sive operations  were  to  be  intrusted  to  the  regular 
army  and  volunteers.  The  militia  was  to  be  called 
out  to  garrison  the  fortifications  and  for  coast  defense 
in  detachments  which  were  to  include  uhiformed  com- 
panies only,  and  in  case  their  ranks  were  not  full, 
drafts  were  to  be  made  upon  the  enrolled  militia  to 



supply  the  deficiency.  Second  requisitions  were  not 
to  include  those  serving  under  the  first,  and  from  the 
third,  the  first  and  second  were  relieved,  the  object 
being  to  divide  the  burden  of  duty  as  equally  as  pos- 
sible. The  first  call  was  made  April  21,  1812,  and 
under  it  the  detached  militia  were  arranged  in  two 
divisions  and  eight  brigades,  and  the  brigades  were 
divided  into  twenty  regiments,  to  the  command  of 
each  of  which  a  lieutenant-colonel  was  given.  Ste- 
phen Van  Rensselaer,  of  Albany,  was  appointed  to 
the  command  of  the  first  division,  the  second  brigade 
of  which,  under  Brig.-Gen.  Reuben  Hopkins,  of 
Goshen,  embraced  the  militia  detachments  of  Orange 
and  Ulster,  which  were  organized  as  the  fourth  regi- 
ment under  Lieut.-Col.  Andrew  J.  Hardenburgh,  of 
Shawaiigunk.  The  cavalry  and  the  artillery  com- 
panies were  similarly  organized,  the  artillery  in  the 
first  brigade  of  artillery,  and  the  cavalry  in  the  first 
brigade  of  cavalry.  This  arrangement  was  continued 
during  the  war,  Lieut.-Col.  Isaac  Belknap,  Jr.,  of 
Newburgh,  taking  the  place  of  Col.  Hardenburgh,  in 
1813  and  1814.  The  first  call  (1812)  included  all  the 
uniformed   companies ;   the   second,  made  in  July, 

1813,  included  "  all  the  uniformed  companies  of  in- 
fantry, grenadiers,  and  riflemen,"  excepting  members 
who  had  been  on  duty  in  1812,  and,  as  the  number  of 
exempts  was  considerable,  the  deficiency  in  the  com- 
pany rolls  was  made  up  by  draft ;  the  third  call, 
made  July  20,  1814,  included  infantry,  artillery,  and 
cavalry.  Newburgh  and  New  Windsor  were  made 
the  place  of  rendezvous,  and  from  thence  the  com- 
panies were  moved  to  New  York  by  sloops,  and  as- 
signed to  Harlem  Heights  and  the  fortifications 
around  New  York.  The  periods  of  service  were  three 
or  four  months.* 

We  have  been  unable  to  obtain  a  complete  list  of  the 
uniformed  companies  of  the  county  at  that  time,  but 
the  following  were  among  the  number,  viz.:  the 
Orange  Hussars,  of  Montgomery,  Capt.  William 
Trimble  (subsequently  Capt.  Millikenf) ;  Capt.  Van 

*-  Tliu  detaclied  niililia  reoilezvuiisod  at  Newburgh  and  New  Windsor  in 

1814,  enil'arked  Aii(».  28tli  and  returned  Dec.  -tth,  a  period  of  four  nioDllis. 
t  The  history  of  thiti  company  wiia  referred  to  by  Mr.  Hugh  B.  Bull, 

in  an  aililri'U  delivered  by  him  ut  the  prcseutiitiou  of  a  staud  of  colors 
to  tlie  col-ps,  AU}!.  D,  186.%  aa  fullowb: 

"'riiis  coni|iany  of  cavalry  has  been  in  existence  for  more  than  six  de- 
cades of  years  without  an  interregiiuin.  It  was  organized  shortly  after 
the  Uevolntioiniry  war,  under  the  auspices  of  Joseph  Barbour,  a  patriotic 
citizen  of  the  town  of  Montgomery,  who  some  thiity  years  or  more  since 
went  to  that  rent  which  asvaits  the  soldier  equally  witli  others  of  our 
race.  His  descendants  and  kindred  are  among  the  most  respcctalde  and 
honoralde  of  onr  uiiunty.  His  couiniisbiun  bears  date  Oct.  9, 1793,  under 
tlio  hand  and  seal  of  His  Excellenuy  George  Clinton,  the  then  Governor 
of  our  State.  This  company  haa  preserved  an  actual  existence  from  that 
until  the  present  period.  It  lias  been  nnirshaled  in  succession  under 
Barbour  and  Millilien;  and  in  what  is  called  the  war  of  1812,  when  the 
design  was  formed  by  the  perlidious  foe  to  humble  anil  crush  our  infant 
nation,  this  troop  rallied  ou  Brooklyn  Heights,  and  bore  tlieir  part  In 
turning  lack  llie  Invader  and  avei  ting  the  tulo  of  desolation  that  was 
athiut  to  flow  over  our  domains.  AI>o,  under  Hill,  Waugh,  and  that  in" 
duniilalde  and  energetic  suldier,  VVilllnni  Wright,  who,  for  a  quarter  of 
a  century  or  more,  causeil  IiIm  ardent  soldiery  to  appear  at  his  call,  and 
they  In  turn  responiled  with  alacrity.  He  iias  sustained  this  corps  duiing 
that  period  through  good  oud  evil  report,  under  adverse  and  favorable 

Orsdall's  and  Capt.  Dorcas'  companies  of  infantry,  of 
the  same  town ;  Capt.  Kerr's  company  of  artillery,  of 
New  Windsor ;  Capt.  Butterworth's  company  of  ar- 
tillery, of  Newburgh ;  Capt.  Westcott's  company  of 
cavalry,  of  Goshen  ;t  Capt.  Acker's  company  of  cav- 
alry, of  Newburgh  and  Marlborough  ;  Capt.  Dennis- 
ton's  and  Capt.  Birdsall's  companies  of  infantry,  of 

In  1812  (Nov.  30th),  Capt.  Denniston,  whose  com- 
pany was  known  as  the  "  Republican  Blues,"  proposed 
the  organization  of  a  company  of  volunteers,  to  serve 
for  one  year  or  during  the  war,  and  succeeded  in  en- 
listing about  fifty  men,  who  elected  Jonathan  Gidney 
captain.  The  company  went  to  New  York  and 
formed  part  of  a  detached  regiment  of  riflemen, 
ranked,  we  are  informed,  as  the  Twenty-seventh  TJ.  S. 
Infantry,  of  which  Capt.  Denniston  became  major, 
and  subsequently  colonel.  The  name  of  Capt.  Ben- 
jamin Wood,  of  Goshen,  also  appears  in  connection 
with  this  regiment,  which  is  presumed  to  have  been 
the  regiment  in  which  volunteers  from  the  county 
mainly  enlisted. 

From  a  sketch  written  by  Moses  H.  Corwin,  and 
published  elsewhere,  it  appears  that  there  was  a  com- 
pany or  a  portion  of  a  company  from  Wallkill,  in 
September,  1813.  This  company  was  known  as  the 
"  Republican  Blues,''  and  proceeded  to  Waterford,  via 
sloop  from  Newburgh,  where  it  was  embraced  in  a 
regiment  under  Col.  Abraham  Hardenburgh,  of  Ulster 
County.  From  Whitehall  the  command  moved  to 
Plattsburgh,  and  from  thence  to  Fort  Hampton,  near 
the  Canada  line.  The  regiment  had  no  special  ser- 
vice other  than  guard  duty.  The  muster-roll  of  the 
company,  as  supplied  from  memory,  was  as  follows : 

Captain, Clark ;  lieutenant,  Stacey  Beaks,  commaudaut ;  first  ser- 
geant, Nathaniel  Penny. 

PritifUea. — John  Canfield,  John  B,  Cox,  Samuel  Cox,  Abner  Miller,  Moses 
H.  Corwin,  Stephen  Sayre,  Andrew  Gunsoules,  Gabriel  Hill,  Daniel 
Parsons,  David  Toumaus,  S.imuel  Canfield,  Henry  Coleman,  William 
Penny,  Joseph  K.  Owen,  Joseph  Kien,  Peter  Quick,  Alexander  Par- 
sons, John  S.  Clark,  Matthew  Faulkner,  Benjamin  Parsons. 

The  following  roll  of  a  detached  company  cannot 
be  located,  from  the  fact,  already  stated,  that  all  such 
companies  were,  made  up  from  other  companies  of  an 
entire  regimental  district.  The  list  embraces  Orange 
as  well  as  Ulster  County  names : 

"  Muster  Boll  of  a  company  of  New  York  militia  under  the  command  of  Capt, 

John  Ikmning,  in  the  consolidated  regiment  of  infantry  commanded  by 

Lieut.-Col.  Micliael  Smith  from   the  seventh  of  September^  1814,  when 

j       mustered^  to  the  first  dm  of  November,  1814,  in  the  service  of  the  United 

I        Btat&t : 

John  Dunning,  captain. 

William  Mullicks,  fii^t  lieutenant. 

!  legislation.  His  mantle  has  now  fallen  ou  the  present  commandant, 
,  Capt.  William  C.  Brewster,  who  is  resolved  to  wear  it  manfully  and  with 
I   the  true  spirit  of  the  soldier." 

'  X  The  following  brief  record  occurs  in  the  local  newspapers,  April  11, 
I  1813: 

"  In  the  squadron  of  Maj.  Westcott  of  the  first  regiment  of  cavali-y  of 

ithis  State,  Charles  Lindsey  has  been  appointed  captain ;  Joseph  H.  Jack* 
son,  first  lieutenant;  Daniel  McNeal,  second  lieutenaut;  and  Stephen  P. 
Bockefellow,  cornet."  The  persons  named  were  all  residents  of  Mont- 
gomery, except  Maj.  Westcott. 



Walter  Moore,  ensign.* 

Buotli,  Jeffrey,  first  sergeant. 

Crane,  John  A.,  second    ser- 

Dunning,    Henry,   third   ser- 

Huwell,    Josiab,   fourth    ser- 

Clark,  Oliver,  first  corporal. 

Genung,  Pierson»  second  cor- 

Murray,  Archibald   Y.,  third 

Lewis,  James,  fourth  corporal. 

Smith,  DeiTJck,  fifth  corporal. 

Wilkiu,  Diiuiel,  sixth  corporal. 

Brown,  Siimuel,  drummer. 

Genung,  Harvey,  fifer. 

Bruwn,  Elisha. 

Brundage,  Abijah. 

Brown,  Neal. 

Bennett,  Levi. 

Brown,  Daniel. 

Baily,  Nathaniel. 

Benjamin.  John. 

Booth,  Thomiis  A. 

Bedford,  Bei^'amin. 

Cash,  Stephen. 

Clark,  Stephen. 

Corey,  Benjamin. 

Crawford,  James. 

Caldwell,  Gabriel. 

Christie,  Andrew. 

Corwin,  Nebat. 

Corwiri,  Joseph. 

Cox,  Jereniiali. 

Cox,  Thompson. 

CanfielO,  Joseph. 

Decker,  Stephen. 
kDunuiiig,  Michael.    ^ 

Dunning,  John,  Jr. 

Fanning,  Samuel. 

Goldsmith,  Salem. 

Gale,  Heory. 

Gregory,  Lyman. 

Goldsmith,  Moses. 

Gardner,  Samuel. 

Gardner,  Silas  L. 

Goldsmith,  Juhn  D. 

HortoD,  Bamabaa. 

Hulse,  Jonas,  Jr. 

Hudson,  Eleazer. 

Hines,  John  W. 

Jackson,  Daniel  T. 

Jagg«r,  Paul. 

Kirk,  Robert. 

Kortright,  John  C. 

Kerr,  Nathan. 

Kirk,  David. 

Keen,  Elihu  C. 

Knnx,  James. 

Knnpp,  Elijah. 

Long,  Artemas. 

Lockwood,  Jared. 

Loder,  Isaac  W. 

Millspaugh,  Samuel. 

McNish,  Joshua. 

McNish,  Spicer. 

McNish,  Henry. 

McCarter,  James. 

McCarter,  Allen. 

McVey,  James. 

Mires,  Juhn,  Jr. 

Monnel,  Joseph. 

Moore,  Lurierwick. 

Miller,  John  C. 

McVey,  John. 

McVey,  Arden. 

McCarter,  William. 

Miller,  Geurge. 

Nicolls,  Alien. 

Ogden,  Gilbert. 

Prescott,  btephen. 

Puff,  Adam. 

PufT,  James. 

Kubhius,  John. 

Robbins,  Peter. 

Ray,  Jumes. 

RodgurB,  John. 

Selteck,  Isaac 

Slauson,  Alva. 

Sayer,  William. 

Sands,  Samuel. 

Stringham,  Jacob. 

Smith,  Isaiah  W. 

Screder,  Elijah. 

Smith,  Giaiit. 

Smith,  Silas  W. 

Smith,  Beziileel. 

Thompson,  Juuathan. 

Treadwell,  Charles. 

Taylur,  Moriison. 

Uptegrove,  Ricliard. 

Van  Benschoten,  John. 

Warren,  David. 

Warren,  Solomon. 

Warren,  Eliphalet. 

White,  Jonathan. 

Watson,  James. 

Wilkin,  William. 

Wood,  Juhn. 

Youngs,  Virgil  W.  I 

militia  at  Quarantine  Ground,   | 

"  Mustered  as  a  company  of  detached 
Staten  Island,  Nov.  1, 1814. 

"  Robert  0.  Hunter  (Blooming-Grove),  Surgeon.*^ 

In  the  navy  the  county  was  represented  by  Silas 
Horton  Stringham,  Charles  Ludlow,  Augustus  C. 
Ludlow,  Eobert  C.  Ludlow,  and  others.  Stringham, 
then  a  midshipman,  was  with  Commodore  Rogers  in 
the  frigate  "  President"  during  her  action  with  the 
"Little  Belt,"  in  1809,  and  served  until  the  close  of 
the  war  under  his  early  tutor.  His  subsequent  career 
is  a  matter  of  history.  Robert  C.  Ludlow  was  ou  the 
"  Constitution,"  and  participated  in  the  capture  of 

*  Accompanying  commission : 

"Walter  C.  Moore,  Ensign,  of  a  company  in  the  regiment  of  detached 
militia,  whereof  Benjamin  Webb  is  Lieutenant 'Colonel  commandant, 
Issued  by  Daniel  D.  Tompkins,  Governor,  Feb.  9,  181U." 

the  "  Java."  Augustus  C.  Ludlow  was  ou  the  "  Presi- 
dent," the  '*  Constitution,"  the  '*  Hornet,"  and  the 
"Chesapeake,"  of  which  latter  he  was  lieutenant 
under  Capt.  Lawrence,  in  the  action  with  the  English 
ship  "Shannon"  (July,  1813).  His  heroic  conduct 
in  that  action,  and  his  almost  tragic  death,  made  for 
him  a  name  which  will  be  an  example  while  American 
history  shall  be  cherished.  Sailors  in  merchantmen 
were  captured  by  English  cruisers  and  confined  in 
Dartmoor  prison,  and  among  their  number  were  those 
whose  birthplaces  and  homes  were  in  the  county  of 

Immediately  following  the  capture  of  Washington 
in  1814,  the  people  of  the  county  were  brought  to- 
gether in  determination  to  resist  to  the  utmost  the 
apparent  purpose  of  England  to  destroy  the  independ- 
ence of  the  nation.  Party  spirit  was  hushed  in  the 
presence  of  the  impending  danger,  and,  if  at  no  other 
time,  it  could  then  be  written,  "  patriotism  reigns  pre- 
dominant." At  Goshen,  on  the  30th  of  August,  a 
"patriotic  meeting"  was  held,  for  the  purpose  of 
"taking  into  consideration  the  propriety  of  erecting 
new  or  repairing  the  old  fortifications  at  West  Point 
and  in  the  vicinity  thereof,  and  of  devising  some  plan 
for  effecting  that  object,  and  for  other  purposes  of 
public  defense  under  the  present  circumstances  of  the 
country."!  This  meeting,  of  which  Gen.  James  W. 
Wilkin  was  chairman,  and  Dr.  David  R.  Arnell, 
secretary,  "  Eesolvedj  That  John  Duer,  Jonathan 
Fisk,  William  Ross,  James  W.  Wilkin,  George  D. 
Wickham,  James  Finch,  Jr.,  and  Nathan  H.  White 
be  a  committee  to  devise  some  plan  for  accomplishing 
the  above  object,"  and  to  enable  them  to  report,  the 
meeting  adjourned  until  the  afternoon  of  the  Slat 
At  the  adjourned  meeting,  the  committee  reported  as 
follows : 

"  The  situation  of  our  country  calls  upon  the  people  to  feel  and  act 
like  freemen  at  war  with  a  powerful  enemy.  An  invading  foe  desolating 
our  towntj  must  he  met  and  repulsed.  A  sense  of  danger,  the  dictates  at 
duty,  and  the  spirit  of  patrioUsm  summon  us  tu  offer  our  united  and 
zealous  exertions  for  the  defense,  the  safety,  and  the  protection  of  our 
country.  If  wo  cannot  go  forth  to  meet  the  enemy,  we  can  prepare  to 
receive  him  on  his  approach  to  ns.  The  forts  and  works  of  defense  U 
West  Point  and  ita  vicinity  we  can  repair,  strengthen,  and  defend.  That 
this  object  may  he  accomplished 

"  Resnlved,  That  a  Committee  of  Defense  for  the  county  of  Orangey  to 
consist  of  twenty-two  members,  be  appointed. 

"  Resolved,  That  it  he  recommended  to  the  people  in  the  several  towM 
of  the  county  to  meet  withont  delay,  and  take  measures  to  co-openti 
with  the  Committee  of  Defense. 

"  BcMolved,  That  the  Committee  of  Defense  invite  our  fellow-citizens  of 
the  couuties  of  Duchess  and  Pntnani,  Ulster,  Greene,  and  Colnmbit,  tv 
unite  and  co-operate  with  the  citizens  of  Orange  County  in  adopting 
measures  of  defense. 

"  lietolvedf  That  the  Committee  of  Defense  meet  at  the  house  of  OoL 
Tuthill.  in  Goshen,  on  the  2d  day  of  September  next  at  3  o*clock  VJL, 
and  afterwards  on  their  own  o4]ournments. 

"  The  following  gentlemen  were  then  appointed  a  Committee  of  De- 
fense :  From  the  town  of  Minisink,  John  Bradner  and  Nathan'Arnrt; 
Deerpark,  James  Finch,  Jr.,  and  Joseph  Baird ;  Wallkill,  Henry  B.  Wto- 

t  The  people  of  Philadelphia  and  New  York  took  the  lead  in  organiriig 
committees  of  this  character.  Under  the  committee  of  New  York  three 
thousand  persons  gave  voluntary  labor  on  the  13th  of  Augnst,  8 
work  was  continued  by  volunteers  until  completed,  August  3lBt 



nerand  Benjamin  WoodMard ;  Gonhen,  John  Duerand  Freegift  Tuthill; 
Warwick,  Dr.  Samuel  S.  Saward  and  Jeffrey  Wisner;  Monroe,  Jamee  D. 
Secor  and  Benjamin  Cnnningham;  Cornwall,  William  A.  Clark  and 
Joaeph  Chandler,  Jr.;  Blooming-Grove,  ("oL  Selah  Strung  and  Jeremiah 
Horton ;  Montgomery,  Job'n  Blake,  Jr.,  and  Juhannea  Milter;  New- 
burgh,  John  D.  LawsoD  and  Jacob  Powell ;  New  Windsor,  Joseph  Mor- 
rell  and  David  Bill." 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Committee  of  Defense,  ac- 
cording to  appointment,  September  2d,  all  the  mem- 
bers named  were  present  except  John  D.  Lawson  and 
Joseph  Morrell.  Selah  Strong  was  appointed  chair- 
man, and  John  Duer,  secretary.     It  was 

"ReMolvedt  that  a  committee  of  five  be  appointed  to  communicate  with 
the  general  and  State  governments,  to  tender  the  services  of  the  citizens 
of  this  county  in  repairing  the  fortifications  in  and  about  West  Point,  to 
ascertain  the  proL-ise  state  of  the  works  and  the  extentof  the  repairs  that 
may  be  necesHary,  and  that  the  committee  consist  of  the  following  per- 
sons: The  cbairmuii  and  secretary,  William  A.  Clark.  Joseph  Murrell, 
and  Johannes  Miller,  and  that  they  report  to  the  committee  at  their 
next  meeting. 

**ff««o/rerf.  That  this  committee  recommend  to  their  fellow-citizens  of 
this  county  that  town-meetings  be  held  at  the  usual  place  of  holding  the 
same  in  the  different  towns,  on  Saturday  the  tenth  day  of  September,  for 
the  purpose  of  appointing  committees  to  co-operate  with  the  general 
committee  in  such  measures  of  defense  as  the  situation  of  the  county 
may  require. 

"SeBolved^  That  our  felluw-citizens  (exempt  by  law  from  the  perform- 
ance of  military  duty)  be  requested  without  delay  to  form  themselves 
into  military  associations  for  the  defense  of  their  coantry. 

**  Resolved,  That  the  chairman  of  this  committee  be  authorized  to  call 
meetings  of  the  general  committee  from  time  to  time,  as  he  may  think 
necesaary,  and  that  seven  members  constitute  a  quorum." 

At  an  adjourned  meeting  of  the  committee,  Sep- 
tember 17th,  it  was 

"  Buohed,  That  the  town  committee  be  Instructed  to  proceed  without 
delay  in  collecting  subscriptions  of  money  and  labor,  from  their  respec- 
tive towns,  for  the  repairing  and  erecting  fortifications  at  and  about  West 
Point,  and  that  it  be  recommended  to  them  to  request  subscriptions 
agreeably  to  the  rate  of  the  last  assessment  of  tuwn  and  county  taxes, 
and  that  they  report  to  the  general  committee  the  amount  of  their  sev- 
eral Bubecriptions. 

"  I{e*olved^  That  the  town  committees  be  further  instructed  to  inquire 
into  the  state  of  the  iirms  and  ammunitiou  in  their  respective  towns,  and 
to  report  to  the  general  committee  the  quantity  of  arms  and  ammunition 
which  their  respective  towns  may  wish  to  procure. 

"  Resolved,  That  the  town  committees  be  further  instructed  to  take  the 
necessary  measures  for  organizing  the  exempts  and  the  volunteers  of  the 
Middle  District  (Senatorial),  and  that  they  report  the  number  organized 
to  the  general  committee." 

On  the  25th  of  October  it  was  reported  that  a  letter 
had  been  received  from  the  Secretary  of  War  inform- 
ing the  committee  that  he  would  "  order  a  skillful  en- 
gineer to  repair  to  West  Point  to  superintend  the 
•works  and  point  out  the  sites  most  eligible  for  defense." 
At  another  meeting  it  was  reported  that  the  people 
of  Montgomery  had  subscribed  three  hundred  and 
thirty-two  days'  work  and  four  hundred  and  eleven 
dollars.  Here  the  newspaper  record  ends.  It  does  not 
appear  that  the  repair  of  the  forts  was  commenced  ;* 
but  in  several  of  the  towns  military  companies,  com- 
posed of  exempts,  were  organized.  Of  the  latter  a 
single  record  has  found  its  way  to  preservation,  as 

*  Maj.  Boynton,  in  bis  "  History  of  Wwt  Point."  states  that  Fort  Put- 
nam was  partially  repaired  about  1794,  from  appropriations  made  by 
Congress.  It  is  not  believed  that  any  repairs  were  made  in  1814  through 
the  efforts  of  the  Committee  of  Defense. 

"Notice. — In  the  present  alarming  crisis  of  our  affnlrs,  when  our 
country  is  iuvaded,  our  seaports  destroyed,  our  rights  infringed,  and  our 
liberty  and  independence  threatened,  it  becomes  the  imperious  duty  of 
every  person  capable  of  bearing  arms  to  step  forward  in  defense  of  his 
bleeding  country. 

"We  therefore,  the  subscribers,  inhabitants  of  the  Town  of  Warwick, 
in  the  County  of  Orange  (being  exempt  by  law  from  military  duty),  do 
hereby  agree  to  enroll  oui  selves  for  the  purpose  of  forming  an  independ- 
ent company  to  be  called  the  Warwick  Volunteers, — and  as  soon  as 
there  shall  be  the  number  of  forty  able-bodied  men  thus  enrolled,  we 
agree  that  on  notice  being  previously  given  at  a  day  and  place  certain, 
we  will  meet  and  by  a  plurality  of  votee  present  choose  officers  to  com- 
mand said  company ;  immediately  after  which  we  will  tender  our  ser- 
vices to  the  Governor  and  Council  of  this  State  in  defense  of  the  middle 
district  of  this  State,  and  pray  them  to  grant  commissions  to  said  oflicers 
agreeable  to  law. 

"  Warwick,  Sept.  16, 1814."- 

"  Warwick  Volunteers. 

"  Company  Roll :  James  Burt,  captain ;  Samuel  S.  Seward,  first  lieu- 
tenant; Benjamin  Barry,  ensign;  Thomas  Swezy,  Wm.  W.  Brooks, 
Abraham  Peck,  John  Palmer,  Belden  Burt,  Samuel  Drew,  Cornelius 
Furehee,  John  Magee,  Samuel  Benjamiu,  John  Wood,  Jeremiah  More- 
house, Wm.  Holland,  Amos  Hyatt,  Isaac  Babcock,  Samuel  J.Vance,  Joel 
Wheeler,  Anthony  Bishop,  Wm.  Johnson,  Abraham  Gregory,  Silvanus 
Fancher,  Shadrack  Sellek,  Enos  McDaniel,  Josiah  Everett,  Nathaniel 
Ketcham,  John  A.  Grossman,  Wm.  Minturn,  Icbabod  Barker,  Joseph 
Lloyd,  John  M.  Fought,  Joseph  Downes,  Samuel  G.  Hopkins,  Winans 
Harris,  Jesse  M.  Foster,  Wm.  Jackson,  Wm.  Carr,  Jr.,  Henry  Randall, 
Daniel  Carpenter,  Zenophan  Mead,  Isaac  Dusenberry,  Jesse  Wood,  John 
McAmbly,  Joseph  Wilcox,  Benjamin  Davis,  Andrew  Layton,  Zebulon 
Wheeler,  Nathaniel  Wheeler,  John  Miller,  John  Carr,  Christopher  Aspell, 

The  return  of  peace  was  celebrated  in  every  town 
in  the  county.  Speeches,  toast-tables,  cannon,  and 
illuminations  proclaimed  the  general  joy,  while  the 
churches  emulated  each  other  in  public  offerings  of 
thanksgiving  and  praise.  As  indicative  of  the  gen- 
eral spirit,  the  action  of  the  people  of  Hopewell  is  in 
point,  viz. : 

"On  Thursday  the  24th  ult.  (April  24th),  soon  after  information  of  the 
treaty  of  peace  was  received  in  Hopewell,  a  number  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  place  assembled  at  the  public-house  of  Isaac  Schultz,  in  order  to 
adopt  such  measures  as  might  be  deemed  most  expressive  of  the  feelings 
of  joy  on  the  occasion.  Mr.  E.  Gillman  being  called  to  the  chair,  and 
Mr.  Isaac  Schultz  chosen  clerk,  it  was 

"  *  Resolved^  to  assemble  in  the  church,  on  the  Tuesday  evening  follow- 
ing, and  there  solemnly  to  offer  up  thanksgiving  and  Praise  to  Almighty 
God  for  granting  Peace  to  our  country.  It  wtis  likewise  resolved  that 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Van  Doren,  pastor  of  the  congregation,  be  requested  to  lead 
in  the  devotion  of  the  evening,  and  to  deliver  an  address.* 

"  Agreeably  to  the  foregoing  resolution,  on  Tuesday  evening  a  large 
concourse  of  people  assembled  in  the  church,  which  was  elegantly  illu- 
minated with  about  seven  hundred  candles;  when,  after  appropriate 
sacred  music  and  solemn  prayer  and  praise,  the  following  address  was 
delivered.  The  most  becomiug  behavior  was  observed  throughout  the 
whole  assembly,  and  jny  and  gratitude  appeared  to  irradiate  every  coun- 

"  Aduress. 

"  Afsciiililed,  as  we  are,  on  this  joyful  occasion,  to  celebrate,  in  the 
house  "r  God,  the  return  of  peace  to  our  bleeding  country,  it  becomes 
us,  in  ilio  iirst  place,  to  celebrate  His  praise  who  maketh  war  to  cease 
unto  the  ends  of  the  earth ;  who  breaketh  the  bow,  and  cutteth  the  spear 
in  sunder;  who  burneth  the  chariot  in  the  fire.  Since  not  to  acknowl- 
edge His  hand  in  our  deliverance  would  be  both  ungrateful  and  impious, 
let  us  then,  as  a  Christian  people,  indulge  the  warm  affections  of  grati- 
tude and  joy,  joy  for  the  blessing  of  peace,  which  the  Governor  of  the 
Universe  has  bestowed  upon  us,  and  gratitude,  as  an  expression  of  our 
obligation  to  Him  for  the  favor.  Such  affections  are  pleasing  in  Hia 
eight,  who  looketh  on  the  heart.  While  then  our  hearts  are  glowing 
with  gratitude  and  leaping  with  joy  under  a  sense  of  the  recent  display 
of  divine  goodness  to  us,  let  us  for  a  moment  call  to  mind  the  many  dis- 
tinguished with  which  the  f3od  of  Heaven  has  been  pleased  to  signalize 
our  infant  coantry. 



'*  CollectPd  OQ  the  Bbures  of  the  American  wilderuess,  as  its  first  set- 
tlers were,  from  almost  every  nation  and  clime, fugitives  from  oppression, 
from  persecution,  and  from  want,  the  God  of  their  fathers  has  prospered 
and  blessed  them.  He  cast  out  the  heathen  from  before  them,  and  planted 
them  in  a  goodi}'  soil.  He  crowned  the  laliur  of  their  hands  with  plenty, 
and  prospered  their  institutions,  both  civil  ami  religious.  Thus  pardoned 
with  the  smiles  of  Heaven,  they  increased  in  numbers,  in  arts,  in  wealth, 
and  respectability.  Colleges  were  formed,  temples  for  the  worship  of  the 
living  God  were  raised,  the  sound  uf  the  hammer  was  hf>ard  tn  every 
quarter,  and  commerce  began  to  unfurl  her  thousand  snils. 

"  Ni)r  was  our  prosperity  unobserved  by  the  natiuus  of  the  earth.  They 
saw,  they  wondered,  and  they  admired.  Our  prosperity  excited  the  cu. 
pldity,  especially  of  that  nation  which  claimed  us  as  her  colunies.  But 
before  the  yoke  which  she  had  prepared  for  us  was  riveted  to  our  necks, 
we  cast  It  to  the  ground  and  dashed  it  in  pieces.  It  would  be  ungrateful 
here  nut  to  acknowledge  the  hand  of  God  in  enabling  us  to  assert  our 
rights  and  to  obtain  our  independence,  by  which  we  took  a  place  among 
the  nations  of  the  earth.  Although  the  conflict  was  long  and  bloody,  the 
Lord  of  Hosts  crowned  our  arms  with  success,  and  said  to  our  country, 
thou  art  free  I  and  thereby  taught  mankind  that  the  race  is  not  always 
to  the  swift,  nor  the  battle  tu  the  strong,  but  that  salvation  is  of  the  Lord. 
Nur  can  we  doubt  that  God  taught  our  senators  wisdom,  since  they  were 
enabled  to  devise  and  prepare  a  constitution  for  the  States  by  which  the 
wisdom  and  wealth  and  power  of  each  were  coucentnited  and  made  to 
flow  in  the  same  channel  for  the  common  benefit  of  all ;  a  constitution 
which,  while  it  secures  life,  libei'ty,  and  property  to  each  individual,  yet 
sufficiently  nerves  thearm  of  government  to  guide  and  protect  the  whule. 

**  And  what  has  been  our  situation  since  that  time  ?  While  the  plains 
of  Europe  have  for  years  smoked  with  the  blood  of  the  slain,  while 
mighty  ctinvulsions  have  overturned  her  mighty  thrones  and  shaken 
whole  kingdoms  to  their  centre,  we  for  thirty  years  enjoyed  the  sunshine 
of  peace  and  of  equal  laws.  The  thunder  of  Europe's  cannon  was  heard, 
but  at  so  great  a  distance  that  its  sound  came  only  murmuring  on  our 
ears.  And  so  familiar  did  we  become  with  her  oft-repeated  tale  of  woe, 
that  the  fate  uf  her  mighty  armies,  which  marched  into  the  field  but 
never  returned,  excited  in  us  feelings  of  com misi; ration  but  for  a  day. 
While  thus  in  a  great  measure  insensible  to  the  distress  of  others,  their 
broils  enriched  our  cofTera. 

"But,  alual  with  our  growing  wealth  we  became  more  proud,  more  un- 
grateful, mure  wicked,  and  therefore  more  ripe  fur  the  judgment  of 
Heaven.  Nor  have  they  been  delayed.  The  sword  has  been  unsheathed 
on  our  borders,  and  made  drunk  with  the  blood  of  our  fellow-citizens. 
Many  have  been  made  to  feel  sorely  the  rod  of  Gud*a  displeasure.  Yet 
as  a  nation  we  have  eufiered  but  lightly  compared  with  what  the  nations 
of  Europe  have  lately  experienced  from  the  awful  ravages  of  war.  And 
fs  it,  0  Lord,  because  our  crimes  have  been  less?  Or  is  it  not  rather  that 
Thy  compassion  and  grace  to  us  have  more  abounded?  Although  a 
righteous  God  has  visited  our  favored  land  with  the  fire  and  with  the 
sword,  and  with  pestilence,  He  has  in  His  abundant  mercy  preserved  us 
from  the  horrors  of  famine,  a  still  sorer  judgment,  for  the  earth  has 
yielded  the  fruits  of  her  increase  in  abundance,  and  we  have  eaten  to  the 

"  War  on  our  coasts  and  throughout  our  land  has  ceased.  God  hath 
said  to  the  destroying  angel,  It  is  enough.  The  sword  has  been  returned 
to  the  scabbard,  aud  we  are  now  permitted  each  one  to  sit  under  hisowu 
Tine  and  fig-tree,  there  being  none  tu  alarm  us  or  make  us  afraid.  And 
shall  we  not  be  glad  on  that  account,  and  joy  in  the  God  of  our  salva- 
tion? Surely  he  that  does  not  and  will  not  r^oico  must  be  destitute  of 
the  feelings  of  humanity,  as  he  is  insensible  to  the  dying  groans  of  the 
soldier,  and  regardless  of  the  bitter  cries  and  despairing  agonies  of  the 
aged  parent,  the  affectionate  wife,  and  helpless  youth,  from  whose  ten- 
der embrace  war  tears  a  son,  a  husband,  or  a  father,  and  writes  in  char- 
acters of  blood  the  name  of  the  first,  childless ;  of  the  next,  a  widow ;  of 
the  last,  an  orphan.  And  who  can  tell  how  many  such  have  been  called 
during  the  last  war  to  mourn  in  secret,  and  have  pined  away  in  anguish 
a  life  that  was  bound  up  in  the  life  of  their  departed  friend  ?  None  can 
tell  but  He  whose  eye  is  over  all,  and  who  deigns  to  notice 
the  sighs  and  tears  of  the  widow  and  fatherless.  Oh !  their  departed 
friends  shall  never  return ;  their  blood  has  flowed  at  their  country's  call 
and  their  eyes  are  sealed  in  death. 

"Sad  and  gloomy  as  these  reflections  are  and  must  be  to  a  virtuous 
mind,  yet  we,  as  a  congregation,  have  abundant  ground  for  rejoicing, 
since  not  one  from  among  tu  hiM  been  calUd  into  the  field  of  batUef  and  al- 
though a  number  of  you  have,  for  u  short  time,  exchanged  your  ordinarj* 
pursuits  for  the  life  of  a  camp,  yet,  through  the  goodness  of  God,  you 
have  returned  in  safety  to  your  friends,  one  ontff  excepted,  and  are  per- 
mitted to  join  with  us  in  ofiering  thanksgiving  to  the  God  of  all  our  ar- 

mies.   And  what,  0 1  what,  shall  we  render  unto  the  Lord  fur  all  Hii 
'  benefits  tuwards  us?    Oh  that  men  would  praise  the  Lord  for  Hisgood- 

nt-ss  and  fur  His  wonderful  works  among  the  children  of  men  1 

I       *'  Whatever  may  be  our  feelings  on  this  occasion,  yet  as  no  hostile  foot 

I   has  visited  our  doors,  as  no  alarms  for  pentorfal  safety  have  disturbed  onr 

slnmbers,  as  none  of  us  have  been  called  to  njoairn  the  loss  of  friends 

whosH  blood  has  flowed  in  the  service  of  our  country,  we  cannot  so  fully 

!   appreciate  the  blessings  of  returning  peace  as  many  throughout  our  land. 

Would  you,  at  least  in  some  measurp,  rightly  estimate  the  blesBlngn  of 

:  peace,  imagine  for  a  moment  the  situatiun  uf  those  inhaldbinta  living  on 

,   our  seaboard  on  the  east,  or  on  our  frontiers  on  the  north  and  west,  who 

I   were  either  driven  from  their  homes  or  were  daily  exposed  to  an  invading 

I   fleet,  or  morc'to-be-dreaded  seal  ping-knife  of  the  Indian.    Imagine  for  a 

I   moment  the  situation  of  those  iuhal  itnnts  whose  homes  were  laid  lo 

ashes,  and  themselves  obliged  tu  wander  as  fugitives  and  strangers  on 

:  their  native  soil.    Imagine  for  a  niument  the  feelings  uf  those  reninants 

I   of  families  from  which  one  or  more  t>f  their  number  has  been  ravaged 

I   by  the  war.    As  little  as  we  are  willing  or  able  to  realize  these  scenes  of 

distress  and  misery,  they  are  not  fictitious,  but  have  actually  and  fr»< 

qiieutly  taken  place  during  the  past  war,  and  in  a  gi-eater  or  less  degree 

I    do  take  place  in  all  wars. 

**  But  blessed  be  His  name  who  maketh  the  wars  to  cease,    Tlie  toma- 

I   hawk  is  now  buried,  and  the  late  ho-tile  fleets  now  visit  our  shores  in 

peace.    And  0!  may  the  confused  noise  of  the  wanior  and  garments 

,   rolled  in  blood  no  more  be  heard  or  seen  in  our  land  in  our  day,  nor  in 

the  day  of  our  children,  nor  children's  children. 

"  And  since  the  judge  of  all  the  earth  has  deigned  to  bestow  upon  us 
the  blessings  of  peace,  may  we  nut  hope  that  with  it  He  will  also  grant 
us  other  tokens  of  his  favor?  May  we  not  hope  soon  to  see  new  fields  of 
industry  and  wealth  opened  tu  the  farmer,  a  now  opting  given  to  the 
mechanic  arts,  and  our  dying  commerce  a^^ain  revive?  Tes ;  may  we  not 
hope  soon  to  see  commerce,  the  parent  of  industry  and  source  of  wealth, 
unfurl  her  canvas  to  every  wind,  visit  every  clime,  and  isle,  and  continent, 
return  with  their  riches  and  pour  their  wealth  upon  onr  favured  shores? 
May  we  not  hupe  that,  being  restored  to  peace  with  our  enemy,  wo  will 
lay  aside  all  enmity  against  them,  and  view  them  as  brethren  descended 
from  the  same  cummon  parent,  sharers  in  the  same  benign  religion  oi 
Jesus,  and  warmed  with  the  same  hupes  of  immortality  with  ourselves? 
May  we  not  hope  that,  with  returning  peace  abroad,  the  bitterness  of 
party  spirit  among  ourselves,  which  has  disgraced  all  ages,  and  ranks, 
and  sexes,  may  be  eradicated  from  our  bosoms,  and  exchanged  for  an  am- 
bition who  shall  become  the  best  member  of  society  by  fulfilling  all  ths 
duties  of  their  several  stations?  For  in  the  final  issue  of  things  it  will 
then  be  made  to  appear  that  the  befit  Christian  is  the  best  patriot. 

"  Would  we  then  truly  enjoy  the  blessings  of  peace,  let  us  imbibe  and 
cultivate  the  spirit  of  the  Gospel  and  fearlessly  discharge  all  the  duties 
It  enjoins,  both  public  and  private.  Let  us  enlist  under  the  banners  (tf 
the  Prince  of  Peace,  who  is  the  Prince  of  the  kings  of  the  earth,  that 
we  may  enjoy  Hin  smiles  and  gracious  protection.  And  let  ua  anlently 
desire  aud  pray  for  the  coming  of  that  day  wheu  the  kingdoms  of  this 
world  shall  become  the  Ulngdunis  of  our  Lord  antl  of  His  Christ;  that 
He  may  have  dominion  frum  sea  to  sea,  and  from  the  river  unto  the  ends 
of  the  earth,  for  in  His  days  shall  the  righteous  flourish,  and  abundance 
of  peace  so  long  as  the  moon  endureth.'* 

The  war  with  Mexico  drew  a  number  of  volunteers 
in  New  York  City  regiments,  but  so  far  as  we  can 
learn  there  were  no  cora.panie3  organized  in  the 
county,  except  Company  K,  of  the  Tenth  Kegiment 
United  States  Infantry,  Capt.  Alexander  Wilkin, 
which  was  recruited  at  Goshen.  A  history  of  this 
company  will  be  found  in  connection  with  the  town 
of  Goshen. 



In  the  civil  war  of  1861-65,  the  people  of  this 

county  proved  themselves  worthy  representatives  of 

I  a  heroic  ancestry.     In  all  the  larger  towns  meetings 



were  held  immediately  upon  the  fall  of  Fort  Sumter. 
Men  and  money  were  freely  tendered  for  the  defense 
of  the  Union.  Enlistments  commenced  forthwith, 
and  the  action  of  the  citizens  was  everywhere  prompt 
and  enthusiastic.  When  it  became  necessary  at  a  later 
period  to  raise  large  sums  to  fill  the  several  quotas, 
these  were  voted  without  hesitation. 

Briefly  recapitulated,  the  following  regiments  and 
companies  were  recruited  and  organized  in  the  county, 

Sd  Begiment,  Co.  B,  infantry,  1861. 
18th  Begiment,  Cki.  D,  infantry,  1801. 
18th  Begiment,  Co.  I,  infanti-y,  1861, — in  part. 
36th  Begiment,  Co.  B,  Infantry,  1S61. 
e6th  Begiment,  Oo.  A,  iarantry,  18C1. 
6Gth  Begiment,  Co.  B,  infantry,  18GI. 
S6th  Regiment,  Co.  I),  infantry,  18GI. 
SGth  Regiment,  Co.  B,  infantry,  1861. 
63d  Regiment,  infantry,  1864. 
10th  Regiment,  Co.  F,  infantry,  1861. 
8'Zth  Begiment,  Co.  C,  infantry,  1861. 
98th  Regiment,  Co.  C,  infantry,  1864. 
98th  Begiment,  Co.  I,  infantry,  1864,— in  part. 
124th  Begiment,  infantry,  1862,-1047  men. 
124th  Begiment,  infantry,  1864, — one  company. 
168th  Regiment,  infantry,  1862,-335  men. 
176th  Begiment,  infantry,  186i,— 272  men. 
let  Begiment,  Co.  C,  Mounted  Rifles,  1861. 
2d  Regiment,  Co.  B,  cavalry,  1861. 
16th  Begiment,  Co.  I,  cavHlry,  1864, — 140  men. 
16th  Begiment,  Co.  M,  artillery,  1864,-82  men. 
7tli  Begiment,  artillery,  1864,-70  men. 
7th  Independent  Battery,  1861. 
19th  and  7l8t  Militia,  1861-62,-317  men. 

There  were,  in  addition,  many  enlistments  in 
other  regiments  and  also  in  the  navy.  The  following 
aggregate  of  men  furnished  may  be  accepted  as  very 
nearly  accurate : 




Cornwall , 

Crawford , 





High  lands. 




Mount  Hope 


New  Windsor , 





April,  1861,  to 
July,  1862.    I 

Total  Credits  under 
Subsequent  Calls. 
























493    429    922 


79.  I881 

12  . 
447  . 
100  . 

12  . 

»  _: '  3.  -: 

5-3  0-; 

0,  30 






4  ^21 
4l  192 
52  361 
26  165 
91  692 
6  303 
10  1U1 
14'  119 

11  128 
14'  298 
3    520 


6  137 
249!  122  2301 
24  3  237 
20'  60 
60  583 
13    163 

Total 1605,  517  2022  201111776  1293    631,7624 

While  a  detailed  history  of  the  services  of  the  com- 
panies and  regiments  enumerated  is  not  within  the 
province  of  this  work,  more  than  a  mere  reference  is 
due  to  some  of  them. 


Company  B,  Third  Regiment  Infantry,  claims  to 
have  been  the  first  company  recruited  and  ready  for 
muster  in  the  State,  although  not  the  first  mustered. 
Recruiting  for  it  was  commenced  in  Newburgh  imme- 
diately on  the  passage,  by  the  Legislature,  of  the 
act  of  April  16, 1861,  entitled  "  An  act  to  authorize 
the  equipment  of  a  volunteer  militia  and  to  provide 
for  the  public  safety."  Although  the  movement  for 
the  recruiting  of  the  company  was  inaugurated  by 
Stephen  W.  Fullerton;  Esq.,  at  that  time  a  member 
of  Assembly,  and  subsequently  captain  of  the  company, 
James  A.  Raney  was  in  charge.  The  company  was 
mustered  in  May  14,  1861, — seventy-seven  men, — for 
two  years.  At  the  expiration  of  its  term  its  remain- 
ing members  were  mustered  out.  The  company  was 
reorganized,  however,  and  continued  in  the  field  until 
finally  mustered  out,  Aug.  28, 1865.  Big  Bethel,  Fort 
Wagner,  Bermuda  Hundred,  Petersburg,  Fort  Gil- 
mer, Chapin's  Farm,  Fort  Fisher,  and  Wilmington, 
N.  C,  were  its  more  important  fields  of  service.  Its 
officers  were : 

Stephen  W.  Fullerton,  captain,  April  20, 1861 ;  died  of  disease  at  New- 
burgh Sept.  11, 1861. 

Ervine  A.Jones,  first  lieutenant,  April  20, 1861;  promoted  captain  Sept. 
25, 1861 ;  dismissed  Aug.  16, 1862. 

Alexander  Mann,  second  lieutenant,  April.20, 1861 ;  promoted  first  lieu- 
tenant Sept.  30, 1861 ;  captain,  June  10,1862;  discharged  Aug.  31, 

Jeremiah  D.  Mabie,  first  sergeant,  May  14,  1861;  second  lieutenant, 
Sept.  14,  1861 ;  first  lieutenant,  April  24, 1362 ;  captain,  Co.  F,  June 
15, 1S63 ;  discliarged  Sept.  18, 1864. 

James  H.  Beeve,  fourth  sergeant,  May  14,  1861;  first  sergeant ;  second 
lieutenant,  April  21,  1862;  captain,  Co.  1,  Oct.  3,  1864;  lost  leg  at 
Fort  Fisher;  discharged  June  2G,  1865. 

The  personal  record  of  its  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates  will  be  found  in  the  Newburgh  list  of 


This  regiment  is  described  in  the  official  reports  as 
having  been  organized  at  Albany  to  serve  two  years. 
The  companies  of  which  it  was  composed  were  raised 
in  the  counties  of  Albany,  Schenectady,  St.  Lawrence, 
Ontario,  and  Orange.  It  was  mustered  into  the  ser- 
vice of  the  United  States  May  17,1861,  and  mustered 
out  May  28,  1863,  by  reason  of  the  expiration  of  its 
term  of  service.  The  portion  of  this  regiment  enlisted 
in  Orange  County  consisted  of  Company  D, — John  C. 
McGinnis  captain,  George  Barry  first  lieutenant,  and 
Roswell  M.  Sayre  second  lieutenant.  It  was  formed 
at  Middletown  immediately  upon  the  call  of  the 
President  for  seventy-five  thousand  volunteers.  One 
of  the  commissions  bears  date  April  22d,  and  the  rank 
of  quite  a  number  of  the  commissioned  officers  dates 
back  from  that  time. 

There  were  so  many  enlistments  in  the  company 
that  on  reaching  Albany,  besides  organizing  Company 
D,  about  thirty  of  the  men  were  taken  to  assist  in  or- 
ganizing Company  H.  The  company  which  went  from 
Orange  County  was  mostly  compo.sed  of  railroad  men. 



The  Eighteenth,  after  its  organization,  left  Albany 
for  Washington.  They  encamped  for  about  two  weeks 
on  Capitol  Hill.  They  were  at  the  battle  of  Bull  Run 
and  supported  a  battery,  but  did  not  share  to  any  ex- 
tent in  the  actual  fighting.  They  remained  at  Centre- 
ville  the  next  night,  and  then  marched  back  to  Wash- 

The  regiment  remained  in  that  vicinity  and  in 
winter-quarters  near  Alexandria  until  the  spring  of 
1862.  At  the  opening  of  that  year's  campaign  they 
were  sent  out  to  Brlstow's  Station,  were  snowed  in, 
and  soon  after  returned  to  Alexandria.  They  then 
went  on  board  transports,  and  went  to  the  Peninsula. 
They  shared  in  the  McClellan  campaign  against 
Richmond,  through  the  final  Seven  Days'  fight,  and 
encamped  at  Harrison's  Landing  with  the  army. 
After  that  they  were  detailed  as  a  guard  at  various 
points.  Their  winter-quarters  1862-63  were  at  White 
Oak  Church.  Early  the  following  spring  they  were 
transported  to  Albany  and  discharged  according  to 
terms  of  their  enlistment.  The  date  of  the  mustering 
out  was  May  28,  1863. 

Many  of  the  members  of  the  Eighteenth  re-en- 
listed and  did  good  service  during  the  remainder  of 
the  war. 

Promotions  among  the  men  who  went  from  Orange 
County  in  the  Eighteenth  : 

Thomas  S.  Lane,  commissioned  as  second  lieu- 
tenant Dec.  2,  1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  Nov. 
6th ;  was  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Nov.  10,  1862. 
He  was  mustered  out  with  the  regiment  May  28, 1863. 

Wm.  E.  Carmichael,  commissioned  as  second  lieu- 
tenant July  4,  1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  May 
7th ;  was  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Dec.  2, 1861.  He 
resigned  July  16,  1862. 

Robert  A.  Malone,  commissioned  as  second  lieu- 
tenant Dec.  2,  1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  Nov. 
11,  1861 ;  was  promoted  to  captain  Nov.  10,  1862,  and 
mustered  out  with  the  regiment  May  28,  1863.  His 
rank  as  captain  dated  from  Sept.  8,  1862. 

Roswell  M.  Sayre,  commissioned  as  second  lieu- 
tenant July  4,  1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  April 
30,  1861 ;  was  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Dec.  21, 
1861,  and  to  captain  Nov.  10,  1862,  his  rank  in  the 
latter  position  dating  from  June  26,  1862.  He  was 
mustered  out  with  the  regiment  May  28,  1863. 

John  S.  King  was  commissioned  as  first  lieutenant 
Nov.  10,  1862,  his  rank  dating  from  June  26,  1862, 
and  was  mustered  out  with  the  regiment  May  28, 

George  Barry,  commissioned  as  first  lieutenant  July 
4,  1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  April  30,  1861 ;  was 
promoted  captain  Dec.  2,  1861,  and  was  killed  in 
battle  at  Gaines'  Mills,  Va.,  June  27,  186?. 

John  C.  McGinnis,  commissioned  as  captain  July  4, 
1861,  and  his  rank  dating  from  April  30th ;  was  pro- 
moted to  major  Dec.  2,  1861,  and  to  lieutenant-col- 
onel Oct.  14,  1862.  He  was  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  May  28,  1863. 


Immediately  after  the  close  of  his  connection  wi 
the  recruitment  of  Co.  B,  Third  Regiment,  Jame» 
Raney,  of  Newburgh,  at  that  time  captain  of  Co.  P, 
19th  Militia,  obtained  authority  to  recruit  a  company 
for  the  Thirty-sixth  Regiment  of  volunteers,  ^then 
being  organized  in  the  city  of  New  York.  Sergt 
Timothy  Donoghue,  also  of  Co.  F,  united  in  the  en- 
terprise and  rendered  very  material  assistance.  Re- 
cruiting was  commenced  on  the  13th  of  May,  1861, 
and  the  company  was  mustered  into  the  service  of  the 
United  States  on  the  17th  of  June  following,  with 
seventy-seven  members.  The  regiment  left  Biker's 
Island  July  12th,  and  arrived  in  Washington  on  the 
14th ;  remained  in  camp  until  the  24th  of  March, 
1862,  when  it  was  brigaded  under  Brig.-Gen.  Couch 
in  the  division  commanded  by  Gen.  D.  C.  Buell,  and 
subsequently  by  Gen.  Keyes.  From  that  time  the 
history  of  the  regiment  was  blended  with  the  move- 
ments under  Gen.  McClellan  on  the  Peninsula.  Capt 
Donoghue  and  sixteen  of  his  company  were  the  first 
of  the  army  to  cross  the  Ohickahominy  at  Bottom's 
Bridge,  May  22,  1862.  At  the  battle  of  Fair  Oab, 
on  the  31st  of  the  same  month  ;  at  Seven  Pines,  June 
25th ;  at  Gaines'  Mill,  June  27th ;  and  at  Malvern 
Hill,  .July  1st,  the  regiment  made  a  brilliant  record. 
At  Malvern  Hill  Co.  B  was  particularly  distinguished, 
and  won  the  approbation  of  the  general  commanding. 

Returning  to  Yorktown  Aug.  29th,  the  regiment 
embarked  for  Alexandria,  where  it  arrived  on  the 
30th,  and  was  pushed  forward  to  Chantilly,  where  it 
was  again  under  fire  (Sept.  1st).  Crossed  into  Mary- 
land and  (Nov.  3d)  into  Virginia,  and  advanced  to 
Fredericksburg,  where  it  was  in  Gen.  Devens'  brigade, 
which  was  the  first  of  the  left  grand  division  to  cross 
the  Rappahannock,  Dec.  11th,  and  covered  the  retreat 
of  the  army  on  the  15th,  Co.  B  being  detailed  to  col- 
lect stragglers,  and  finally  crossing  under  a  shower  of 
balls  from  the  enemy.  On  the  3d  of  May  following 
the  regiment  led  the  centre  column  of  attack  on 
Marye's  Heights,  where  Co.  B  captured  a  battery  from 
a  Mississippi  brigade,  and  was  the  first  to  plant  its 
colors  on  the  heights.  In  the  afternoon  of  the  same 
day  the  regiment  was  detailed,  as  a  part  of  Sedgwick*! 
corps,  in  the  assault  on  Salem  Heights,  and  performed 
most  excellent  service.  The  records  of  the  regiment 
were  destroyed  June  30,  1863,  at  Westminster,  Md., 
to  prevent  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy,  but 
Capt.  Donoghue  determinedly  preserved  his  descrip- 
tive book,  from  which  records  of  his  men  will  be 
found  in  the  list  of  Newburgh  volunteers.  The  last 
service  of  the  regiment  was  in  Hooker's  campaign. 
At  the  commencement  of  the  "  mysterious  move- 
ments of  Gen.  Lee"  which  culminated  at  Gettysburg, 
the  regiment  was  again  sent  over  the  Rappahannock, 
where  three  divisions  of  the  enemy  were  found,  but 
no  action  ensued.  Falling  back  towards  Centreville, 
the  regiment  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Edwards'  Ferry, 
and  its  term  of  service  being  more  than  filled,  it  was 



ordered  home.  No  braver,  better,  or  more  gallant 
men  served  in  the  volunteer  force  than  Co.  B.  Its 
officers  were :  I 

James  A.  Baney,  captain,  Jane  15,  1861 ;  promoted  major  Deu.  21, 1861 ; 
reeigaed  Oct.  16, 1862. 

Timothy  Uonoglnie,  fintt  lieutenant,  June  15,  1861;  prumotetl  captain 
Nov.  12, 1861 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  IS,  1863. 

Jolin  M.  Lewis,  second  lleutenaut,  June  15, 1861 ;  promoted  first  lieu- 
tenant Bee.  2, 1861 ;  mustered  out  witii  regiment  July  15,  1863. 

Cbarlefl  !£.  Lewis,  iirst  sergeant,  Oct.  1, 1861 ;  second  lieutenant,  Nov.  12, 
1861 ;  iiist  lieutenant,  Aug.  20,  1862  ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
July  15, 1863. 


This  organization  was  popularly  known  as  the  Tenth 
Legion.  It  was  organized  at  Newburgh,  mostly  in  the 
month  of  August,  though  the  rank  of  some  of  the 
officers  dates  from  July. 

The  Fifty-sixth  was  composed  of  companies  raised 
in  Ulster,  Orange,  Sullivan,  and  Delaware,  and  it  was 
mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  be- 
tween July  31st  and  Dec.  10th.  As  elsewhere  stated, 
the  companies  recruited  in  Orange  were  A,  B,  D,  and 
E,  with  scattering  men  in  other  commands.  The 
Seventh  Battery  and  Co.  C,  First  Mounted  Rifles,  were 
also  recruited  for  it  but  subsequently  detached.  It 
left  for  the  seat  of  war  Nov.  7,  1861,  eleven  hundred 
and  forty-three  strong.  It  was  formed  as  a  three 
years'  regiment,  but  by  re-enlistments  the  organiza- 
tion was  continued,  and  was  not  mustered  out  until 
Oct.  17,  1865,  making  a  period  of  four  years'  service. 

By  the  adjutant-general's  report  of  1868  this  regi- 
ment was  entitled  to  inscribe  upon  its  banners  the 
following  battles : 

Lee's  Mills,  Va. ;  Williamsburg,  Va. ;  Honey  Hill, 
S.  C. ;  Devaux  Neck,  8.  C. ;  John's  Island,  S.  C. ; 
White  Oak  Swamp,  Va. ;  Fair  Oaks,  Va. ;  Yorktown, 
Va.  (siege) ;  Chickahominy,  Va. ;  Coosawhatchie, 
S.  C. ;  Malvern  Hill,  Va. ;  Carter's  Hill,  Va. ;  Bot- 
tom's Bridge,  Va. ;  Dingle's  Mills,  S.  C. 

The  following  is  the  official  record  of  the  rank  and 
promotion  of  the  commissioned  officers  ;  the  date  of 
commission  being  first  given,  followed  by  the  date  of 
rank : 

Cliarles  H.  Van  Wyck  (bvt.  brig.-geu.  U.S.V.),  Nov.  13,  186i ;  Sept.  4, 

1801 ;  mustered  out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17,  1865. 
Kookwell  Tyler,  Sept.  29,  1805;  Sept.  27,  1865;  not  nmstered  as  colonel. 

Lieutenant-  Colonels. 

James  Jordan,  Dec.  20, 1861 ;  Dec.  19, 1861 ;  discharged  Aug.  5, 1862. 

Frederick  Decker,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  5, 1802 ;  not  mustered  as  liouten-  ' 
ant-colonel.  I 

John  J.  Wheeler,  Dec.  15, 1862  ;  Nov.  -.3, 1K62;  resigned  Feb.  11, 1864. 

Roikwoll  Tyler  (brevet  col.  N.Y.V.),  Feb.  27, 1864  ;  Feb.  13, 1864  ;  mus- 
tered out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17,  T86S. 

Eliphas  Smith,  Sept.  20, 1805;  .Sept.  27, -1805;  not  mustered  as  liouten- 


Jacob  Sharpe,  June  28, 1862 ;  Sept.  1, 1861 ;  discharged  Ang.  5, 1862. 

Jiihn  J.  Wlieeler,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  2, 1862 ;  promoted  to  lieutenant- 
colonel  Dec.  16, 1862. 

Rockwell  Tyler,  Dec.  15, 1862  ;  Nov.  23, 1862  ;  promoted  to  lieutenant- 
colonel  Feb.  27, 1864. 

Eliphas  Smith  (bvt.  lieut.-col.  N.Y.V.),  Feb.  27,  1864;  Feb.  18,  1864; 
must,  out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 

Jamea  Dubois,  Sept.  29, 1866  ;  Sept.  27, 1865 ;  not  mustered  as  miu'or. 

Eli  H.  Evans,  Aug.  7, 1862;  Sept.  1, 1881 ;  dismissed  Oct.  26, 1863. 
Henry  B.  Lomas  (bvt.  capt.  N.T.V.),  Nov.  30,  1863;  Oct.  1,1803;  mus- 
tered out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 

John  C.  Gerard,  Aug.  7, 1862 ;  July  31, 1801 ;  discharged  Nov.  3, 1863. 
Jesse  F.  Shafer,  Nov.  17, 18B2 ;  Sept.  6, 1862 ;  resigned  Oct.  16, 1864. 
Addison  J.  Clements  (bvt.  capt.  N.T.V.),  Nov.  30,  1864;  Oct.  16,  1864; 
mustered  out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17, 1866. 

Surgeons.  • 

Solomon  Van   Etten   (bvt,   lieut.-col.  N.T.V.),  Aug.  7,  1862;   Sept  23, 
1861 ;  mustered  out  on  expiration  of  term  of  service  Sept.  28,  1864. 
George  H.  FossanI,  Oct.  7, 1861;  Oct.  7, 1804;  resigned  July  5, 1865. 
Ira  S.  Bradner,  Sept.  19, 1865;  Sept.  19, 1866;  not  mustered  as  surgeon. 

Aasiatattt  Surgeons. 

G.  A.  Carrol,  Aug.  7,  1802;  Sept.  23,  1861;  promoted  to  surgeon  143d 
N.Y.V.  May  13,  ISO?. 

Ira  S.  Bradner,  May  2, 1863;  April  25, 1863;  must,  out  with  the  regi- 
ment Oct.  17, 1805. 

Albert  S.  Turnei-,  Ang.  29, 1862 ;  Aug.  19, 1862 ;  promoted  to  surgeon  of 
103d  N.Y.V.  Nov.  18, 1863. 

Daniel  S.  Hardenburgh,  Nov.  12, 1863;  Nov.  11, 1863;  resigned  April  1, 


Charles  Shelling,  Aug.  7, 1862 ;  Sept.  1 6, 1861 ;  discharged  Dec.  23, 1862. 

George  P.  Van  Wyck,  Dec.  30, 1802 ;  Dec.  20, 1802  ;  mustered  out  with 
the  regiment  Oct.  17, 1805. 


Thomas  S.  Marvell,  Jr.,  Dec.  18, 1801 ;  July  31, 1861 ;  resigned  Ang.  5, 

James  H.  F.  Miltun,  Nov.  17, 1862;  Aug.  5,  1862;  mustered  out  on  the 
expiraticm  of  term  uf  service  Marcli  31, 1865. 

John  Metcair,  May  1,1866;  May  1,1865;  mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
ment Oct.  17, 1865. 

Charles  F.  Thayer,  Dec.  18, 18r,1  ;  Ang.  16, 1801 ;  resigned  April  9, 1862. 

Alfred  W.  Lomas,  Dec.  6, 1862 ;  April  10,  1802  ;  resigned  Aug.  11, 1863. 

James  H.  Smith,  Nov.  30,  1S03  ;  Aug.  II,  1863  ;  resigned  July  26, 1804. 

Melville  Sears,  Aug.  12,  lb04  ;  Aug.  12,1864;  mustered  out  on  the  expi- 
ration of  service  July  31, 1865. 

Norman  Perkins,  Sept.  19, 1805  ;  Sept.  1, 1865 ;  not  mustered  as  captain. 

Frederick  Decker,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Aug.  16, 1861 ;  discharged  Nov.  23, 1863. 

Wm.  T.  Calkins,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  5, 1862 ;  mustered  out  on  expira- 
tion of  term  of  service  Feb.  22, 1865. 

James  Gowdey,  May  1, 1865  ;  May  1, 1866 ;  resigned  June  28, 1865. 

Reuben  S.  Gillett,  Sept.  19, 1865  ;  June  28, 1865  ;  not  mustered  as  captain. 

John  J.  Wheeler,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  promoted  to  major  Nov.  17, 1862. 

Edward  Wheeler,  Dec.  30,  1862 ;  Aug.  5, 1862;  resigned  March  16,  1864. 

John  Connell,  May  26, 1864;  March  15,  1864;  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  Oct.  17,  1866. 

William  J.  Williams,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Sept.  20, 1801 :  killed  at  Fair  Oaks, 
Va.,  May3],  18U2. 

Daniel  D.  Siting,  July  18,  1862;  May  31, 1862;  resigned  March  9,  1804. 

Joseph  S.  Holmes,  May  25,  1864 ;  May  8, 1864  ;  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 

Melvin  S.  Wells,  Dec.  18, 1801 ;  Aug.  29, 1861 ;  discharged  Nov.  23, 1862. 

James  Dubois  (bvt.  maj.  N.Y.V.),  Nov.  24,  1862;  Nov.  14,  1862;  mus- 
tered out  with  the  regiment  Oct.  17,  1865. 

Henry  A.  Hawkes,  Sept.  29,  1806;  Sept.  27, 1865;  not  mustered  as  cap* 

William  D.  Fuller,  Dec.  18,  1861 ;  Oct.  1, 1861 ;  resigned  March  10, 1863. 

Francis  Hines,  Jan.  10, 186  ; ;  March  14, 1803  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  17,  1866. 

William  K.  Joslyn,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  3, 1861 ;  resigned  June  8,  1863. 

Alonzo  H.  Chittenden,  Nov.  30, 1863;  June  6, 1863;  mustered  out  with 
the  regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 

John  Ernhout,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Got.  3, 1861 ;  discharged  Oct  3, 1862. 

James  J.  Cox,  Dec.  30, 1862 ;  Oct.  3, 1802  ;  mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
ment Oct.  17,  1865. 

Asa  Hodge,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  10, 1801 ;  discharged  Feb.  26, 1862. 

Eliphas  Smith,  June  10, 1362;  Feb.  26, 1862;  promoted  to  mi^or  Feb.  27, 

Norris  Grossman,  April  29, 1864 ;  April  20, 1864 ;  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  Oct.  17, 1866. 



Rockwell  Tylor,  Nov.  20, 1802;  Oct.  5,1862;  promoted  to  major  Dec.  15, 

Henry  P.  KelUm,  Dec.  30, 18C2  ;  Nov.  23,  1862  ;  resigned  Nov.  26, 1864. 
Marshall  L.  Battsford,  Nov.  30, 18C4  ;  Oct.  27,  186*:  mustered  out  with 

the  regimeut  Oct.  17, 1865. 
Wm.  H.  Burnett,*  missing  since  April  30, 1862. 

First  Lieutenants. 
Thomas  B.  Pope,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Sept.  17, 1861 ;  dismissed  Sept.  4, 1862. 
Thomas  Atwood.  Nov.  17, 1862;  Sept.  4, 186i  ;  resigned  April  24, 1863. 
John  Metcair,  Nov.  30,  1863;  April  24, 1863;  promoted  to  captain  May 

t,  1865. 
Eohert  C.  Roper,  May  1, 1865 ;  May  1, 1866  ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 

Oct.  17, 1865. 
Efflnghrtm  Vauderburgh,  Deo.  18, 1861 ;  Aug.  16, 1861 ;  resigned  Feb.  1, 

Alfred  W.  Lomas,  Feb.  19, 1862  ;  Feb.  6, 1802 ;  promoted  to  captain  Dec. 

5,  1802. 
James  J.  Cox,  Dec.  6, 1862;  April  10,  1862;  promoted  to  captain  Deo.  10, 

Alphonse  Ricbter,  Dec.  30, 1862  ;  Oct.  3, 1862  ;  discharged  May  29, 1864. 
Alexander  P.  Ketchum,  June  30,  1864;  June  30, 1864;  promoted  to  cap- 
tain in  I28tbt  U.  S.  C.  T.  May  16, 1865. 
Henry  A.  Still,  Deo.  18, 1861 ;  Sept.  17, 1861 ;  discharged  Aug.  26, 1862. 
Edgar  B.  Morse,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  26, 1862  ;  dismissed  Feb.  9, 1868. 
Joseph  S.  Holmes,  Nov.  30, 1863;  Feb.  9, 1863;  promoted  to  captain  May 

25,  1864. 
John  S.  Tompkins,  May  25,  1804 ;  March  8, 1864 ;  mustered  out  with  the 

regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 
Edward  Wheeler,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Aug.  16, 1861 ;  promoted  to  captain  Dec. 

30, 1862. 
Isaac  Beckett,  Dec.  30, 1862 ;  Aug.  5, 1862 ;  mustered  out  on  the  expira- 
tion of  term  of  service  Jan.  27, 1865. 
William  J.  Sayre,  March  14, 1865;  Jan.  20, 1805;  mustered  out  with  the 

regimeut  Oct.  17,  1865. 
Richard  M.  Mines,  Dec.  18, 1861;  Sept.  20, 1861 ;  resigned  Feb.  6, 1862. 
Henry  M.  Connelly,  June  10, 1S62;  Feb.  6, 1862  ;  discharged  Oct.  3, 1802. 
Isaac  Rosa,  Dec.  5,  1862;  Oct.  3, 1802;  died  Jan.  20, 1863,  at  Newborn, 

N.  C. 
James  H.  Smith,  March  17,  1863;  Jan.  19,  1863;  promoted  to  captain 

Nov.  30,  1863. 
Melville  Sears,  Nov.  30, 1863;  Aug.  11, 1863;  promoted  to  captain  Aug. 

12,  1864. 
James  U.  F.  Milton,  Dec.  18, 1861;  Aug.  29, 1861;  promoted  to  captain 

Nov.  17, 1862. 
Francis  Hines,  Dec.  30, 1862 ;  Aug.  5, 1862 ;  promoted  to  captain  June  10, 

Reuben  R.  Gillet,  Nov.  30, 1863;  March  6, 1863  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct  17, 1865. 
Andrew  P.  Conklin,  Sept.  19, 1865;  June  28, 1865  ;  not  mustered  as  first 

Daniel  D.  Siting,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  1, 1861 ;  promoted  to  captain  July 

18, 1862. 
Meeker  G.  Bell,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  5,  1862 ;  not  mustered  as  first  lieu- 
Demmon  S.  Decker,  Dec.  30, 1862 ;  Oct.  3, 1862 ;  dismissed  April  11, 1864. 
Norman  Perkins,  May  25, 1864 ;  March  28, 1864;  mustered  out  with  the 

regimeut  Oct.  17, 1866. 
Benjamiu  Terwilliger,  Sept.  19, 1865 ;  Sept.  1, 1865 ;  not  mustered  as  first 

Wm.  T.  Calkins,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  3, 1861 ;  promoted  to  captain  Nov. 

17, 1862. 
Wm.  B.  Baird,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  6, 1862 ;  not  mustered  as  first  lieu- 
Francis  L.  Van  Dugan,  Aug.  29, 1864;  April  20, 1864;  declined. 
Marshall  L.  Battsford,  July  20, 1864 ;  June  28, 1864 ;  promoted  to  captain 

Nov.  30, 1864. 
Henry  A.  Huwkes,  Nov.  30, 1864 ;  Oct.  27, 1804 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  17, 1865. 
Rufus  Moffltt,  Dec.  18,  1861 ;  Oct.  3, 1861 ;  resigned  Feb.  6, 1862. 
S.  Augustus  Gould,  March  27,1862  ;  March  27, 1862;  diAnissed  March  1, 

Norris  Grossman,  Nov.  30,  1863:  March  1,  1863;  promoted  to  captain 
April  29,-1864. 

*  On  records  of  War  Department,  but  not  commissioned, 
t  So  in  official  report. 

Solomon  D.  Wheat,  April  29, 1864 ;  April  20, 1804 ;  mustered  out  on  tbi 
expiration  of  term  of  service  March  31, 1865. 

Dwight  W.  Auchmoody,  May  31,  1865 ;  May  1,  1865 ;  not  mustered  n 
first  lieutenant. 

Isaac  Jelliff,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  10, 1861 ;  resigned  Feb.  21, 1862. 

James  Dubois,  June  lU,  1862;  Feb.  26,  1862;  promoted  to  captain  Mor. 
24,  1862. 

Charles  B.  Young,  Dec.  30, 1882;  Nov.  14, 1862;  mustered  out  with  tin 
regimeut  Oct.  17,  1865. 

Enoch  Horton,  Nov.  30, 1862 ;  Oct.  6, 1862 ;  resigned  Feb.  14, 1862. 

Henry  P.  Kellam,  Nuv  24, 1862  ;  Feb.  14, 1862  ;  promoted  to  captain  Dee. 
30, 1862. 

Alonzo  H.  Chittenden,  Dec.  30, 1862 ;  Nov.  25, 1862  ;  promoted  to  csptiin 
Nov.  30,  186). 

Morris  Downey,  Nov.  30,  1863;  June  £r,  1863;  mustered  out  on  the  ex. 
piration  of  term  of  service  April  1, 1865. 

Oscar  E.  Perriue,  May  31, 1865 ;  May  1, 1865 ;  not  mustered  as  first  lieu- 

Francis  Might,  May  31, 1865 ;  May  1, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  the  regi. 
ment  Oct.  17,  1865. 

Edward  II.  Lonius,  Aug.  12, 1864 ;  .^ug.  12, 1864 ;  disi^iseed  Jan.  9, 1866, 

Jeremiah  Strickland,  March  14, 1865  ;  Jan.  18, 1866 ;  mustered  out  with 
the  regimen*  Oct.  17,  1866. 

Wm.  Peake,  Sept.  29,  1865;  Sept.  27, 1864;  nut  mustered  as  first  lira- 

James  McGuire,  Sept.  19,  1865 ;  Sept.  19,  1865 ;  not  mustered  as  gnt 

Daniel  R.  Franklin,^  resigned  Sept.  17, 1861. 

Silas  A.  Ilsley.t  discharged  June  22, 1862. 

Second  Lieutenants. 
Peter  B.  Steele,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Sept.  17,  1861 ;  resigned  Jan.  14, 1863. 
Wilbur  F.  Still,  Nov.  17, 1862  ;  Sept.  4, 1862;  resigned  Aug^21, 1864. 
Robert  C.  Roper,  Nov.  30,  1864;  Nuv.  30, 1864;  promoted  to  first  lien. 

tenant  May  1, 1865. 
George  R.  Block,  May  1, 1865 ;  May  1, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  the  regi- 
ment Oct.  17, 1865. 
Alfred  W.  Lomas,  Dec.  18,  1861 ;  Aug.  16, 1861 ;  promoted  to  first  lito. 

tenant  Feb.  19,  1862. 
James  I.  Cox,  Feb.  19, 1862;  Feb.  6, 1862;  promoted  to  firat  lieutesuit 

Deo.  .5, 1862. 
Isaac  Roosa,  Dec.  5, 1862 ;  April  10,1862;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant 

Dec.  6, 1862. 
Alphonse  Richter,  Dec.  5, 1862;  Oct. 3,1862;  promoted  to  first  lieuteoant 

Dec.  30,  1862. 
Algernon  S.  Ross,  Dec.  30, 1862;  Oct.  3,  1862;  mustered  out  on  exiiira- 

tioo  of  term  of  sei-vice  March  27,  1865. 
Henry  M.  Connelly,  Dec.  IS,  1861 ;  Aug.  16,  1861 ;  promoted  to  first  lieu. 

tenant  June  10, 1862. 
James  H.  Smith,  June  10, 1862  ,  Feb.  6, 1362;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant March  17, 1863. 
Melville  Seats,  March  17, 1863;  Jan.  19. 1863;  promoted  to  first  lieuUi). 

ant  Nov.  30, 1863. 
Edward  H.  Lnmas,  Nuv.  :iO,  1863 ;  Aug.  11,  1863;  promoted  to  firat  Ilea- 

tenant  Aug.  12,  1864. 
Isaac  Beckett,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Aug.  16, 1861 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuteDUlt 

Dec.  30, 186i. 
Benjamin  F.  Clark,  Dec.  30, 1802;  Aug.  5,  1862  ;  lesigneil  Feb.  7,  <Mi|| 
John  Connell,  April  19, 1864  ;  April  20, 1864  ;  piumoted  to  captain  II||g 
25, 1864.  a 

William  J.  Sayre,  May  25, 1864 ;  March  15, 1864 ;  promoted  to  first  11* 
tenant  March  14,  1865.  -g 

Robert  E.  Halsteiul,  March  14,  1865  ;  Jan.  20, 1865 ;  mustered  oat  nV 

regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 
M.  G.  Bell,  March  25,  1862;  Sept.  20,  1861 ;  discharged  Oct.  3, 1862. 
Francis  Hines,  Nov.  17,  1802;  Aug.  5,  I8C2;  promoted  to  first  lieutenw'l 

Dec.  30, 1862. 
Reuben  R.  Gillett,  Dec.  30, 1802 ;  Sept.  4, 1862 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuUB- 

ant  Nov.  30, 1863. 
Victory  Champlain,  Nov.  30,  1863 ;  March  6, 1863 ;  discharged  March  21 

Edward  Lyons,  May  17, 18G5 ;  May  2, 1865 ;  not  mustered. 
Charles  B.  Young,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Aug.  29, 1861 ;  promoted  to  first  lis* 
tenant  Dec.  30, 1862. 

X  On  records  of  War  Department,  hut  nut  commissioned. 



Henr;  B.  Lomas,  Dec.  30,  I8G2;  Nov.  14,  1862;  inomoled  to  adjutant 
Nov.  30,  ISM.- 

rranoie  W.  Rush,  Nov.  30, 1863 ;  Oot.  1, 1863 ;  died  Dec.  25, 1863,  at  Beau- 
fort, S.  C,  of  disease. 

Marshall  L.  Battsford,  May  25, 1864;  Hay  S,  1864 ;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant July  20, 1!'64. 

£dgar  E.  Morse,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  1, 1861 ;  prumoted  to  first  lieutenant 
Nov.  17, 1862. 

Stephen  W.  Thompson,  Dec.  30,  1862;  Aug.  26, 1862;  resigned  June  2, 

John  J.  Bryers,  Nov.  30, 1863 ;  June  2, 1863 ;  commission  canceled. 

Norman  Perkins,  Feb.  9, 1864 ;  June  2, 1863 ;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant 
May  25, 1804. 

Francis  Might,  May  25, 1864 ;  March  28, 1864 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant May  31, 1865. 

Wm.  B.  Baird,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  3, 1861 ;  discharged  Sept.  19, 1862. 

A.  H.  Chittenden,  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  Aug.  6, 1862 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Dec.  30, 1862. 

Morris  Downey,  Dec.  3n,  1862;  Nov.  23, 1862;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Nov.  30, 1863. 

Solomon  D.  Wheat,  Nov.  30,  1863  ;  June  5, 1863 ;  promoted  to  first  lien- 
tenant  April  29, 1864. 

Jared  Pacliard,  April  29, 1864;  April  20, 1864;  must,  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  17,  1865. 

John  T.  Frear,  Dec.  IS,  1861 ;  Oct.  3, 1861 ;  resigned  Feb.  0,  1862. 

Demman  S.  Declier,  Feb.  19, 1S62  ;  Feb.  6, 1862 ;  dismissed  April  II,  1864. 

Norris  Grossman,  Dec.  30, 1862;  Oct.  3, 1862;  promoted  to  first  lieuten. 
ant  Nov.  30, 1863. 

Dwight  H.  Auchntoody,  Nov.  30, 1863 ;  March  1, 1863 ;  mustered  out  on 
expiration  of  term  of  service  June  30, 1865. 

Eliphas  Smith,  Dec.  18, 1861 ;  Oct.  10,  1861 ;  promoted  to  captain  June 
10, 1802. 

Jesse  F.  Sliafer,  June  10, 1862 ;  Feb.  10, 1862 ;  promoted  to  quartermaater 
Nov.  17, 1862, 

Joseph  I.  Holmes,  Nov.  17,  1862;  Sept.  4,  1862;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Nov.  30, 1863. 

Edwin  J.  Scranton,  Nov.  3, 1863;  Feb.  9, 1863;  promoted  to  captain  in 
128th  V.  S.  C.  T.,  March  27, 1865. 

'clement  B.  Nenliirlt,  M'ly  1, 1865 ;  May  1, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  Oct.  17, 1865. 

'Henry  P.  Kellum,  Nov.  20, 1862  ;  Oct.  5, 1862  ;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Nov.  24, 1862. 

'Peter  W.  Loegan,  Nov.  24,  1862 ;  Feb.  14,  1862 ;  died  Aug.  19,  1862,  at 
Torktown,  of  disease. 

'Horace  W.  McKoon,  Nov.  24,  1862;  Aug.  18,  1862;  dismissed  Dec.  10, 

'Heniy  A.  Hawkes,  Feb.  23, 1864 ;  Dec.  18, 1863  ;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Nov.  30,  18C4. 

Anilrew  P.  (Vinklin,  Nov.  30,  1864;  Nov.  30,  1864;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  Oct.  17,  18B5. 

'Benjamin  Terwilllger,  May  1.1865;  May  1,  1865;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  Oct.  17, 1866. 

fWilliam  H.  D.  Blake,  Sept.  19,  1865;  Sept.  1, 1865  :  not  mustered. 

Jeese  L.  Stivers,  Aug.  22.  1864 ;  Aug.  12, 1864  ;  resigned  May  15, 1865. 

iCalvin  Lambert,  May  17,  1865 ;  May  2, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  17, 1865. 

HAddiBon  J.  Clements,  July  20, 1864 ;  June  28, 1864 ;  promoted  to  quarter- 
niaster  Nov.  30, 1864. 

iBennison  Fiske,  Nov.  30, 1864 ;  Nov.  30, 1864 ;  resigned  May  18, 1866. 

«Frank  Hotchkin,  Sept.  19, 1865  ;  June  28, 1S65 ;  not  mustered. 

Charles  Becker,  May  31,  1865;   May  1,  1865;  mustered  out   with  the 

II        regiment  Oct.  17, 1866. 

Alonzo  C.  Bowers,  May  31,  1865 ;  May  1, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  the 

I        regiment  Oct.  17, 1866. 

Conrad  Slaver,  Sept.  19, 1865;  June  28, 1865 ;  not  mustered. 

I    Brevet  commissions  were  issued  by  the  Governor 
to  the  two  following  enlisted  men  of  this  regiment : 

Hospital  Steward  Guy  K.  Sayre, — assistant  surgeon. 

Sergeant  Charles  Johnson, — second  lieutenant. 

I    The  town  of  Deerpark   furnished   nearly  all  the 
members  of  Company  F  in  this  organization.    The 
'regiment  was  raised  and  organized  in  New  York  City 

to  serve  three  years,  and  was  mustered  into  the  service 
of  the  United  States  from  June  20  to  June  29,  1861. 
The  original  members,  except  those  re-enlisting  as 
veterans,  were  mustered  out  of  service  July  1,  1864. 
The  veterans  remaining  were  transferred  to  the 
Eighty-sixth,  which  was  the  regiment  so  long  bri- 
gaded with  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth, 
and  intimately  associated  with  the  latter  in  the  most 
important  battles  of  the  war. 

The  Seventieth  Eegiment  was  officially  recognized 
as  sharing  honorably  in  the  battles  of  Williamsburg, 
Fair  Oaks,  Charles  City  Cross-Roads,  Malvern  Hill, 
White  Oak  Swamp,  Bristow  Station,  Second  Bull 
Bun.  and  Fredericksburg. 

The  regiment  went  out  under  command  of  Col. 
Daniel  E.  Sickles.  His  commission  as  colonel  was 
dated  Jan.  16,  1862,  but  his  rank  was  from  the  29th  of 
June,  1861.  He  was  promoted  brigadier-general  Sept. 
3,  1861,  and  Lieut.-Col.  William  Dwight,  Jr.,  suc- 
ceeded to  the  colonelcy  of  the  Seventieth.  The  latter 
wa^  also  promoted  brigadier-general  Nov.  29,  1862, 
and  the  command  of  the  Seventieth  devolved  upon 
Col.  J.  Egbert  Farnum. 

Among  the  promotions  occurring  in  Company  F 
from  Deerpark  may  be  mentioned  that  of  Thomas 
Holt.  He  was  commissioned  captain  Jan.  16,  1862, 
his  rank  dating  from  June  20,  1861.  He  was  pro- 
moted major  Dec.  1,  1862 ;  lieutenant-colonel  Jan. 
14,  1863 ;  and  mustered  out  with  the  regiment  July  1, 

Robert  Blything  (Blighton)  was  a  second  lieuten- 
ant, his  rank  dating  from  June  20,  1861.  He  re- 
signed Nov.  28,  1861.  Nine  commissioned,  officers 
were  killed  in  battle. 


The  following  account  of  the  organization  of  this 
regiment,  of  its  participation  in  the  various  cam- 
paigns, of  its  heroic  sacrifices,  of  its  tedious  marches, 
and  of  its  brave  conduct  on  the  field  of  battle,  is  con- 
densed from  the  interesting  volume  published  in  1877 
by  Col.  Charles  H.  Weygant,  of  Newburgh.  As  a 
participator  in  nearly  all  of  its  struggles,  as  an  eye- 
witness of  the  fierce  fights  into  which  it  entered,  as  a 
careful  student  of  public  documents  published  since 
the  war,  it  is  evident  that  he  possessed  peculiar  quali- 
fications for  the  task,  and  that  he  executed  it  with  a 
just  pride  in  the  fame  of  this  gallant  regiment  and  with 
a  loving  regard  to  the  memory  of  his  comrades.  In 
editing  this  chapter,  derived  from  his  work,  most  of 
his  personal  allusions,  his  interesting  anecdotes,  and 
his  general  descriptions  have  necessarily  been  omitted. 
It  is  due  to  him  to  further  say  that  not  only  is  the 
thread  of  the  following  account  his,  and  the  dates  his, 
but  oftentimes  his  exact  words  are  used  without  quo- 
tation, all  of  which  is  intended  to  be  covered  in  this 
preliminary  general  acknowledgment. 

The  call  of  the  President  for  three  hundred  thou- 
sand three  years'  men  was  dated  July  1,  1862,  and  on 



the  following  day  Governor  Morgan  issued  his  stirring 
and  patriotic  appeal  to  "  each  citizen"  of  the  Empire 
State.  The  work  of  preparation  was  immediately 
pushed  with  vigor  by  the  State  authorities,  and  Gov- 
ernor Morgan  ceased  not  day  or  night  in  his  efforts  to 
arouse  the  people. 

The  State  was  divided  into  military  districts,  in  each 
of  which  a  place  of  rendezvous  was  designated,  and  a 
committee  of  loyal  influential  citizens  appointed  to 
superintend  the  work  of  enlisment,  and  to  select  and 
recommend  suitable  persons  to  command  the  regi- 
ments to  be  raised.  Special  appeals  were  made  to 
nearly  every  town  and  county  board,  and  circulars  of 
instruction  were  sent  broadcast  over  the  State.  The 
military  committee  appointed  by  His  Excellency  for 
the  district  comprising  the  counties  of  Orange  and 
Sullivan  was  composed  of  the  following-named  gen- 
tlemen :  Hon.  Robert  Denniston,  of  Blooming-Grove ;. 
Hon.  Ambrose  S.  Murray,  of  Goshfen  ;  Hugh  S.  Bull, 
Esq.,  of  Montgomery ;  Alexander  Moore,  Esq.,  of 
Washingtonville ;  Alfred  Post,  Esq.,  of  Newburgh ; 
James  M.  Barrett,  Esq.,  of  Cornwall ;  Morgan  Shuit, 
Esq.,  of  Monroe. 

On  the  11th  of  July  this  committee  held  its  first 
regular  meeting  at  the  United  States  Hotel  in  New- 
burgh, at  which  they  decided  to  recommend  Capt.  A. 
Van  Home  Ellis,  of  New  Windsor,  for  the  colonelcy 
of  a  regiment  it  was  proposed  to  attempt  to  raise  in 
the  county  of  Orange.  Capt.  Ellis  was  then  in  the 
service.  His  company  (Co.  I),  composed  principally 
of  men  recruited  in  Newburgh,  who  had  served  under 
him  in  the  Seventy-first  New  York  State  Militia  at 
Bull  Run,  had  a  few  weeks  before  been  called  together 
at  less  than  twenty-four  hours'  notice  for  a  second 
term  of  active  service,  and  were  then  stationed  in  the 
fortifications  near  Washington. 

The  captain  was  at  this  time  temporarily  at  home, 
and  on  being  notified  of  the  action  of  the  committee, 
promptly  accepted  the  proffered  position.  Within  an 
hour  thereafter  he  had  telegraphed  his  resignation  as 
captain  to  the  commander  of  his  regiment  at  Wash- 
ington, and  was  on  his  way  to  Albany  for  instructions 
and  the  necessary  credentials. 

At  Albany,  the  traditional  "red  tape"  of  depart- 
ments had  given  way  before  the  pressure  of  public 
necessity.  In  a  short  time  Capt.  Ellis  had  received 
the  requisite  documents,  and  the  same  evening  found 
him  back  in  Orange  County  hard  at  work  upon  his 
patriotic  mission. 

The  work  of  enlistment  was  slow  and  difficuh  at 
first.  The  enthusiasm  of  April,  1861,  when  the  flag 
had  just  fallen  at  Fort  Sumter,  was  to  some  extent 
gone.  The  fearful  truth  that  a  long  and  bloody  war 
was  in  progress,  now  clearly  perceivedy,  gave  to  every 
movement  a  serious  tone,  far  different  from  the  feeling 
of  fifteen  months  before.  The  prospect  of  victory  "  in 
ninety  days"  had  long  since  vanished. 

The  Seven  Days'  battles,  the  retreat  of  McClellan's 
forces,  the  call  for  two  hundred  thousand  men,  all 

told  of  the  desperate  struggle  which  was  in  progt^ 
On  the  first  day  of  August  but  eight  men  had  beeo 
enrolled,  and  the  prospect  of  raising  a  regiment  m 
anything  but  encouraging. 

To  the  general  war  committeee  there  had  been 
added  E.  A.  Brewster,  of  Newburgh ;  William  PnlJer. 
ton,  of  Newburgh;  C.  H.  Winfield,  of  Goshen' 
Thomas  Edsall,  of  Goshen  ;  Silas  Horton,  of  Goshen; 
James  Cromwell,  of  Cornwall ;  William  Avery,  of 
Cornwall;  Daniel  Thompson,  of  Crawford;  C.  C. 
McQuoid,  of  Wallkill ;  Halstead  Sweet,  of  WallkiU; 
John  G.  Wilkin,  of  Wallkill ;  John  Cummings,  of 
Wallkill;  Charles  St.  John,  of  Port  Jervis;  John 
Conkling,  of  Port  Jervis ;  C.  M.  Lawrence,  of  Port 
Jervis ;  C.  B.  Newkirk,  of  Monroe ;  A.  S.  Dodge,  of 
Mount  Hope ;  Dorastus  Brown,  of  Greenville ;  A.  F, 
Schofield,  of  Montgomery ;  A.  G.  Owen,  of  Bloom- 
ing-Grove ;  John  Cowdrey,  of  Warwick ;  Thaiui 
Welling,  of  Warwick.  ', 

The  doubtful,  hesitating  condition  of  affairs  soon 
gave  way  before  the  threatened  invasion  of  the  very 
fields  of  the  North,  and  before  an  uprising  tide  ol 
patriotism  that  nearly  silenced  for  a  time  all  oppoaing 
voices.  The  enthusiasm  of  April,  1861,  was  again  re- 
kindled, and  August,  1862,  witnessed  scenes  of  heroic 
self-sacrifice  such  as  the  world  has  seldom  witnessed. 
The  strong  under-current  of  national  feeling  swelled 
upward  to  the  surface,  and  men  rushed  forward  vS^l 
to  do,  and  die  if  need  be.  Public  meetings  were  held 
almost  nightly  in  every  hall,  church,  and  school-hmw 
in  the  State.  Private  bounties  were  offered,  sad  | 
funds  began  to  be  raised  for  the  support  of  the  needj 
families  of  those  who  should  volunteer.  The  national 
capital  was  once  more  in  danger.  The  government 
was  in  earnest,  the  people  were  in  earnest ;  the  hardy 
sons  of  the  North  sprang  to  arms  crying,  "  We're 
coming.  Father  Abraham,  three  hundred  thouMnd 
more."  Up  to  the  8th  of  August  not  more  than  i 
score  of  volunteers  had  reported  at  Col.  Ellis'  head- 
quarters in  Goshen.  Fifteen  days  later  the  regiment 
was  fully  organized  and  ready  for  the  field.  Its  field- 
officers  were  A.  Van  Home  Ellis,  colonel ;  Francis  M. 
Cummins,  lieutenant-colonel ;  James  Cromwell,  major. 
The  staff-officers  were  John  H.  Thompson,  major  and 
surgeon;  T.  Scott  Bradner,  captain  and  chaplain; 
Augustus  Denniston,  lieutenant  and  quartermaatet; 
G.  De  Peyster  Arden,  lieutenant  and  adjutantwH 
ward  Marshall,  lieutenant  and  assistant  surgeoii^P 
V.  K.  Montfort,  lieutenant  and  second  assistant  ^II^ 
geon.  The  ten  captains  were  Charles  H.  Weygan^ 
Co.  A ;  Henry  S.  Murray,  Co.  B ;  William  SilliniM. 
Co.  C;  James  W.  Benedict,  Co.  D;  William  A.  Me- 
Birney,  Co.  E;  Ira  S.  Bush,  Co.  F;  Isaac  NicoB, 
Co.  G;  David  Crist,  Co.  H;  Leander  Clark,  Co.  I; 
William  A.  Jackson,  Co.  K.  Musicians:  William B. 
Wood  and  Moses  P.  Ross,  Co.  A,  buglers;  Mr.  Hn^ 
drum-major;*  John  G.  Buckley,  Charles  WhitehjjJi 


*  Hired  by  Col.  Ellis,  not  enlisted. 


Arthur  Haigh,  Co.  H,  George  W.  Dimmick,  Co.  D, 
Henry  C.  Payne,  Co.  B,  fife ;  Eobert  L,  Davis,  Co.  F, 
A.  A.  Millspaugh,  George  W.  Camfield,  Co.  K,  John 
W.  Cole,  Co.  I,  R.  L.  Stephens,  Co.  E,  Charles  W. 
Bodle,  Henry  M.  Cannon,  Co.  A,  William  Hamilton, 
Co.  B,  Henry  Hoofman,  Co.  C,  C.  H.  Van  Gordon, 
Co.  G,  Jehiel  Price,  Co.  F,  J.  M.  Merritt,  Co.  G,  W. 
Johnston,  James  H.  McElroy,  Co.  D,  drum ;  Samuel 
M.  Weeden,  Co.  D,  bass-drum. 

The  names  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth  are  given  in  the  lists  at  the  close 
of  the  town  chapters. 

On  the  24th  of  August  orders  were  received  from 
Washington  directing  Col.  Ellis  to  hold  his  command 
in  readiness  to  move  on  the  27th  instant. 

Thursday,  the  26th,  had  been  designated  by  the 
ladies  as  the  day  on  which  they  would  present  to  the 
regiment  that  stand  of  colors  beneath  whiqh  he  whose 
hand  should  receive  them  and  so  many  of  the  brave 
men  over  whose  heads  they  were  that  day  to  be  un- 
furled should  suffer,  bleed,  and  die  that  the  Union 
and  liberty  might  live. 

It  was  a  clear,  bright  day,  and  with  the  rising  of 
the  sun  the  friends  of  the  "American  Guard"  began 
to  arrive,  and  for  hours  there  poured  into  the  village 
of  Goshen  such  a  throng  of  men,  women,  and  chil- 
dren as  had  seldom  before  been  seen  in  its  streets. 
At  3  P.M.  the  regiment  was  formed,  and  Col.  Ellis 
having  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  his  field  and 
staff  in  front  of  it,  the  Hon.  Charles  Winfield  stepped 
forward,  and,  at  the  close  of  a  most  patriotic  speech 
on  behalf  of  the  donors,  handed  the  colors  to  Col. 
Ellis,  who,  loosing  them  to  the  breeze,  promised  the 
multitude  there  assembled  they  should  never  be  dis- 
graced, concluding  with  these  words,  "If  you  never 
again  see  these  colors,  you  will  never  again  see  those 
who  bear  them  from  you.'' 

After  this  Miss  Charlotte  E.  Coulter  stepped  for- 
ward, and,  with  a  modest  but  grand  little  speech,  pre- 
sented a  pair  of  embroidered  silk  guidons,  a  gift  from 
the  fair  daughters  of  the  little  town  of  Wawayanda. 

The  departure  of  the  regiment  had  been  expected 
for  the  27th,  but  delnys  occurred,  and  it  was  not  until 
the  5th  of  September  that  an  order  was  received  posi- 
tively fixing  the  departure  for  the  next  day,  the  6th. 

In  accordance  with  this  order,  at  1  o'clock  p.m.  on 
Saturday,  Sept  6,  1862,  the  regiment  bid  adieu  to  its 
first  camp  in  Goshen,  and,  with  banners  flying  and 
drums  beating,  marched  through  throngs  of  weeping 
friends  to  the  depot,  where  the  last  hand-shakings 
and  final  adieus  were  given.  At  2  p.m.  the  heavily- 
laden  train,  with  wild  shrieks  to  warn  away  the  cling- 
ing multitudes,  moved  off,  and  the  American  Guard, 
as  the  regiment  was  known,  was  on  its  way  to  the  seat 
of  war.  At  every  depot  crowds  with  loyal  hearts 
sent  after  them  shouts  of  approbation,  and  ever  and 
anon,  as  the  train  shot  along,  there  were  heard  from 
sweet  voices  familiar  notes  of  patriotic  songs. 

One  impressive  tableau  could  never  be  forgotten 

by  those  who  saw  it.  High  up  on  a  projecting  rock 
stood  an  old  man,  dressed  in  a  military  suit  of  Revo- 
lutionary times,  the  thin  locks  of  his  long,  white  hair 
floating  in  the  breeze,  leaning  with  one  hand  on  his 
staff,  and  with  the  other  feebly  waving  the  "  S^ars  and 
Stripes,"  while  two  little  girls,  dressed  in  the  purest 
white,  knelt,  one  on  either  side  of  him,  their  little 
arms  stretched  out  and  their  eyes  turned  heavenward, 
as  if  in  earnest  prayer  to  the  God  of  nations  for  the 
preservation  and  success  of  the  defenders  of  the 
Union,  which  their  great-grandsire  had  fought  to 

At  New  York,  the  regiment  was  marched  to  the 
Park  Barracks,  and  slept  that  night  upon  the  pine- 
mattresses  furnished  to  them. 

The  regiment  was  supplied  with  arms  in  the  city, — 
heavy  Austrian  guns  with  sword-bayonets. 

Sunday  afternoon  the  regiment  left  for  Philadelphia. 
Arriving  there  late  in  the  night,  the  soldiers  were 
soon  found  resting,  with  sidewalks  for  beds  and  knap- 
sacks for  pillows.  But  very  early  they  were  invited 
to  a  sumptuous  breakfast  furnished  by  the  ladies  of 
Philadelphia.  At  noon  they  were  in  Baltimore,  and 
in  the  hot  march  across  the  city  a  number  of  the  men 
fell  from  sun-stroke  and  had  to  be  left  behind.  At 
two  o'clock  Tuesday  morning  the  regiment  might 
have  been  seen  sleeping  soundly  on  the  ground  and 
on  the  stone  blocks  in  front  of  the  Capitol  at  Wash- 

In  the  afternoon  of  that  day  they  marched  to  Camp 
Chase,  on  Arlington  Heights.  There  they  remained 
two  or  three  days,  when  their  encampment  was 
changed  to  another  point  about  four  miles  away, 
which  the  soldiers  christened  Camp  Ellis.  Here  the 
regiment  was  attached  to  Pratt's  brigade  of  Whipple's 
Division,  Heintzleman's  corps,  and  they  remained 
until  the  25th  in  this  camp,  engaged  in  active  drill, 
learning  the  actual  duties  of  a  soldier's  life. 

At  2  P.M.  Thursday,  September  25th,  the  regiment 
again  broke  camp  and  moved  off  some  six  miles,  to 
a  piece  of  woods  on  the  west  side  of  Miner's  Hill, 
where  they  built  huge  log-fires  and  bivouacked  around 
them  for  the  night.  The  next  morning  about  a  hun- 
dred of  the  men  were  ordered  to  report  for  picket 
duty.  - 

During  the  afternoon  of  the  26th  the  regiment 
'moved  to  the  opposite  or  eastern  slope  of  Miner's 
Hill,  where  they  named  their  new  grounds  Camp  Crom- 
well. In  these  moves  sixteen  four-mule  teams  were 
employed  to  transfer  tents,  traps,  and  the  baggage  of 
the  oflScers.  This  was  in  strong  contrast  with  the 
simple  work  of  a  few  months  later,  when  officers  of 
the  line  were  only  allowed  transportation  for  a  small 
valise  each,  while  the  field  and  staff  were  obliged  to 
crowd  their  baggage,  tents  and  all,  into  a  single 

The  regiment  remained  at  Miner's  Hill  for  several 
weeks  engaged  continually  in  the  various  drills  re- 
quired for  army  movements. 



On  the  16th  of  October  orders  were  received  to 
break  camp.  This  wag  immediately  done ;  but  the 
regiment  passed  a  long  and  uncomfortable  night,  a 
part  of  the  time  in  the  rain,  the  order  to  march  being 
delayed  until  morning.  At  six  o'clock  the  orders  to 
march  came,  and  the  regiment  moved  oflF  at  a  rapid 
gait  towards  Washington.  It  was  a  wet  morning,  and 
with  wet  blankets  from  the  storm  of  the  night  before, 
the  marching  was  difficult,  and  a  number  of  men  gave 
out  and  were  picked  up  by  the  ambulances  following. 
The  regiment  halted  at  the  entrance  to  the  Aqueduct 
bridge,  Georgetown.  The  sun  came  out;  blankets 
were  dried  on  the  fences  and  the  grass-plats.  About 
four  in  the  afternoon  they  marched  into  Washington 
and  halted  in  front  of  the  Capitol.  About  midnight 
they  took  the  cars,  and  at  the  end  of  a  tedious  ride  of 
eleven  hours  found  themselves  at  Knoxville,  Md. 

The  regiment  was  now  transferred  from  "  the  Army 
of  Defense"  around  Washington  to  the  "  Army  of  the 

The  regiment  first  halted  for  a  while  on  a  hill- 
side, where  it  was  so  steep  that  anything  convenient 
was  thrust-  into  the  ground  to  keep  it  from  sliding 
down-hill.  There  was  a  lovely  view,  but  there  was 
little  chance  to  admire  the  beauties  of  nature  or  of 
cultivated  fields.  The  soldiers  were  sore  and  tired 
after  their  wet  march  and  their  sleepless  ride  in  the 
cars.  Wrapped  in  their  blankets  they  lay  down  to 
rest  early,  and  slept  soundly. 

Sunday  afternoon,  October  19th,  they  moved  about 
three  miles,  and  encamped  in  a  large  field  on  the 
farm  of  a  crusty  old  "  secesh,"  who,  not  satisfied  with 
having  guards  placed  over  all  his  movable  property, 
objected  even  to  drawing  the  cool  water  from  his 

Monday  afternoon,  the  20th,  they  marched  to  a 
more  congenial  spot  near  Burkettsville,  where  they  re- 
mained several  days.  Here  they  had  an  opportunity 
to  visit  South  Mountain,  where  the  great  struggle  of 
Autietam  had  occurred  only  a  few  weeks  before.  It 
was  full  of  sad  suggestions  as  to  the  fierceness  of  the 
battles  in  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
was  not  many  months  later  to  engage. 

On  the  evening  of  October  24th,  at  half-past  nine 
o'clock,  the  regiment  left  camp,  and  at  miflnight 
bivouacked  near  Berlin,  on  the  banks  of  the  Potomac, 
across  which  a  pontoon-bridge  was  being  laid.  This 
bridge  consisted  of  sixty-two  scow-built  boats,  an- 
chored some  twenty  feet  apart,  and  connected  by 
large  beams,  across  which  were  laid  strong  planks. 
Pleasonton's  cavalry  dashed  across  this,  followed  by 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  one  hundred  thousand 

Towards  night,  Sunday,  October  26th,  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  crossed,  and  a  march  of  three 
miles  brought  them  to  Lovettsville,  where  they  halted 
for  the  night  in  a  cornfield.  The  wind  blew,  the 
rain  fell ;  there  were  no  fires.  It  was  a  night  of  severe 
suflfering,  disabling  thirty  or  more. 

Thursday,  October  30th,  they  mtfrched  away  to- 
wards Winchester,  and  bivouacked  near  Hillsborough. 
Sunday  afternoon,  November  2d,  the  regiment  ad- 
vanced twelve  miles  to  near  Snicker's  Gap.  On  flie 
3d  they  again  moved  three  miles  to  Bloorafield,  iHi 
on  the  4th  to  Upperville,  where  the  camp-fires  of  the 
enemy  were  still  smouldering.  On  the  5th  to  nait 
Piedmont,  where  they  halted  thirty  minutes,  aud 
then  moved  on  for  Manassas  Gap.  That  night  in 
near  proximity  to  the  enemy,  they  passed  without 
fires  and  with  no  rations.  Eesuming  march  the  next 
morningj  they  shared  in  the  crossing  of  the  mountaim 
for  the  purpose  of  cutting  oflf  the  retreat  of  a  portion 
of  the  rebel  infantry,  but  the  latter  had  escaped. 
Soon  after  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was 
ordered  back  to  Piedmont.  On  the  8th  they  marched 
to  Orleans,  where  they  stayed  three  days.  On  the 
10th,  Lieut. -Col.  Cummings  went  out  on  a  foraging 
expedition,  and  secured  fresh  meat  for  the  regimeDtt 
On  the  11th  the  regiment  moved  about  six  miles  to 
near  Waterloo. 

On  the  evening  of  the  15th  a  squad  of  the  enemy 
ran  into  the  picket  line.  Lieut.  Weygant  and  hii 
men  captured  two  of  the  enemy,  which  seems  to  have 
been  the  first  actual  contact  with  the  rebel  forces  by 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth. 

On  the  morning  of  the  16th  the  regiment  moved 
again,  not  towards  the  front,  but  to  the  left,  and  after 
a  four  hours'  march  they  encamped  at  Warrenton, 
and  became  a  part  of  Hooker's  grand  division. 

On  the  17th  they  resumed  their  march  and  halted  at 
Libertyville ;  on  the  18th  to  Hartwood  Church ;  from 
the  19th  to  the  23d  to  near  Falmouth,  within  four 
miles  of  Fredericksburg.  On  the  morning  of  the 
24th  they  were  able  once  more  to  arrange  a  regular 
encampment.  The  recent  march  had  been  a  fearful 
one  in  rain  and  mud,  exposure  costing  many  preciow 
lives.  The  regiment  remained  nearly  two  weeks  at  or 
near  this  spot.  This  was  the  delay  in  the  movement 
of  Gen.  Burnside  against  Kichmond  via  Fredericks- 
burg which  doubtless  prevented  the  success  of  the 
enterprise.  The.  delay,  Mr.  Weygant  states,  was  due 
to  the  non-arrival  of  the  pontoon-train,  which  only 
reached  the  required  point  December  10th.  This  de- 
lay gave  Gen.  Lee  tinie  to  fortify  in  the  rear  of  Fred- 

The  story  of  the  battle  that  followed  cannot  heie 
be  given  in  detail.  After  the  bombardment  of  the 
place,  under  cover  of  which  the  pontoon-bridges  were 
finally  laid,  and  the  routing  of  the  rebels  from  the 
ruins  of  the  town,  a  night  intervened  before  the  cross- 
ing of  the  main  body  of  the  army. 

In  the  general  movement  on  Friday,  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  attempted  to  cross  about  ten 
o'clock,  but  the  bridge  became  blocked,  farther  pro- 
gress for  the  time'was  impossible.  While  standing 
there  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  fw 
the  first  time  under  fire,  the  fog  and  smoke,  liftingf 
little,  had  disclosed  the  bridge  with  its  massed  foroa 



and  the  rebel  battery  on  an  adjacent  height.  There 
were  none  injured^  however,  in  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth,  and  soon  after  the  regiment  was  or- 
dered back.  At  six  o'clock  Saturday  morning  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  crossed,  and  with 
the  rest  of  the  brigade  halted  on  a  level  strip  of 
ground  a  few  rods  up  from  the  southern  shore  under 
cover  of  a  steep  bank. 

Once  during  the  fearful  battle  of  that  day  the  bri- 
gade was  ordered  to  storm  a  battery,  and  moved  to 
the  point  designated  for  forming  the  line.  The  order 
to  charge  did  not  come,  and  they  remained  virtually 
spectators  of  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  passed  the  night  on 
the  field.  Sunday  afternoon  they  returned  to  the 
river-bank,  and  in  the  retreat  of  the  following  night 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  among  the 
last  regiments  to  recross  the  river, — a  retreat  so  suc- 
cessfully conducted  that  the  rebels  evidently  did  not 
suspect  it  until  the  Union  army  was  nearly  back  to 
its  old  camping-ground  at  Falmouth. 

During  the  movements  of  Saturday,  Companies  E 
and  F  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  under 
command  of  Capt.  McBirney,  were  sent  to  the  Ken- 
mere  House,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  city,  to  sup- 
port a  battery,  and  were  for  a  time  under  fire,  but 
none  of  the  regiment  were  injured. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  now  lay  with 
the  Army  of  the  Potomac  nearly  four  months  at  Fal- 
mouth. During  this  time,  however,  there  are  various 
items  to  be  mentioned  in  the  history  of  the  regiment. 
In  January  new  rifles  were  received — the  Enfield — in 
place  of  the  old  Belgians. 

January  20th  an  order  to  again  advance  against 
the  enemy,  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
shared  in  the  cold,  wet  wintry  march  of  the  next  three 
days,  in  the  rain  and  in  the  mud,  only  to  return,  the 
weather,  the  roads,  everything  conspiring  to  render 
the  advance  impossible.  Jan.  26,  1863,  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac  had  a  new  commander,  Gen.  Joseph 
Hooker.  The  winter-quarters  were  now  made  toler- 
ably comfortable.  The  6th  of  April  a  grand  review 
took  place,  and  also  on  the  7th.  In  the  order  of 
Brig.-Gen.  Whipple  of  the  9th,  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  New  York,  Twelfth  New  Hampshire, 
and  the  United  States  Sharpshooters  are  mentioned  as 
having  been  deemed  worthy  of  especial  praise  by  the 
President  and  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  Army 
of  the  Potomac. 

April  27,  1803,  the  Third  Corps,  of  which  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  a  part,  was  re- 
viewed, and  on  the  28th  marching  orders  reached  this 
regiment.  Each  man  carried  eighty  pounds  of  am- 
munition. Leaving  camp  about  4  P.M.,  they  found 
that  the  whole  Army  of  the  Potomac  was  in  motion. 
About  midnight  they  bivouacked  near  the  Rappahan- 
nock not  far  from  Belle  Plains.  These  were  a  part  of 
the  movements  preliminary  to  the  battle  of  Chancel- 
lorsville.     May  Ist  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 

fourth  crossed  the  Rappahannock  at  the  United  States 
Ford,  and  moved  oflf  in  a  northerly  direction  about 
three  miles  and  halted  in  an  oak  wood.  They  had 
laid  in  the  woods  but  a  short  time  when  skirmishing 
was  heard,  and  then  heavy  infantry  firing  from  the 
direction  of  Fredericksburg.  The  Union  army  had 
gained  an  important  ridge  which  Gen.  Lee  had  very 
much  desired  to  hold,  but  for  some  inexplicable  reason 
Gen.  Hooker  then  ordered  a  retreat.  The  details  of  the 
battle,  which  has  received  the  name  of  Chancellors- 
ville,  can  only  be  dwelt  upon  here  as  they  afiect  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth.  Gen.  Lee  engaged 
the  attention  of  Gen.  Hooker  in  an  attack  of  consid- 
erable vigor  in  front,  while  Gen.  "  Stonewall"  Jackson 
executed  one  of  the  boldest  and  most  successful  flank 
movements  of  the  war. 

During  the  progress  of  this  movement  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  was  detached  and  ordered  to 
hasten  to  a  thickly-wooded  hill  and  support  some 
troops  posted  there.  They  soon  reached  the  hill,  but 
did  not  find  the  troops  they  were  to  support.  They 
were,  however,  hailed  by  an  aide  from  Gen.  Sickles 
with  orders  to  remain  where  they  were  and  await  the 
conduct  of  another  aide  who  should  arrive.  The  next 
moment  the  sound  of  musketry-firing  attracted  the 
attention,  and  a  portion  of  the  division  was  discovered 
actively  engaged  with  the  enemy.  Without  waiting 
for  orders.  Col.  Ellis  hurriedly  formed  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  into  line  of  battle  and  or- 
dered a  charge.  As  the  regiment  rushed  down  the 
slope  and  reached  the  level  ground,  Gen.  Whipple, 
in  person,  ordered  a  halt,  informed  Col.  Ellis  that 
their  division  was  falling  back,  and  ordered  them  to 
retire  with  it.  They  had  not  fallen  back  more  than 
a  mile  when  news  of  a  terrible  disaster  came  pouring 
in  upon  them  by  fugitives,  who  reported  that  the 
enemy  had  turned  the  Union  right,  routed  the  Elev- 
enth Corps,  and  was  even  then  between  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  and  headquarters. 

The  offensive  movement  had  changed  to  one  of  de- 
fense, and  twenty-five  thousand  Union  troops  met  the 
attack  of  full  fifty  thousand  Confederates.  Forty-five 
thousand  Union  troops  stood  idly  looking  on  simply 
because  they  were  not  ordered  forward. 

In  the  of  the  night  the  battle  raged 
fiercely.  "  Stonewall"  Jackson  of  the  rebel  forces  re- 
ceived his  death-wound,  probably  from  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth. 

At  one  time  two  companies  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth — F  and  A — formed  a  skirmish 
line  close  upon  the  enemy's  front,  and  barely,  escaped 
capture  or  death  by  a  sudden  flight  to  a  ravine. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  really 
caught  between  the  lines,  and  the  terrible  Sunday 
morning  battle  of  Chancellorsville  followed. 

Says  Weygant's  History, — 

"  Turn  riglit  or  left  grim  detitli  stared  at  us.  The  liearens  above  Bcpmed 
filled  with  hut-breuthed  shiieking  dcmotie.  Behind  us  was  ati  advancing 
sheet  of  flame,  and  the  hills  in  front  opposed  an  angry  line  of  fire  and 



BDioke.  ,  .  .  The  battle  was  now  atitsheight^and  the  One  Uuudred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  in  the  thickest  of  the  fray;  but  not  a  son  of  Orange 
County  was  seen  to  show  the  white  feather,  not  a  man  failed,  delilierately 
they  aimed  and  rapidly  fired/' 

"Backward — forward,  down,  down  our  lirave  men  fell:  thinner  and 
yet  thinner  grew  the  ranks,  but  not  a  foot  of  grwund  was  yielded." 

"  About  twenty  feet  behind  the  colors  stood  Cul.  Ellis  with  folded  arms 
and  cap  front  turned  up." 

"  Not  a  Union  soldier  was  to  be  seen  on  our  right,  the  long  line  on  our 
left  had  fallen  back." 

Reluctantly  came  the  order  for  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth  to  fall  back.  Still  more  severe 
fighting  followed,  and  while  thousands  of  fresh  troops 
lay  in  the  woods  not  far  away  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  with  its  wasted  ranks  was  ordered  to 
picket  duty  during  the  night.  Monday  morning  they 
were  relieved,  but  only  to  be.  put  to  work  in  the  rifle- 
pits,  where  death  still  hunted  them  down  in  the  shape 
of  stray  shots  from  distant  rebel  sharpshooters.  Mon- 
day night  those  who  remained  in  line  were  allowed 
to  sleep.  The  battle  of  Chancellorsville  was  over, 
Hooker's  magnificent  army  was  in  full  retreat,  and  by 
the  afternoon  of  Tuesday  were  back  to  their  old  camp 
at  Falmouth. 

June  6th  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  left 
its  encampment  at  Falmouth,  and  after  various  expe- 
riences on  the  march  reached  the  vicinity  of  Beverly 
Ford  on  the  evening  of  the  8th.  The  next  morning 
they  crossed  the  river,  wading  it  though  it  was  breast- 
deep,  and  found  themselves  in  the  rear  of  contending 
battle-lines.  Up  to  that  time  only,  cavalry  had  been 
engaged,  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
was  the  first  infantry  in  the  field.  In  this  battle  it 
had  a  sharp  fight, — an  almost  hand-to-hand  contest  in 
Indian  style,  each  man  behind  a  tree, — and  lost  two 
killed  and  fifteen  wounded. 

The  capture  of  correspondence  at  Beverly  Ford  had 
revealed  Lee's  plan  of  invading  the  North.  Sunday 
afternoon,  June  14th,  there  commenced  a  series  of 
marches  which  finally  led  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth,  with  the  rest  of  the  Army  of  the  Po-. 
tomac,  to  the  battle-field  of  Gettysburg.  At  11  p.m. 
they  had  made  twelve  miles  and  encamped  at  Cat- 
lett's  Station.  At  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the 
15th  they  were  off  again,  and  marched  sixteen  miles 
to  Manassas  Plains.  On  the  16th  they  moved  a  few 
miles,  and  halted  on  the  battle-ground  of  the  first  Bull 
Eun  fight.  Here  they  had  the  opportunity  of  bathing 
in  that  historic  stream,  washing  up  and  resting  until 
the  next  morning.  The  17th  they  reached  Centre- 
ville,  and  bivouacked  at  that  point  for  two  days.  On 
the  afternoon  of  the  19th  they  were  oflf  again.  The 
Potomac  was  crossed  at  Edwards'  Ferry  on  pontoons, 
and  the  regiment  bivouacked  the  night  of  June  25th 
in  the  woods  near  Poolesville. 

On  the  27th  they  halted  near  Middletown,  and  on 
the  28th  passed  through  Frederick.  On  the  30th  they 
reached  Emmettsburg.  They  .were  now  nearing  the 
fatal  and  yet  decisive  days  of  Gettysburg. 

The  first  day  of  July  sharp  bugle-blasts  from  every 
direction  called  the  men  into  line.    The  first  day's 

fight  at  Gettysburg  had  begun,  and  two-thirds  of  (1 
Army  of  the  Potomac  were  not  yet  on  the  field.  Froi 
Emmetsburg  began  the  forced  march.  Men  fell  fain! 
ing  and  sunstruck  along  the  route,  but  ever  and  anoi 
amid  the  clouds  of  dust  came  the  officers'  shout,  "  Foi 
ward !  Forward !" 

Eeaching  the  heights  of  Gettysburg,  the  men  slep 
that  night  with  their  loaded  weapons  at  their  sid« 
Most  of  the  men  who  had  fallen  out  on  the  marcl 
came  in,  and  at  eight  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  thi 
2d  of  July  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  num 
bered  about  two  hundred  and  forty. 

Weygant's  History  states  the  position  as,follow9: 

"  Sickles'  corps  did  not  number  that  morning  more  than  nine  tlim 
sand  men  present  for  duty.  It  was  composed  of  two  divisions,  of  tiin 
brigaJes  each.  Birney's  division  formed  the  extreme  left  of  the  majj 
line,  which  was  drawn  up,  nearly  iutheformofa  liursu'a  shoe  or  caplti 
U,  on  a  ridge  about  three  miles  in  extent.  Ward's  brigade  was  oo  Ibi 
left  of  the  division,  and  occupied  the  southern  slope  of  a  rocky  eiiiiiietw 
just  beyond  a  small  stream  called  Plum  Bun,  and  about  oue-eiglitli  of  i 
mile  northwest  of  B(>und  Top.  The  One  Hundred  and  Twentj'-fuiijd 
held  position  in  the  right  centre  of  the  brigade.  There  were,  wbei 
the  battle  began,  no  troops  to  the  left  of  our  leginient  except  ttM 
Kinety-nitith  Pennsylvania.  A  few  minutes  after  the  battle  opepsdlh 
Fortieth  New  York  moved  tip  and  took  position  ou  the  left  of  M 
Ninety-ninth  Pennsylvania.  Ttie  l£ighty-eixtti  New  York  was  postsdn 
a  piece  of  woods  to  the  right  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Tweuty-funrtlil 
but  between  them  waa  a  space  of  about  a  hundred  yai-ds.  Smith's  lal 
tery  was  posted  behind  Ward's  bi-igade  ;  its  right  section  stood  on  higt 
ground  several  yards  in  rear  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Tweuty-fonrtla." 

Of  the  actual  fighting  by  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  we  quote  at  length : 

"  When  the  enemy's  advance  line  drew  near  the  base  of  the  hill  w( 
were  on,  it  appeared  to  almost  halt  for  a  minute  and  then  started  mpidtj 
forward  again,  and  with  fierce  yells  began  ascending  the  slope ;  aud  tbm 
was  heard  an  opening  crash  of  riflei-y  all  along  our  front,  which  vfu  th( 
death-knell  of  hundreds;  yet  on  they  came,  but  very  slowly, — onlyafsv 
feet  at  a  time.  Now  Cromwell  huriies  to  Col.  Ellis,  who  stands  bebind 
the  color  company,  and  asks  him  Ui  order  a  charge,  but  the  coloDli 
shakes  his  head  and  tells  the  major  to  go  back  to  bis  place  agMin.  Noi 
the  enemy  has  been  brought  to  a  stand,  but  he  is  only  a  few  lods  avijr, 
Again  Cromwell  walks  towards  Ellis.  This  time  he  is  accompanied  b; 
Adjutant  Ranisclell.  Once  more  he  requests  the  colonel  tocbarge,IM 
is  again  told  to  go  back  to  the  left  of  the  regiment;  yet  a  moment  lltn 
their  horses  are  brought  up,  and  against  the  remonstrances  of  Oapt.Sl^ 
liman  and  others  they  mount.  The  major's  only  rejily  is, 'Themei 
must  see  us  to-day,'  aud  he  rides  slowly  to  and  wheels  bis  horee  ilxnl 
in  the  rear  of  the  centre  of  the  left  wing,  where,  with  drawn  sword  sod 
eyes  fixed  on  the  colonel,  he  impatiently  waits  his  Buperiur's  pleasure. 

"  Presently  Kllis  by  a  simple  nod  gives  the  desired  perniidsloo,  kl 
which  Cromwell  waves  his  sword  twice  above  his  head,  makes  a  lanji 
forward,  shouts  the  charge,  aud  putting  spurs  to  his  horse,  dashes  foe 
ward  through  the  lines.  The  men  cease  firing  for  a  niiuute,  and  Kill 
ready  bayonets  rush  after  him.  Ellis  sits  still  in  his  saddle  andlodkl 
on,  as  if  in  proud  admiration  of  both  his  loved  migor  aud  the  gallul 
sons  of  Orange,  until  the  regiment  is  fairly  under  way,  and  then  nisba 
with  them  into  the  tUlckest  of  the  fray. 

"  The  conflict  at  this  point  defies  description.  Boaring  cannou,  craib< 
lug  riflery,  screeching  shots,  bursting  shells,  hissing  bullets,  tbHO, 
shouts,  shrieks,  and  groans  were  the  notes  of  the  song  of  death  vbitb 
greeted  the  grim  reaper  aa  with  mighty  sweeps  he  leveled  down  till 
richest  field  of  scarlet  human  grain  ever  garnered  ou  this  conttuesL 

"The  enemy's  line,  unable  to  withstand  this  our  fierce  onset,  bnlH 
and  fled,and  Cromwell,  his  noble  face  flushed  with  victory,  and  llllW 
tended  right  arm  waviug  his  flashing  sabre,  uttered  a  shout  of  triamj^ 

"  But  it  had  scarcely  escaped  his  lips  when  the  second  line  of  tbefc* 
poured  into  us  a  tenible  fire,  which  seemed  in  an  instant  to  brioft  don 
a  full  quarter  of  our  number.  Once  more  we  hear  Cromwell's  sbQi^ 
and  once  again  we  see  amid  the  fit  e  aud  smoke  his  noble  form  and  t)^ 
ing  blade ;  but  the  next  instant  his  brave  heart  is  pierced  by  a  rebfll  ^ 
let,  his  right  arm  drops  powerless,  his  lifeless  body  falls  backwaidM 



bis  saddle,  aud,  loud  above  the  dlo  of  battle,  we  hear  Ellis  shout,  *  My  ; 
God,  men,  your  major  is  down ;  save  him  !  save  him  I'  Again  the  onset 
of  Orange  Gonnty^s  sons  becomes  irresistible,  and  the  second  line  of  the  foe 
wavera  and  falls  back,  but  another  and  more  solid  line  takes  its  place, 
whose  fresh  fire  falls  with  friglitfnl  effect  on  our  now  skeleton  rauks.  So 
terrible  is  it  that  two-thirds  of  the  artillfry-men  in  our  rear  are  either 
killed  or  wounded,  and  the  balance  driveu  l^om  their  guns  by  the  shells 
and  bullets  which  pass  over  and  through  our  line. 

"  Lieut-Ool.  Cummins,  with  the  experience  and  eye  of  an  old  soldier, 
realizes  that  a  skirmish  line  without  reserves,  be  the  men  who  compose 
it  ever  so  brave,  must  eventually  be  swept  away  by  a  continually-re- 
newed solid  battle-line,  and  unwilling  the  regiment  should  be  disgraced 
by  the  loss  of  the  guns  it  is  expected  to  protect  attempts  to  get  them 
started  to  the  rear,  but  while  in  the  act  is  so  badly  iifjured  by  a  shell, 
which  stiiklng  a  gun-carriage  hurls  it  against  him,  that  he  is  carried 
from  the  field,  l^ut  our  brave  Ellis  yet  remains,  now  seen  in  bold  relief, 
now  lost  amid  the  clouds  of  powder-smoke.  A  moment  longer,  the  cen- 
tral flgnie,  he  directs  the  regiment.  Again  the  rebel  line  begins  to  waver, 
and  we  see  his  proud  form  rise  in  his  stirrups,  his  long,  sharp  sword  is 
extended  upward,  a  half.uttered  order  escapes  his  lips,  when  suddenly 
his  trusty  blade  falls  point  downward,  his  chin  drops  on  his  breast,  and 
his  body  with  a  weave  pitches  forward  head  foremost  among  the  rocks, 
at  which  his  wounded  beast  rears  and  with  a  mad  plunge  dashes  away, 
staggering  blindly  through  the  ranks  of  the  foe,  who  is  now  giving 
ground  again,  firing  wildly  as  he  goes. 

"  But  we  are  too  weak  to  follow  them ;  yet  with  desperate  effort  the 
Orange  Blossoms  struggle  forward  and  gather  up  such  as  they  may  of  the 
wounded,  aud  with  them  and  the  bodies  of  Ellis  and  Cromwell  we  fall 
slowly  and  mournfully  back  to  the  main  line,  from  which  we  should 
never  have  advanced,  and  there  reform  our  shattered  ranks  and  prepare 
to  receive  as  best  we  may  the  next  onset  of  the  foe. 

"  Three  times  we  have  beaten  him  back,  but  now  we  are  exhausted. 
For  forty  minutes  the  brigades  of  Ward  and  De  Xrobriand,  at  first  scarce 
three  thousand  strong,  and  now  reduced  to  but  little  more  than  half  that 
number,  have  held  their  ground  against  Lougstreet's  entire  corps." 

The  situation  was  fearful.  Gen.  Sickles  was  se- 
verely wounded.  Birney  now  commanded  the  corps, 
Ward  the  division,  Berdan  the  brigade.  Of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  Col.  Ellis 
was  killed,  Lieut.-Col.  Cummins  carried  to  the  rear 
wounded,  Maj.  Cromwell  dead,  and  Capt.  Charles  H. 
Weygant,  of  Company  A,  who  had  been  only  fourth 
in  command  when  the  battle  commenced,  was  now  in 
charge  of  the  wasted  ranks  of  the  regiment.  The  ten 
little  companies,  now  numbering  a  trifle  over  a  hun- 
dred men,  are  gathered  together  in  squads,  like  picket 
posts  along  the  front  they  are  yet  expected  to  hold. 

''  But  the  gallant  boys  fought  on.  Every  few  mo- 
ments a  man  would  drop  a  rifle  which  had  become 
clogged  or  so  hot  that  he  could  not  hold  it  steadily, 
and  bidding  those  beside  him  be  careful  when  they 
fired,  rush  forward  and  pick  up  in  place  of  it  one  that 
had  fallen  from  the  hands  of  a  dead  or  wounded  com- 
rade. The  active  part  that  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  to  play  in  this  great  three  days' 
battle  had  now  been  performed.  Moving  to  a  piece 
of  wood  about  a  mile  in  the  rear  of  the  Union  line, 
we  prepared  and  with  saddened  hearts  and  gloomy 
thoughts  partook  of  our  evening  meal." 

On  the  7th  of  July  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  marched  away  from  the  hills  of  Gettysburg. 
Only  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  were  left,  and  nine 
commissioned  officers.  They  halted  for  the  night  at 
Mechanicstown,  twenty  miles  or  more  from  Gettys- 
burg. On  the  8th  they  went  twenty-three  miles  more, 
and  were  south  of  Frederick,  in  Maryland ;  on  the 
flth  twelve  miles  down  the  Hagerstown  road;  the 

10th,  twelve  miles  to  Millpoint ;  and  the  11th  to 
Roxbury  Mills,  where  the  regiment,  with  loaded 
pieces,  was  placed  in  line  of  battle,  ready  for  an  ex- 
pected force  of  the  ejiemy.  But  Gen.  Lee  was  only 
too  glad  to  get  his  forces  over  the  Potomac  without 
any  more  fighting. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  crossed  the 
river  on  the  17th,  and  on  the  18th  were  at  Hillsbor- 
ough. Sunday,  the  19th,  they  moved  about  seven 
miles  in  the  direction  of  firing  heard  at  Snicker's 
Gap.  The  20th  they  marched  eighteen  miles  and  en- 
camped near  Upperville.  On  the  22d  they  moved  to 
near  their  camp-grounds  of  nine  months  before  at 
Manassas  Gap.  The  regiment  shared  in  the  move- 
ment of  Gen.  Meade  on  the  23d,  to  fall  upon  an  iso- 
lated detachment  of  Lee's  army  reported  to  be  at 
Front  Royal,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  mountain. 
Little  was  however  accomplished,  though  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  as  usual,  made  a  good 
record  for  bravery  and  promptness.  Tbe  Gettysburg 
campaign  was  over ;  Lee  and  his  army  were  again  on 
the  south  side  of  the  Rappahannock,  Meade  and  the 
Union  army  on  the  north. 

Lieut.-Col.  Cummins  (now  colonel),  injured  at  Get- 
tysburg, was  away  from  the  regiment  but  a  brief  time, 
taking  command  July  28th.  The  regiment  shared  in 
very  important  movements  for  some  weeks. 

At  the  time  Lee's  army  threatened  Washington  in 
the  fall  of  1863,  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
was  moved  from  Culpepper  to  Centreville,  arriving 
at  the  latter  place  on  the  evening  of  October  14th. 
The  series  of  movements  by  which  Lee  forced  Meade 
to  fall  back  to  Centreville,  and  Meade  in  turn  forced 
Lee  to  retire  once  more  to  the  southern  shore  of  the 
Rappahannock,  lasted  several  weeks. 

During  November  there  were  various  movements 
that  involved  the  battle  of  Kelly's  Ford,  in  which  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  participated,  and 
lost  two  killed  and  several  wounded. 

The  battle  of  Mine  Run  occurred  soon  after  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  had  reached  the 
side  of  the  run  opposite  from  the  enemy,  on  Sunday, 
the  29th,  and  had  passed  the  day  in  full  view,  though 
distant  of  the  frowning  heights,  along  which  ran  a 
line  of  the  enemy's  works. 

At  two  o'clock  Monday  morning  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth,  with  other  regiments  of  the  bri- 
gade, were  Ordered  out  to  relieve  a  line  of  pickets 
which  had,  during  the  early  hours  of  the  night,  been 
pushed  up  to  within  two  hundred  and  fifty  yards  of 
the  Confederate  works.  The  regiment  crossed  the 
run  with  the  difficult  marshy  lands  adjacent,  and  at 
three  o'clock  reached  the  picket  line.  About  seven 
o'clock  in  the  morning  the  long  line  of  Union  forces 
moving  to  the  attack  began  advancing  over  the  cleared 
fields,  through  the  valley  below,  and  around  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth.  The  latter  was  ordered 
i  to  bring  up  the  reserves  and  form  a  skirmish  line. 
'  Col.  Cummins  gave  the  order,  "  Forward,  men !  for- 



ward !"  and  as  the  men  sprang  to  their  feet  the  enemy- 
opened  a  furious  cannonade.  It  was  a  critical  point, 
and  several  casualties  occurred.  Having  advanced 
about  fifty  yards  they  were  ordered  to  halt,  and 
threw  themselves  flat  on  the  ground.  The  orders  to 
assault  were  soon  after  countermanded,  and  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  returned  to  its  position 
of  the  morning. 

Following  this  affair  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  and  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  generally  en- 
camped on  the  north  bank  of  the  Rapidan,  while 
Lee's  army  was  on  the  south  side,  and  there  was  a 
pause  of  nearly  five  months  in  actual  hostilities,  at 
least  on  a  scale  of  any  magnitude.  Log  cabins  were 
erected,  soldiers  made  themselves  as  comfortable  as 
possible,  and  the  months  wore  away  in  "picket  duty, 
occasional  foraging  expeditions,  now  and  then  a  brief 

In  the  month  of  April  the  movements  for  the  great 
campaign  of  1864,  under  Gen.  Grant,  began.  On  the 
■12th  all  surplus  clothing  was  ordered  to  be  packed 
and  sent  to  Washington ;  on  the  16th  all  sutlers  were 
ordered  to  leave  the  camp ;  on  the  22d  there  was  a 
grand  review;  on  the  26th  the  army  vacated  its 
winter-quarters,  moved  out,  and  pitched  its  tents  on 
an  open  field. 

At  eleven  o'clock  on  the  night  of  May  3,  1864,  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  struck  its  tents  and 
bade  adieu  to  the  camping  grounds  at  Culpepper. 
The  next  morning,  after  a  march  of  twenty  miles, 
they  reached  the  Bapidan  at  Ely's  Ford,  and  crossed 
on  pontoons  to  the  southern  shore.  At  2  p.m.  of  the 
4th  they  were  encamped  on  the  old  battle-field  of 
Chancellorsville.  Hancock  had  been  ordered  to  halt 
there  and  await  the  arrival  of  Meade's  entire  train, 
which  is  said  to  have  consisted  of  four  thousand 
wagons,  all  of  which  had  been  ordered  to  follow  the 
Second  Corps  across  the  river  by  way  of  Ely's 
Ford.  This  would  seem  to  indicate  that,  unlike  his 
predecessors,  Grant  had  determined  under  no  circum- 
stances to  return  to  the  old  camping  grounds  north  of 
the  Bapidan. 

At  4  P.M.  on  the  5th  of  May  the  Army  of  the  Po- 
tomac was  awakened  from  its  slumbers.  It  had 
crossed  the  Bapidan  without  opposition,  and  had 
spent  the  night  quietly  resting  on  the  edge  of  the 
tract  known  as  the  Wilderness. 

The  details  of  the  fearful  struggle  must  be  omitted, 
and  only  such  detached  portions  of  the  account  given 
as  include  the  movements  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth.  This  regiment  came  into  action 
about  four  o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  the  5th,  and 
shared  in  the  fearftil  struggle  which  ended  with  both 
armies  mutually  ceasing  firing  for  the  night.  The 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  lost  about  twenty- 
three  severely  wounded.  They  had  taken  thirty-two 
prisoners,  including  one  commissioned  officer.  On 
the  morning  of  the  6th  the  Union  line  faced  to  the 
southwest,  and  was  about  five  miles  long.   It  was  con- 

fronted by  Lee's  lines,  well  formed.  Grant's  order 
had  been,  "  Attack  along  the  whole  line  at  five  o'clool 
in  the  morning."    That  order  was  obeyed. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  formed  part 
of  Hancock's  advance  line,  and  shared  in  the  fighting 
which  immediately  followed  with  Heth's  and  Wilcox'i 
divisions  of  the  enemy.  Here  Col.  Cummins  was 
wounded,  supposed  to  be  at  that  time  mortally,  and 
was  carried  to  the  rear.  The  command  devolved  upon 
Lieut.-Col.  Weygant.  After  a  short  lull  in  the  tem- 
pest, and  during  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  had  pftrtially  succeeded  in  eating  their  break- 
fast, there  came  Gen.  Longstreet's  great  flank  move- 
ment, before  which  the  Union  lines  gave  way,  and 
more  than  twenty  thousand  men  (among  them  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth)  were  in  full  retreat 
The  tangled  "  wilderness"  was  a  "  vast,  weird,  horrible 
slaughter-pen,"  and  the  rout  continued  for  more  than 
two  miles.  What  might  have  happened  had  not  the 
firing  of  the  enemy  and  their  hot  pursuit  suddenly 
ceased  few  can  tell.  Lieut.-Col.  Weygant,  in  com- 
mand, with  only  Corp.  Edwards,  now  made  a  stand 
along  a  wood-road,  loosened  the  colors,  and  the  men 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  flocked  once 
more  around  the  standard,  and  soon  after  the  retreat- 
ing forces  were  rallied  and  formed  the  lines  again,  now 
in  the  rear  of  a  long  line  of  temporary  breastworfa 
that  had  been  hastily  thrown  up.  This  became  an 
impregnable  wall  that  shielded  the  Union  troops,  and 
against  which  the  charges  of  the  rebels  were  hurled 
in  vain. 

Darkness  closed  the  fighting  of  this  fearful  day. 
The  battle  was  not  renewed  on  the  7th.  At  eight 
o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  8th  the  command  was 
again  on  the  march. 

The  passage  of  the  Po  Biver  on  the  9th  coat 
something  of  a  skirmish,  in  which  the  Twen- 
tieth Indiana  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  New  York  engaged.  On  the  10th  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  moved  back  over.the  Po 
Biver,  and  formed  part  of  the  new  line  which  Grant 
had  formed  before  Spottsylvania.  They  shared  in  the 
unsuccessful  assault  by  Hancock's  corps  on  the  after- 
noon of  the  10th,  in  the  forward  movement  during 
the  next  night  (the  11th),  which  preceded  the  great 
battle  of  Spottsylvania. 

That  battle  opened  with  Hancock's  great  succeBS 
in  capturing  Johnston's  whole  division,  includiiig 
Brig.-Gen.  George  H.  Stewart  and  about  three  thou- 
sand prisoners.  This  made  the  rebels  rally,  however, 
with  desperate  energy,  and  the  advance  movement  was 
not  carried  further.  The  rebels  made  five  distinct 
assaults  to  recapture  the  works  taken  by  Hancock's 
forces,  but  failed  after  the  most  terrific  slaughter. 

In  the  surprise  and  success  of  the  morning,  in  the 
fierce  fighting  of  the  day,  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  steadily  engaged.  They  went 
with  the  "advancing  line  over  the  enemy's  works, 
were  in  the  hand-to-hand  fight  that  followed,  <uid 



shared  in  the  desperate  resistance  it  was  necessary  to 
make  to  the  desperate  assaults.  Col.  Weygant  was 
wounded  and  borne  to  the  rear,  the  command  de- 
volved on  Maj.  Murray,  and  so  the  day  wore  away 
with  its  horrible  carnage.  The  wonderful  eighteen 
hours'  struggle  ended  at  midnight  by  the  Confeder- 
ates abandoning  the  impossible  task  of  retaking  the 

As  to  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  at  the 
close  of  the  battle  Lieut.  Robinson  with  twenty  men 
was  ordered  out  on  picket  duty,  and  the  remainder 
managed  to  get  some  refreshment,  after  which,  with 
weapons  loaded,  two-thirds  only  were  allowed  to 
sleep  at  the  same  time. 

On  the  morning  of  the  13th  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  could  not  muster  more  than  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  men,  and  two  of  these  were  killed 
during  the  day. 

For  several  days  after  the  battle  of  May  12th  the 
Union  army  attempted  no  direct  attack.  On  the 
morning  of  the  18th,  Hancock's  command  made  an 
assault  upon  the  works,  but  deeming  them  too  formid- 
able to  be  carried,  the  forces  rrere  withdrawn.  At 
this  time  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  in 
the  second  line,  which  was  not  ordered  forward,  as 
the  movement  was  abandoned.  Then  followed  an- 
other attempt  at  a  grand  turning  movement. 

Gen.  Meade's  trains  were  parked  on  the  Fred- 
ericksburg road,  and  Tyler's  division  was  sent  to 
guard  them.  This  force  was  attacked  on  the  19th. 
Tyler  repulsed  the  enemy,  while  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth,  with  a  brigade  of  the  Fifth  Corps, 
dashed  after  the  flying  foe  and  captured  a  large  num- 
ber of  prisoners. 

About  this  time  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  was  so  reduced  that  it  was  consolidated  into 
three  companies ;  the  Eighty-sixth  and  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth  were  united  into  one  regiment  for 
field  service.  This  regiment  shared  in  the  assault 
which  captured  the  bridge  over  the  North  Anna 
known  as  Chesterfield  bridge,  and  lay  in  the  works 
taken  during  the  night  of  the  23d  of  May. 

The  whole  army  now  moved  over  the  Pamunkey 
River,  but  found  the  rebels  in  too  strong  force  before 
them.  While  Birney's  command  was  eredting  works 
near  the  Elliott  House,  many  casualties  occurred. 
They  were  bloody  days,  though  no  general  engage- 
ment took  place.  Capt.  Crist  was  killed  while  direct- 
ing the  staking  out  of  a  new  line  of  defense.  In  the 
battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth,  as  a  part  of  Birney's  command,  was  in  the 
reserve,  and  for  the  first  time  in  this  long  series  of 
bloody  battles  were  simply  spectators. 

Then  followed  a  period  when  picks  and  shovels 
were  brought  into  requisition,  and  the  army  made 
itself  ready  for  a  long  campaign.  It  was  evident  by 
this  time  that  the  great  commander  at  their  head  had 
no  thought  of  retreat,  but  that  a  steady,  persistent 
movement  was  to  be  kept  up  until  Richmond  was 

captured  or  the  Union  army  had  perished  on  the  way. 
Gen.  Grant  finally  resolved  to  transfer  the  army  by  a 
bold  and  rapid  movement  to  the  banks  of  the  James. 
This  was  effected  during  several  days  following  the 
12th  of  June.  Several  skirmishes  occurred  during 
this  movement;  as  usual,  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  engaged,  and  it  frequently  lost 
one  or  more  men. 

Finally  the  regiment  settled  down  to  its  place  in 
the  main  line  before  Petersburg.  At  this  time  it  was 
reduced  to  less  than  a  hundred  men.  Lieut-Col. 
Weygant  having  nearly  recovered  from  his  wound  re- 
joined the  regiment  on  the  4th  of  July. 

The  morning  report  of  August  11th  showed  thai 
there  were  remaining  on  the  rolls  of  the  regiment 
four  hundred  and  twenty  men  and  twelve  officers, 
but  only  one  hundred  and  forty-two  men  present  for 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  a  part 
of  the  force  engaged  in  the  movement  up  the  river  to 
Deep  Bottom,  August  13th.  The  landing  was  effected 
at  daybreak,  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth,  the  Seventy-third,  and  the  Eighty-sixth  New 
York,  which  had  been  transported  on  the  same  boat, 
threw  out  a  strong  picket  line  and  awaited  the  arri- 
val of  the  balance  of  the  corps.  At  nine  o'clock  two 
regiments  deployed  as  skirmishers,  and  followed  by  a 
supporting  force  moved  forward  through  the  woods. 
About  a  mile  distant  the  skirmishers  met  those  of  the 
enemy,  and  the  two  lines  were  soon  hotly  engaged. 

The  Confederates  soon  gave  way,  and  retired  to  a 
strong  line  of  earthworks  on  the  brow  of  a  commatid- 
ing  ridge.  In  front  of  these  works  the  Union  skir- 
mishers were  formed  into  a  strong  picket  line,  while 
the  main  body  was  massed  a  short  distance  in  the 
rear.  Presently  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- fourth 
was  ordered  to  advance  to  the  support  of  a  sec- 
tion of  the  Fourth  Maine  Battery,  which  had  taken 
position  just  behind  the  picket  line  and  opened  on 
the  enemy's  works.  The  Union  battery  did  some 
excellent  work.  It  was  here  that  Capt.  W.  E.  Mapes 
was  wounded  by  the  ball  of  a  sharpshooter  passing 
through  his  thigh,  carrying  with  it  a  small  piece  of 
bone  that  adhered  to  his  pants  just  below  the  wound. 
The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  soon  after 
relieved  from  this  point. 

The  next  day,  the  15th,  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  performed  a  great  amount  of  picket 
duty,  and  just  after  they  were  relieved,  at  eight  o'clock 
in  the  evening,  were  again  ordered  out  to  prolong  the 
I  picket  line  to  the  left.  In  this  movement  they  be- 
1  came  exposed  to  the  fire  of  a  Confederate  squad  am- 
bushed in  a  field  of  grain.  It  was  finally  necessary 
to  charge  on  the  unseen  foe  and  drive  them  out.  The 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  not  relieved 
from  this  tour  of  picket  duty  until  nine  o'clock  on  the 
evening  of  the  17th.  Twenty-four  hours  later  Han- 
cock's entire  command  was  on  the  way  back  to 
Petersburg.    The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 



was  now  stationed  about  three  miles  to  the  left  of 
the  place  from  which  it  had  moved  on  the  12th. 
Weeks  and  indeed  months  now  passed  away  in  the 
trenches  before  Petersburg  and  on  picket  duty,  the 
latter  much  of  the  time  dangerous  to  the  very  last  de- 
gree. Several  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
were  wounded  and  others  killed  in  this  line  of  service. 
On  the  last  day  of  September  offensive  operations 
against  the  enemy  at  Deep  Bottom  were  renewed,  and 
for  several  days  there  was  severe  fighting  at  different 
points  along  the  Richmond  and  Petersburg  lines,  but 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  did  not  become 
actually  engaged.  October  1st,  their  division  was 
hurried  out  of  camp,  and,  taking  the  cars,  were  con- 
veyed to  the  extreme  Union  left,  where  Warren  with 
a  heavy  force  had  succeeded  in  extending  his  lines 
across  the  Weldon  Railroad,  which  was  one  of  the 
enemy's  main  arteries  of  supply.  Warren  was  having 
a  hot  time  to  hold  what  he  had  secured.  The  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  with  six  other  regi- 
ments, were  set  to  work  cutting  drive- ways  through  a 
strip  of  woods,  and  building  a  strong  redoubt  in  front 
of  a  Confederate  mansion,  called  the  Clement  House. 
After  spending  three  days  and  nights  at  this  work, 
they  were  relieved  by  Gen.  Ferrero's  division  of  col- 
ored troops.  The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
moved  back  to  the  Jerusalem  plank-road,  and  en- 
camped in  the  second  line  near  Fort  Sedgwick,  but 
they  were  still  under  fire.  Grant  B.  Benjamin  and 
Lieut.  Jonathan  Birdsall  were  killed  about  this  time, 
and  others  were  wounded. 

The  regiment  had,  however,  filled  up  somewhat  its 
wasted  ranks.  Convalescents  had  returned,  a  few  new 
recruits  had  been  received,  and  the  roll  showed  two 
hundred  and  thirty  men  with  sixteen  officers  present 
for  duty. 

In  this  movement  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  had  a  part.  Within  a  half-mile  of  Hatcher's 
Run  a  brisk  skirmishing  fire  broke  out  in  front  of 
the  ford.  This  was  when  Gen.  Eagan's  command 
were  forcing  the  passage  of  the  stream.  When  this 
was  accomplished  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  crossed  without  difficulty,  and  moved  on  in 
column  with  flankers  on  the  left.  It  was  thus  in 
the  rear  of  Eagan's  battle-line.  Presently  an  order 
came  directing  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
to  relieve  the  brigade  on  the  left.  In  this  advance 
considerable  fighting  occurred,  but  the  whole  line 
reached  the  Boydton  road.  Here  a  halt  took  place 
by  order  of  Gen.  Meade. 

Omitting  the  details  of  the  battle,  we  trace  the 
movements  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth. 
While  holding  the  road  a  flanking  company  of  rebel 
dismounted  cavalry  with  a  battery  of  rifled  ^uns  came 
thundering  down  until  halted  by  the  fire  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth.  Then  hastily  creeping  ■ 
up  to  the  woods  which  were  beyond  an  open  lot  in  i 
front  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  they 
opened  a  sevete  fire.  i 

At  this  juncture  an  aide  of  Gen.  De  Trobriand  rode 
up  and  asked  Col.  Weygant  if  he  did  not  think  hig 
command  could  capture  that  battery.  The  reply  was, 
"  We  can  try,"  but  the  assistance  of  another  regiment 
was  very  desirable.  A  company  of  sharpshooters  im- 
mediately came  up.  Just  as  the  leader  tendered  his 
services  to  Col.  Weygant  a  bullet  tumbled  him  fi:om 
his  horse  dead,  but  his  men  joined  in  the  assault  with 
a  will,  as  if  to  avenge  the  death  of  their  leader.  Col. 
Weygant  was  wounded  and  borne  from  the  field.  The 
charge  was  not  made,  but  the  attempt  of  the  Con- 
federates to  pass  down  the  road  was  steadily  resisted 
by  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  by  the  com- 
pany of  sharpshooters,  and  by  Kirwin's  powerful 
regiment  sent  to  their  aid. 

Capt.  Benedict,  the  senior  officer,  in  the  absence  of 
Lieut.-Col.  Weygant,  was  now  in  command  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  until  the  latter  re- 
turned to  the  regiment  November  22d.  A  large  rein- 
forcement was  now  received.  Capt.  Malone,  of  Mid- 
dletown,  brought  an  entire  company.  November  25th 
the  muster-roll  showed  nineteen  officers,  and  three 
hundred  and  sixty-two  men  present  for  duty.  About 
the  last  of  the  month,  and  during  the  early  days 
of  December,  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
Regiment  shared  in  the  new  attack  on  the  Weldon 
Railroad,  tvhich  destroyed  a  portion  of  it  further  to 
the  south,  still  more  embarrassing  the  receiving  of 
supplies  by  the  rebel  army. 

The  year  1864  had  now  drawn  to  a  close.  The  great 
campaign  which  was  to  be  fought  "  out  on  this  line  if 
it  took  all  summer"  was  still  in  progress,  the  summer 
and  the  fall  had  passed  away,  and  yet  the  desired  vic- 
tory had  not  been  won.  Still  with  unyielding  per- 
sistency the  Union  army  maintained  the.  siege.  Daily 
the  lines  around  Richmond  tightened. 

The  month  of  January,  1865,  was  devoted  to  thor- 
ough preparation  for  a  spring  campaign.  February 
4th  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  received 
orders  to  be  ready  for  a  march.  Another  demonstra- 
tion against  the  enemy's  right  had  been  ordered,  and 
the  next  morning  the  Fifth  and  Second  Corps,  pre- 
ceded by  Gregg's  division  of  cavalry,  pushed  out  to 
Reams'  Station,  and  thence  to  Dinwiddle  Court- 
House,  the  Fifth  Corps  being  directed  to  turn  the 
rebel  right  while  the  Second  assailed  in  front.  At 
seven  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  5th  the  brigade 
column,  which  included  theOne  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth,  marched  to  the  left  about  two  miles,  and  halted 
in  the  rear  of  Meade's  most  advanced  picket-posts. 

After  a  regiment  had  been  deployed  as  skirmisheiB 
they  moved  beyond  the  Union  picket  line,  drove  i* 
the  rebel  pickets  a  mile  or  more  to  the  small  stream' 
known  as  Hatcher's  Run.  On  the  further  side  of  this 
stream  a  small  rebel  force  behind  a  line  of  earth- 
works held  the  Union  skirmishers  at  bay  until  assist- 
ance came  up,  when  the  Confederates  were  quickly 
dislodged,  and  the  brigade  forded  the  stream  in  battle 
line.    They  pushed  on  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile 



until  they  were  near  the  enemy's  main  line.  Here 
Gen.  De  Trobriand  took  up  a  strong  position  and  set 
his  men  to  building  a  corresponding  line.  The  brigade 
worked  all  day  unmolested,  and  at  night  lay  down  to 
rest  behind  formidable  earthworks.  The  remaining 
brigades  of  Mott's  division  had  moved  up  on  the  left 
and  also  intrenched  themselves.  About  dark  Mott's 
line  was  assaulted  by  a  heavy  rebel  force  that  w.ere 
elated  with  having  forced  back  Warren's  command 
during  the  day.  This  was  quickly  repelled  by  McAl- 
lister's New  Jersey  brigade.  About  three  in  the 
morning  of  the  6th  the  brigade  of  which  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was  a  part  being  re- 
lieved, moved  to  the  left  about  half  a  mile  and  massed 
themselves  in  a  ravine  in  the  rear  of  McAllister's  line. 
That  night  it  was  learned  that  Hancock's  command 
had  held  every  foot  of  ground  gained  in  spite  of  the 
most  determined  assaults,  and  that  the  Union  lines 
were  permanently  advanced  beyond  Hatcher's  Run. 
On  the  morning  of  the  9th  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  able  to  get  into  position  on  the 
new  line,  and  for  three  weeks  or  so  was  once  more  in 
winter-quarters.  During  the  first  half  of  March, 
1865,  many  signs  indicated  that  a  final  campaign  was 
about  to  open  which  would  end  in  absolute  triumph. 
Sheridan's  victories  in  the  Valley,  and  Sherman's  in 
the  Carolinas,  became  known  in  the  ranks  of  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac.  From  the  14th  to  the  23d  of 
the  month  the  time  was  fully  occupied  in  pushing  to 
completion  every  detail  of  preparation. 

On  the  morning  of  the  24th  everything  was  ready 
in  the  camp  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
for  marching  on  five  minutes'  notice.  There  was  not 
long  to  wait.  Orders  had  already  been  issued  by  Gen. 
Grant  directing  an  advance  on  all  parts  of  the  line 
on  the  morning  of  the  29th.  Sheridan  with  his  ten 
thousand  troopers,  flushed  with  their  victories  in  the 
Valley,  were  now  with  the  besieging  army  waiting 
to  move  once  more  against  their  old  enemy,  Lee's 
grand  Army  of  Northern  Virginia. 

The  Confederate  leaders  did  not  wait  for  Gen. 
Grant  to  commence.  On  the  morning  of  the  26th  of 
March  they  made  a  vigorous  assault  on  Fort  Sted- 
man.the  capture  of  which  would  have  cut  the  Union 
lines  in  two  and  opened  up  a  chance  for  Lee  to  move 
south  and  unite  with  Johnston  to  overwhelm  Sherman. 
The  movement  was  partially  successful,  the  Union 
troops  were  driven  out  of  the  fort,  but  the  rebels  could 
not  follow  up  their  success.  Their  supporting  columns 
failed  to  come  up ;  they  could  not  seize' the  crest  of  the 
hill  which  was  held  by  the  Union  troops  in  the  rear 
of  the  fort.  The  Confederates,  too,  were  soon  between 
two  lines  of  Unionists,  and  two  thousand  were  forced 
to  surrender  or  be  cut  to  pieces.  Gen.  Meade,  too,  or- 
dered an  advance  at  other  parts,  and  wrested  away  a 
portion  of  their  intrenched  line,  which  the  rebels  never 
recovered.  This  action  was  simply  heard  by  the  brig- 
ade in  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was 
enrolled.    They  had  no  share  in  the  movement.    Yet 

they  were  soon  ordered  to  strike  their  tents,  and  during 
that  day  they  assisted  in  holding  important  positions, 
but  were  not  engaged  until  just  dark.  They  had  se- 
cured themselves  in  a  line  of  earthworks  which  a 
New  Hampshire  regiment  had  just  vacated,  and  which 
was  now  strengthened  by  the  materials  of  some  small 
buildings  torn  down  for  the  purpose.  Col.  Weygant 
had  videttes  carefully  posted  and  instructed  in  case 
of  attack  to  reserve  their' fire  until  the  enemy  was 
within  fifty  yards,  then  empty  their  pieces  as  deliber- 
ately as  possible,  and  hurry  back  to  the  lines.  A 
force  of  the  enemy,  perhaps  five  hundred  in  number, 
soon  emerged  from  the  thicket  on  the  road  at  the  foot 
of  the  slope,  just  in  front  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth.  They  evidently  had  seen  the  New 
Hampshire  men  leave  these  works,  and  did  not  know 
of  their  occupation  by  other  Union  men.  The  vi- 
dettes obeyed  orders,  the  enemy,  disregarding  their 
fire,  lowered  their  bayonets,  and  started  up  the  hill 
on  a  charge.  As  soon  as  the  videttes  were  in,  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  from  behind  their 
intrenchments,  poured  upon  the  enemy  a  most  de- 
structive fire,  completely  demoralizing  the  charging 
line.  The  Confederates  threw  themselves  upon  the 
ground  or  piled  into  the  picket-pits,  and  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  pouring  over  the  works, 
made  a  sudden  charge  upon  them.  The  Confederate 
commander.  Col.  D.  S.  Troy,  grasped  from  his  stand- 
ard-bearer the  colors  of  his  regiment,  and  waved  them 
frantically  in  vain  efibrts  to  reform  his  lines ;  but  ere 
twenty  of  his  followers  could  rally  around  him  a 
bullet  pierced  his  breast.  George  W.  Tompkins 
grasped  from  his  hands  the  standard,  and  trailed  it 
beneath  the  colors  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth.  One  hundred  and  sixty-four  men  were  cap- 
tured and  six  oflicers,  while  volley  after  volley  was 
hurled  after  the  remainder  as  they  rushed  pell-mell 
down  the  hill.  Not  a  man  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  was  killed  or  wounded, — a  circum- 
stance scarcely  paralleled  in  the  history  of  the  war. 
Private  Tompkins  received  a  medal  frota  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  for  his  capture  of  the  enemy's  colors. 

The  original  order  of  Gen.  Grant  was  not  appa- 
rently changed  or  its  execution  delayed  by  the  Con- 
federate attempt  upon  Fort  Stedman.  On  the  29th, 
30th,  and  31st  occurred  the  grand  advance  which 
ended  with  the  victorious  battle  of  Five  Forks,  on 
the  1st  of  April,  when  Sheridan  held  the  place  with 
five  tli')usand  prisoners,  and  the  entire  right  wing 
of  Lee's  army  was  fleeing  westward, — in  the  language 
of  Pollard, — "  routed,  demoralized,  and  past  control;" 
In  this  decisive  action  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  was  not  engaged,  but  it  had  borne  an  important 
part  in  the  three  days'  operations,  holding  perilous 
positions,  and  at  one  point,  in  a  skirmish  of  some 
magnitude,  silenced  a  Confederate  battery. 

That  same  night,  while  the  defeat  at  Five  Forks 
was  carrying  consternation  through  all  the  Confed- 
erate lines.  Gen.  Grant  ordered  the  bombardment  of 



Petersburg  by  all  the  available  artillery  in  the  grand 
circle  of  forts  surrounding  the  doomed  city. 

At  a  quarter  of  twelve  that  night  the  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty -fourth  was  ordered  by  Gen.  De  Trobriand 
to  advance  up  to  within  two  hundred  and  fifty  feet  of 
the  enemy's  works  in  their  immediate  front,  open  a 
vigorous  fire,  and  maintain  their  position,  if  possible, 
for  half  an  hour,  but  not  to  assault  their  lines.  This 
strange  order  (as  it  then  appeared),  and  one  full  of 
peril,  was  promptly  executed.  A  sharp  midnight 
struggle  ensued,  so  fierce  that  the  commanding  gen- 
eral sent  the  Seventy-third  New  York  and  the  One 
Hundred  and  Tenth  Pennsylvania  to  the  assistance 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth.  An  aide 
soon  after  recalled  the  force.  The  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  had  several  men  wounded,  and  Capt. 
Edward  J.  Cormick,  of  Company  F,  was  killed.  A  few 
hours  later  the  officers  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  learned  that  this  midnight  engagement  was  of 
great  importance  to  the  general  movement,  and  that  its 
object  had  been  fully  accomplished.  Gen.  Grant  in- 
tended a  general  assault  on  the  lines  to  the  south  and 
east  of  Petersburg  for  the  next  morning.  Gen.  Lee, 
supposing  Grant's  intention  was  to  throw  his  forces 
next  against  the  right  wing,  had  withdrawn  his  army 
considerably  from  Petersburg,  and  night  attacks  like 
that  made  by  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
were  to  engage  the  enemy's  attention  and  prevent  the 
return  of  his  forces  to  the  defense  of  Petersburg.  This 
strategy  was  successful. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  April  2d  the  grand  assault 
upon  Petersburg  was  made  as  Grant  intended.  Parke 
on  the  Union  right  carried  the  enemy's  outer  lines, 
capturing  several  guns  and  a  few  prisoners,  but  found 
the  inner  lines  so  strong  that  he  despaired  of  carrying 
them  without  additional  forces,  and  therefore  deserted. 
Wright  with  his  own  corps,  the  Sixth,  supported  by  j 
two  divisions  of  Ord's,  made  an  impetuous  advance, 
losing  heavily  but  carrying  everything  in  his  front, 
capturing  a  large  number  of  guns  and  taking  several 
thousand  prisoners.  Ord's  remaining  division  forced 
the  enemy's  line  at  Hatcher's  Run,  and  with  the  main 
body  under  Wright  swung  around  and  pressed  for- 
ward from  the  west  towards  Petersburg.  At  length, 
about  nine  o'clock  a.m.,  Humphrey  advanced  with 
the  divisions  of  Mott  and  .Hays,  carried  a  redoubt, 
scaled  the  enemy's  works  in  his  front,  and  closing  in 
on  the  left  of  Ord's  men,  pushed  on  with  the  vic- 
torious lines  towards  the  fated  city.  In  this  advance 
a  portion  of  De  Trobriand's  brigade,  led  by  the  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth,  moved  at  a  double- 
quick  over  one  of  the  main  roads  leading  into  Peters- 
burg. Ahead  was  a  demoralized,  fleeing  body  of  Con- 
federates, whose  pace  was  occasionally  quickened  by 
hurling  into  them  a  few  bullets.  Several  times  a 
squad  of  the  hindermost  wheeled  and  returned  the 
fire,  but  in  so  wild  a  manner  that  the  Union  men 
were  not  injured  by  it.  The  enemy  was  driven 
within  his  inner  line  of  intrenchments,  which  it  was 

no  part  of  Grant's  plan  to  assault  at  a  fearful  waste 
of  life. 

The  beginning  of  the  end  had  come.  Gen.  Lee 
made  a  re-disposition  of  his  forces  about  Petersburg 
that  same  afternoon  in  full  sight  of  the  Union  army, 
but  he  was  only  covering  his  purpose  to  allow  the 
Confederate  leaders  to  evacuate  Richmond.  He  knew 
he  could  hold  neither  Petersburg  nor  Richmond  many 
hours  longer.  This  was  the  day  when  he  sent  the 
famous  dispatch  to  Richmond,  which  was  carried  to 
Jefierson  Davis  seated  in  church  ;  and  then  followed 
that  wild  scene  never  paralleled  on  this  continent: 
of  a  fleeing  government,  a  city  given  up  to  riot  and 
mob  law,  ending  with  a  fearful  conflagration,  the  last 
legacy  of  the  dissolving  Confederacy  to  its  ill-fated' 
capital.  '  During  the  night  following  the  2d  of 
April  the  Confederate  forces  stole  silently  out  of 
Petersburg  over  muffled  bridges,  and  on  the  morning 
of  the  3d,  Gen.  Grant,  pausing  in  his  victorions 
career  only  to  send  a  governor  and  a  provost-guard 
into  the  city,  set  his  army  in  motion  after  Lee's  flee- 
ing veterans. 

The  Confederate  forces,  after  their  hasty  flight  from 
the  lines  which  they  had  so  long  defended  around 
Richmond  and  Petersburg,  concentrated  at  Chester- 
field Court-House,  about  eight  miles  west.  From 
that  point  the  Army  of  Virginia,  still  forty  thousand 
strong,  moved  rapidly  westward  along  the  northern 
shore  of  the  Rappahannock  River  some  thirty  miles, 
to  Amelia  Court-House.  By  a  misunderstood  dis- 
patch, three  long  trains  of  supplies,  which  had  been 
telegraphed  to  meet  Gen.  Lee  at  Amelia  Court-House, 
were  sent  forward  to  Richmond  the  very  day  of  the 
evacuation,  and  were  burned  in  the  great  fire  set  by 
the  Confederates  as  they  were  leaving. 

In  the  pursuit  which  Sheridan  with  his  cavalry  be- 
gun on  the  morning  of  the  3d  before  the  sun  was  up, 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  took  a  part, 
their  brigade  having  the  advance  of  the  Second  Corps. 
During  the  day  they  marched  about  twenty  miles, 
capturing  two  hundred  dismounted  Confederate  cav- 
alry and  one  brass  field-piece. 

On  the  morning  of  the  4th  they  were  aroused  from 
slumber  at  three  o'clock  and  were  on  the  march  at 
four.  About  ten  o'clock  a  halt  of  Gen.  Humphrey's 
corps  was  ordered,  and  Gen.  De  Trobriand  sent  the 
One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  out  to  forage  a  meal 
for  the  brigade.  They  were  successful,  notwith- 
standing the  war-swept  condition  of  the  neighbo^ 
hood,  in  finding  a  mill,  which  they  set  to  grinding 
grain  found  there,  and  which  stopped  finally  by  the 
upper  millstone  being  hurled  from  its  spindle  and 
thrown  through  the  side  of  the  building.  They  also 
secured  fowls,  cattle,  sheep,  and  pigs,  though  most  of 
them  were  fearftilly  lean.  The  foraging  and  eating 
used  up  most  of  the  day,  but  they  moved  three  miles 
farther  just  at  night.  At  three  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing of  the  5th  they  were  on  the  march  again ;  a  very 
welcome  supply-train  overtook  them  with  three  days' 



rations.  At  dusk  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  joined  Sheridan  at  Jettersville,  where  he  held 
the  Danville  Railroad,  cutting  off  one  more  of  Lee's 
lines  of  communication.  During  the  day  a  severe 
engagement  had  taken  place  there,  resulting  in  a  loss 
to  the  Confederates  of  a  foraging  train  of  one  hun- 
dred and  eighty  wagons,  together  with  a  battery  of 
artillery  and  a  hundred  prisoners. 

On  the  morning  of  the  6th  the  pursuit  was  resumed, 
the  brigade  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
again  leading  the  advance  of  the  Second  Corps. 
They  soon  came  up  with  Lee's  rear-guard  at  a  point 
where  the  road  crossed  a  small  stream.  The  Twen- 
tieth Indiana  was  deployed  as  a  heavy  skirmish  line, 
and  soon  became  hotly  engaged.  The  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth  was  ordered  to  the  front,  and 
moved  off  on  a  run.  Gen.  Mott  added,  "  Deploy  as 
soon  as  you  cross  and  take  that  train."  The  train 
was  not  in  sight.  As  Gen.  Mott  rode  up  to  the  colonel 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  and  com- 
menced to  give  an  additional  order,  he  was  wounded 
and  borne  from  the  field.  A  delay  of  ten  minutes  oc- 
curred, when  the  advance  was  resumed,  with  the 
entire  division  to  which  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  belonged  in  battle  line,  but  the  enemy 
had  fled.  The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  was 
sent  to  relieve  the  Twentieth  Indiana,  and  that 
brought  the  Orange  County  boys  to  the  front  and  in 
sight  of  the  wagon-train  which  Gen.  Mott  had  di- 
rected them  to  take.  They  were  soon  able  to  open  an 
effective  fire  on  the  teamsters,  and  compelled  the 
abandonment  of  fifteen  or  twenty  wagons  and  two 
brass  guns,  which  were  being  moved  with  them.  The 
regiment  was  now  wildly  enthusiastic;  the  colonel 
was  obliged  to  force  his  horse  into  a  trot  to  keep  up 
with  the  excited  men.  They  soon  came  in  sight  of  a 
line  of  rebel  earthworks,  which  Capt.  Travis  would 
have  charged  immediately  with  his  single  company  of 
thirty  men  had  not  the  superior  officers  recalled  him. 
The  main  line  soon  came  up,  a  charge  was  made,  and 
the  enemy  was  driven  from  his  works,  losing  a  large 
number  of  men  captured  by  the  Union  forces.  Two 
hours  later  the  advance  came  up  with  another  Con- 
federate battle  line,  and  this  proved  to  be  held  by  a 
considerable  body  of  Lee's  main  army.  The  works 
were  manned  by  a  solid  battle  line,  studded  at  inter- 
vals with  artillery,  and  gayly  decked  with  Confederate 
battle-flags.  In  a  few  moments  the  main  line  again 
came  up.  The  entire  division  of  which  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Twenty-fourth  was  a  part  made  one  general 
charge,  swept  over  the  works,  capturing  several  hun- 
dred prisoners,  together  with  a  number  of  battle-flags 
and  five  or  six  pieces  of  artillery.  The  Sixth  Corps 
and  Sheridan's  cavalry  were  having  severe  fighting 
on  the  left;  they  met  with  strong  opposition,  were  re- 
pulsed twice  with  serious  loss,  but  eventually  cap- 
tured nearly  two-thirds  of  Gen.  Ewell's  corps,  in- 
cluding Ewell  himself  and  five  of  his  general  officers. 
After  this  engagement,  known  as  the  "battle  of  Sailor's 

Creek,  in  which  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
Regiment  took  twenty-eight  prisoners  and  lost  several 
men,  there  was  a  halt  of  nearly  an  hour.  But  when 
once  under  way  again  the  enemy's  rear-guard  was 
soon  overtaken.  It  was  driven  from  hilltop  to  hill- 
top, prisoners  by  the  hundred  being  taken,  guns  and 
wagons  being  abandoned,  and  this  was  only  sus- 
pended by  the  darkness  of  the  night.  Lee  had  lost 
during  the  day  nearly  six  thousand  prisoners,  four 
hundred  wagons,  and  upwards  of  thirty  pieces  of  ar- 

The  pursuit  on  the  7th  was  continued.  About 
eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  they  reached  Highbridge, 
a  small  place  six  miles  east  of  Farmville,  and  where 
the  Appomattox  is  crossed  by  both  a  wagon  road  and 
a  railroad  bridge.  The  rebels  had  fired  the  bridges, 
and  had  quite  a  formidable  force  to  resist  the  passage. 
Gen.  Barlow's  division,  then  in  the  advance,  dashed 
over  the  burning  wagon  bridge,  scattered  the  defend- 
ing force,  and  captured,  with  a  number  of  prisoners, 
eighteen  pieces  of  artillery.  Barlow  then  moved  off 
in  the  direction  of  Farmville  on  similar  service. 
From  Highbridge,  Humphrey's  division  and  De  Tro- 
briand's,  including  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth,  moved  on  over  the  old  stage  road  towards 
Appomattox  Court-House.  About  five  miles  beyond 
the  river  they  came  up  to  the  main  body  of  Lee's 
army,  so  strongly  posted  that  it  was  not  deemed  pru- 
dent to  attack.  A  short  time  afterwards,  on  the  sup- 
position that  Lee  was  again  retreating,  an  attack  was 
made  by  several  regiments  of  Miles'  division,  which 
was  repulsed  with  a  Union  loss  of  six  hundred. 

But  the  end  had  come.  Lee  was  surrounded. 
Sheridan's  cavalry  and  the  Sixth  Corps  had  swept 
around  his  lines  far  to  the  west,  and  now  held  Ap- 
pomattox Station  on  the  Lynchburg  Railroad,  ex- 
tinguishing Lee's  last  hope  of  escape.  At  eight  on 
the  morning  of  the  9th  of  April  the  order  to  renew 
the  advance  was  obeyed  by  a  slow  but  steady  march, 
but  at  noon  orders  were  passed  down  the  column  to 
move  from  the  road  and  rest.  The  now  famous  and 
historic  interview  between  Grant  and  Lee  was  being 
held,  and  the  terms  of  surrender  adjusted. 

The  paroled  rebels  disappeared,  the  Army  of  North- 
ern Virginia  was  no  longer  in  existence. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth  soon  after- 
wards moved  to  Burkesville  Junction,  where  it  received 
the  news  of  Lincoln's  assassination.  Resuming  soon 
after  their  northern  march,  they  moved  leisurely 
along.  About  the  middle  of  May  they  were  again  in 
sight  of  Washington.  The  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  was  in  the  grand  review,  and  immediately  left 
for  home.  They  were  delayed  about  a  week  on  Hart's 
Island,  after  which  they  took  the  steamer  "  Mary 
Powell"  for  Newburgh. 

Well  might  the  Newburgh  Daily  Union,  a  few  days 
previous,  say, — 

"  This  regiment  of  heroes,  for  such  they  have  proved 
themselves  to  be,  are  expected  home  soon.    They 



have  made  as  noble  a  record  aa  any  regiment  in  the 
field.  They  have  poured  out  their  blood  on  dozens 
of  historic  fields,  and  have  a  roll  of  heroic  dead 
whose  memory  should  be  precious  to  old  Orange 

From  the  Newburgh  Daily  Union  of  June  14th  we 
take  the  following  paragraphs  relating  to  the  welcome 
in  that  city : 

"  When  the  cannon  on  the  long  dock  began  to  roar,  the  boya  involunta- 
rilysetupashoutof  delight,  as  if  they  recognized  the  tones  of  an  old  friend. 
But  the  belching,  bellowing  tube  sent  out  no  missiles  of  death  among  them 
this  time,— nothing  but  the  notes  of  a  glorious  welcome.  The  sight  that 
greeted  the  eyes  of  those  who  were  on  the  '  Powell'  as  she  neared  our 
Tillage  can  hardly  ever  be  forgotten  by  them.  Ever*-  pla^e  which  com- 
manded a  view  of  the  river  seemed  to  be  crowded  with  eager  spectators. 
Flags  were  flying,  bells  rinsing,  cannon  booming,  innumerable  handker- 
chiefs waving,  and  the  whole  village  seemed  bent  on  making  itself  seen 
and  heard.  The  boys  looked  on  all  this  display  with  undisguised  delight, 
and  gave  vent  to  their  feelings  in  repeated  cheers.  They  were  marched 
to  the  corner  of  First  and  Front  Streets,  through  the  immense  throng 
which  had  assembled  to  do  them  honor,  and  between  open  flies  of  the 
flr^men  and  Union  League,  who  stood  with  heads  uncovered.  The  pro- 
cession then  formed  in  the  following  order:  First  the  firemen;  then  the 
trustees  of  the  village  and  distinguished  citizens ;  tlien  the  Union  League, 
accompanied  by  Eastman's  splendid  band  of  Foughkeepsie ;  then  came 
the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth.  The  procession  moved  up  Front 
Street  to  Water,  up  Water  to  South,  up  South  to  Grand,  down  Grand  to 
Western  Aveuue,  up  Western  Avenue  to  Liberty,  down  Liberty  to  Wash- 
ington's headquarters.  Every  flag  was  out  all  along  the  route,  and  the 
sight  of  the  bullet-torn  battle-flag  of  the  regiment  seemed  to  be  regarded 
with  intense  interest.  Before  the  boys  got  around  the  route  they  were 
well  furnished  with  bouquets  from  the  hands  of  the  fair  ladies  of  New- 
burgh. Every  soldier  had  a  bouquet  in  the  muzzle  of  his  rifle.  What  a 
change  I  The  weapons  from  which,  for  the  past  three  years,  had  been 
issuing  the  death-dealing  bullet  now  decorated  with  the  floral  tribute  of 
victory  and  peace.  They  were  distributed  by  a  flower  brigade,  led  by 
Miss  Travis,  and  organized  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Sloan. 

"  The  firemen  and  Leaguers  on  reaching  the  headquarters  formed  in 
front  of  the  stand  in  a  hollow  square,  into  which  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twenty-fourth  marched.  The  crowd  on  the  ground  was  immense,  entirely 
covering  the  lawn  from  the  house  to  the  eastern  limits.  There  could 
not  have  been  less  than  ten  thousand  persons  present. 

*'  The  regiment  was  welcomed  by  Judge  Taylor  in  an  eloquent  address, 
of  which  we  can  only  quote  detached  passages  : 

" '  On  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  the  county  of  Orange,  I  bid  you  a  warm 
and  cordial  welcome  to  your  homes  again.  Yon  come  to  us  war-worn 
and  scar-worn  from  the  hundred  battles  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac, 
and  you  come  to  us  too  at  a  time  when  peace  rests  upon  our  beloved 
country.  With  proud  hearts  we  welcome  you.  But  that  pride  is  mingled 
with  somewhat  of  sadness  when  we  remember  the  thousand  comrades 
whom  you  have  left  upon  the' battle-fields  of  the  sunny  South.  .  .  .  But, 
my  friends,  you  come  home  to  us  having  completed  your  work  and 
completed  it  nobly.  To-day  our  beloved  country,  which  for  four  long 
years  has  been  threatened  with  destruction,  is  saved  by  the  valor  of  your 
arms,  and  those  glorious  iuBtitutions  which  our  fathers  purchased  for  us 
with  their  blood,  have  been  [treserved,  though  threatened  by  traitorous 
hands  and  rebel  foes.  .  .  .  You  have  presented  to  us  anew  our  glorious 
Union,  more  pure,  more  elevated,  more  perfect  than  before.  Tou  will 
have  enabled  us  on  the  eusuing  Fourth  of  July,  the  anniversary  of  our 
natiimal  independence,  to  celebrate  the  absolute  fact  that  all  men  are 
'  born  free  and  equal,'  that  the  '  Stats  and  Stripes*  wave  over  none  but 
freemen,  and  that  the  contradictiou  which  has  existed  for  the  last  three- 
quarters  of  a  century  that  four  millions  of  bondmen  were  held  under  the 
starry  flag  no  longer  exists,  but  that  all,  of  whatever  color,  birth,  or  nat- 
ionality, when  they  come  upon  the  soil  of  the  United  States,  under  the 
shadow  of  that  glorious  banner  are  freemen,  and  entitled  to  its  protection 
under  all  circumstances.' 

"The  address  of  welcome  was  appropriately  responded  to  by  Col.  Wey- 
gant.  Tbe  great  assembly  dissolved,  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty-fourth 
was  disbanded,  and  the  record  of  its  glorious  achievements  passed  forever 
into  the  archives  of  history." 

The  report  of  the  adjutant-general  for  1868  pre- 
sents the  following  summary  statement  of  the  battles 

which  the  regiment- was  authorized  to  inscribe  upon 
its  banners: 

Fredericksburg,  Chancellorsville,  Gettysburg,  Kel- 
ly's Ford,  Mine  Kun,  Wilderness,  Po  Kiver,  Spotte- 
ylvania,  North  Anna,  Tolopotomy,  Cold  Harbor 
Petersburg,  Strawberry  Plains,  Boydton  Road. 

Col.  Weygant's  history  does  not  show  that  they  par- 
ticipated to  any  extent  in  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor 
while  Boydton  Road,  Deep  Bottom,  and  others  in 
which  they  did  participate  are  not  named  in  the 

We  add  the  following  official  record  of  the  com- 
missioned officers,  also  from  the  adjutant-general's  re- 
port of  1868 ;  the  date  of  commission  being  first  given, 
followed  by  the  date  of  rank. 


A.  Van  Horn  Ellis,  Sept.  lu,  186^  ;  Aug.  23, 1862;  killed  in  action  at  M 

tysburg,  Pa.,  July  %,  1863. 
Francis  M.  Cummins,  Oct.  10, 1863  ;  July  2, 1863 ;  discharged  Sept.  U, 

1S64.  -* 

Charles  H.  Weygant,  Jan.  II,  1865;  Sept.  19,  1864;  not  mustered. 

Francis  M.  Cummins,  Sept.  10, 1803 ;  Aug.  16, 18Q2 ;  promoted  to  colonel 

Oct.  10,  1863. 
Charles  H.  Weygant,  Oct.  10, 1863 ;  July  2, 1863  ;  mustered  out  with  iv 

iment  June  3, 1865  (brevet  colonel,  U.S.V.), 
Henry  S.  Murray,  Jan.  11,  1866  ;  Sept.  19, 1864  ;  not  mustered. 

James  Cromwell,  Sept.  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  20, 1862 ;  killed  in  action  at  Getty» 

burg.  Pa.,  July  2, 1803. 
Charles  H.  Weygant,  Sept.  14, 1863 ;  July  2, 1863  ;  promoted  to  heuteii. 

ant-colonel  Oct.  10. 1863. 
Henry  S.  Murray,  Oct.  10,  1863;  July  2,  1863;  mustered  out  with  ngi- 

ment  June  3, 1865. 
James  W.  Benedict,  Jan.  II,  1865 ;  Sept.  19, 1864 ;  not  mustered.         ' 

William  Silliman,  Sept.  10,  1862 ;  July  16,  1862 ;  promoted  to  capttin 

Oct.  3, 1862. 
C.  Depeyeter  Arden,  Oct  3,  1862 ;  Aug.  20,  1862 ;   discharged  Jan.  14, 

William  Brownson,  Feb.  20, 1863;  Dec.  31, 1863 ;  resigned  Sept  17,  ISO. 
Williau)  B.  Van  Houten,  Oct  10,  1863 ;  Sept.  17, 1863 ;  discharged  Ju. 

23,  1866. 
Wines  E.  Weygant,  Jan.  31, 1865 ;  Jan.  31, 1865 ;  not  mustered. 

Augustus  Denniston,  Sept  ID,  1862;  July  IS,  1862 ;  resigned  Jan.  1^ 

Henry  F.  Travis,  Feb.  27,  1863  ;  Jan,  14, 1863 ;  promoted  to  captain  All|, 

20,  1863. 
Ellis  Post,  Aug.  20,  1863;  April  21, 1863;  mustered  out  with  reglaunt 

June  3, 1865. 

John  H.  Thompson,  Sept  10,  1862;  July  26,  1862;  dismissed  Nov.  96, 

1864;  disability,  removed  by  order  of  the  President,  Jan.  14, 18&&. 
John  H.  Thompson,  Feb.  15,  1866  ;  Feb.  16, 1865;  failed  to  muster 
Robert  V.  K.  Montfort,  March  22, 1866 ;  March  22, 1865 ;  mustered  «i 

with  regiment  June  3, 1866. 

Awialant  Surgeont. 
Edward  G.  Marshall,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Sept.  6, 1862 ;  dismissed  Aug.  7,  UK 
Bobert  V.  K.  Montfort,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Sept  10, 1862 ;  promoted  to  nl>' 

geon  March  22, 1866, 
Edward  C.  Fox,  April  6,  1865;  April  7,  1866;  mustered  out  with  rsit 
ment  June  3, 1866. 

Thomas  Scott  Bradner,  Oct  '.21, 1862 ;  Aug.  23, 1862  ;  mustered  out  wltt 
regiment  June  3, 1866. 




Charles  H.  Weygant,  Sept.  10, 1862  j  Aug.  12,  1862 ;  promoted  to  mnjor 
Sept  14, 1863. 

Charles  B.  Wood,  Oct  10, 1863 ;  July  2, 186.1 ;  discharged  Sept.  21, 1864. 

Thomas  TafI,  Nov.  15, 1864 ;  Sept.  21, 1864 ;  ninstered  out  with  regiment 
June  S,  1865. 

Henrjf  S.  Murray,  Sept.  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  14, 1S62 ;  promoted  to  major  Oct. 
10, 1863. 

Willinm  E.  Mapes,  Sec.  17,  1863 ;  July  2, 18113 ;  discharged  Dec.  15, 1864. 

Hubert  J.  Maloue,  Dec.  17, 1864  ;  Sept.  15,  1864  :  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3,  18>id. 

James  Cromwell,  Sept  10,1862  ;  Aug.  15, 1862;  promoted  to  major  Sept. 
lU,  1862. 

William  Silliman,  Oct  3, 1862 ;  Aug.  20, 1862;  promoted  to  colonel  26th 
TJ.  S.  C.  T.  Feb.  1, 1864. 

James  Finnegan,  Feb.  9, 1864;  Feb.  1, 1864 ;  died  of  wounds  Oct.  28, 1864. 

James  A.  Giier,  Nov.  15, 1864 ;  Oct  27, 1 8G4 ;  not  mustered. 

Jamee  W.  Benedict,  Sept  10, 1862;  Aug.  16,1862;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  June  3, 1863. 

John  C.  Wood,  Feb.  18, 1865 ;  Jan.  1, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
June  3, 1865. 

WilUam  A.  HcBuraey,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  19, 1862 ;  resigned  March  9, 

Daniel  Sayer,  Dec.  17, 1863 ;  March  6, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
June  3, 1865. 

Isaac  Niooll,Sept.  lU,  1862;  Aug.  20, 1862;  killed  in  action  at  Gettysburg, 
Pa.,  July  2, 1863. 

James  0.  Denniston,  Aug.  20, 1863 ;  July  2, 1862 ;  not  mustered. 

Henry  P.  Ramsdell,  Dec.  12, 1863 ;  Oct.  7, 1863 ;  not  mustered. 

Thomas  J.  Quick,  Deo.  17, 1863 ;  Dec.  10, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3, 1865.  ^ 

Ira  S.  Bush,  Sept.  10,  1862  ;  Aug.  20, 1862  ;  resigned  June  21,  1864.    ' 

John  W.  Houston,  July  16, 1864  :  June  21, 1864;  not  mustered. 

Edward  J.  Cormick,  Nov.  15, 1864  ;  Aug.  10, 1864 ;  killed  in  action  near 
Petersburg,  Va.,  April  1, 1865. 

Lander  Clark,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  20,  1862 ;  resigned  May  13, 1863. 

Henry  F.  Travis,  Aug.  20, 1863  ;  April  21, 1863 ;  must  out  with  regiment 
Junes,  18G5. 

William  A.  Jackson,  Sept.  10, 1862  ;  Aug.  23, 1862 ;  killed  in  action  near 
Petersburg,  Va.,  June  18, 1864. 

Lewis  M.  Wiener,  July  15, 1864 ;  July  14, 1864 ;  not  mustered  as  captain. 

Thomas  Bradley,  Nov.  15, 1864 ;  Aug.  2, 1864  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3, 1865. 

David  Crist,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  23, 1862  ;  killed  in  action  May  30, 1864. 

Theodore  M.  Boberson,  Feb.  18, 1865  ;  Jan.  1, 1865;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  June  3, 1865. 

FirH  Lieutenants. 

Charles  B.  Wood,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  12, 1862 ;  promoted  to  captain  Oct 
10,  1863. 

Charles  T.  Cressy,  April  19, 1864;  Hay  1,  1864;  not  mustered. 

Thomas  Taft,  Aug.  2, 1864  ;  July  20, 1864 ;  promoted  to  captain  Nov.  16, 

David  n.  Quick,  Feb.  18, 1866;  Jan.  1,1865;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
meut  June  3, 1865. 

Wines  E.  Weygant,  Sept  10, 1862  ;  Aug.  14, 1862 ;  resigned  Fob.  8, 1863. 

William  E.  Mapes,  Feb.  27, 1863;  Fob.  8,  1863;  promoted  to  captain  Feb. 
27, 1863. 

Edward  J.  Cormick,  March  23,  1864;  March  17,  1864;  promoted  to  cap- 
tain Nov.  15, 1864. 

Abrani  P.  Francisco,  Feb.  18, 1865  ;  Jan.  1, 1865  :  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3, 1865. 

William  Brownson,  Sept.  10, 1862;  Aug.  15,  1862;  promoted  to  adjutant 
Feb.  20,  1863. 

Henry  P.  Ramsdell,  Feb.  20, 1863;  Dec.  31, 1862;  discharged  Dec.  13, 

Daniel  Sayer,  Sept.  10,  1862 ;  Aug.  16,  1862  ;  promoted  to  captain  Deo. 
17,,  1863. 

John  W.Houston,  Dec.  17,  1863;  March  6,  1863;  discharged  Dec.  13, 

Ebenezer  Holbert,  July  15, 1864 ;  June  21, 1864  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3, 1865. 

Wm.  A.  Verplanck,  Sept.  10,  1862;  Aug.  10,  1862;  discharged  Sept.  23, 

Theodore  M.  Boberson,  Dec.  17,1863 ;  Sept.  25, 1863 ;  promoted  to  captain 
Feb.  IS,  1865. 

Woodward  T.  Ogden,  Feb.  18, 1865 ;  Jan.  1, 1865 ;  not  mustered. 

James  0.  Denniston,  Sept  10, 1862;  Aug.  20,1862;  discharged  Oct  17, 

William  H.  Benjamin,  Feb.  18,  1865;  Jan.  1,  1865;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  June  3, 186.^. 

Thouiaa  J.  Quick,  Sept.  10,  18li2;  Aug.  20,  1862;  promoted  to  captain 
Dec.  17, 1863. 

James  A.  Grier,  Dec  2t,  1803;  Dec.  10, 1863 ;  not  mustered. 

John  B.Staubrough,  Sept.  10, 1862;  Aug.  20,  1862;  resigned  Nov.  12, 

Isaac  M.  Martin,  Dec.  311, 1862;  Nov.  12,  1862;  dismissed  May  15, 1863. 

Wm.  B.  Van  Houten,  Aug.  20, 1803  ;  May  15,  1863;  promoted  to  adju- 
tant Oct  10,  1863. 

Charles  Stuart,  Oct.  10, 1863  ;  Sept.  17,  1863  ;  discharged  May  15, 1865. 

James  H.  Rrmsa,  Sept  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  23,  1862  ;  resigned  March  7, 1863. 

James  Finnegan,  May  26,  1863;  March   7,  1863;  promoted  to  captain 
Feb.  9, 1864. 

Lewis  M.  Wiener,  Feb.  23, 1864;  Feb,  1,  1864;  discharged  Aug.  5, 1864. 

John  C.  Wood,  Nov.  15, 1864;  Aug.  1, 1864;  promoted  to  captain  Feb.  18, 

Thomas  Hart  Feb.  18, 1865;  Jan.  1,  1865  ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
June  3,1865. 

Henry  Gowdy,  Sept  10,  1862;  Aug.  22,  1863;  died  May  11,  1863,  of 

Jolin  E.  Hayes,  Dec.  17, 1863 ;  May  10, 1863 ;  not  mustered. 

Thomas  Bradley,  Sept  27,  1864;  Aug.  1,  1864;  promoted  to  captain 
Nov.  16,  1864. 

John  S.King,  Dec.  17,1864;  Sept.  15, 1864;  muslered  out  with  regiment 
June  3,  1865. 

Second  Lieutenants. 

Charles  T.  Cressy,  Sept.  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  12,1862;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Apiil  19,  1864. 

Jonathan  Birdsall,   Aug.  2,  1864;  July  20,1804;  killed  in  action  near 
Petersburg,  Va.,  Oct.  22, 1864. 

Gabriel  Tutliill,  Feb.  27, 1863  ;  Feb.  8, 1863;  discharged  Feb.  23, 1864. 

Henry  P  llanisdell,  Sept.  10, 1862;  Aug.  15, 1862;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Fell.  27,  1863. 

James  A.  Grier,  Feb.  20, 1863  ;  Dec.  31, 1862;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Dec.  24, 1863. 

Thomas  Hart  Nov.  15, 1864;  July2l,  1864;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant 
Feb.  18,  1865. 

.John  W.  Houston,  Sept.  TO,  1862;  Aug.  16,  1862;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Dec.  17, 1803. 

Ebenezer  Holbert  April  2,  1864;  July  20, 1864;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Jnly  15, 1864. 

Thomas  G.  Mabie,  Nov.  15, 1 864 ;  Jnly  26, 1864 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment June  3, 186"). 

Adolphus  Wittenbeecher,  Sept.  10, 1862 ;  Aug.  19, 1862;  dismissed  March 
19,  1863. 

Theodore  M.  Rolieraon,  May  26, 1863  ;  March  6, 1863 ;  promoted  to  first 
lieutenant  Dec.  17,  1863. 

Woodward  T.  Ogdeii,  Nov.  15, 1864;  July  21,  1864  ;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  June  3,  1865. 

Sylvester  hawson.  March  14,  1865;  March  3,  1865;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  June  3, 1865. 

Davidlilbbs,  Sept.  Ill,  1802;  Aug.  20, 1862  ;  resigned  Feb.  26, 1863. 

Wm.  H.  Benjamin,  May  26, 18ii3  ;  Feb.  25, 1863 ;  promoted  tu  first  lieu- 
tenant Fell.  18,  1865. 

Joshua  V.  Cole,  Feb.  18, 1865 ;  Jan.  1, 1865 ;  not  mustered. 

SamnelW.  Hotchkls8,Sept.  10, 1862;  .\ug.20, 1862;  resigned  April  2, 1864. 

David  U.  Quick.  Nov.  15,  18114;  .Inly  21, 1864;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Fob.  18,  1865. 

Lewis  T.  Slinltz,  Feb.  IS,  1865;  Jan.  1, 1805;  mustered  out  with  regiment  . 
June  3,  1:165 

Isaac  M.  Martin.  Sept.  10, 1802  ;  Aug.  20, 1862 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Dec.  20, 1H62. 

Milnor  Brawn,  Deo.  30.  1862 ;  Dec.  30,  1862  ;  killed  in  action  at  Gettys. 
burg.  Pa.,  .Inly  2, 186:i. 

Charles  Stuart,  \«g.  20,1803;  July  2, 1863;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant 
Oct.lO,  181.3. 

William  W.  Smith,  April  19, 1864;  Sept  17,  1863;  not  mustered. 

James  Finiieiran,  10,  1862;  Aug.  2.3,  1862;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant May26, 18II3. 

Jacob  Dentiin,  May  26, 1863;  March  7, 1863;  not  mustered;  killed  in  ac, 
tion  May  3,  1863. 

Lewis  M.  Wisner,  Aug.  20, 1863  ;  May  3, 1863 ;  promoted  to  first  lieuten- 
ant Feb.  23,  1864. 

John  R.  Hayes,  Sept.  10,1862;  Aug.  22,  1862  ;  discharged  April  8, 1864. 



Col.  William  Silliman  was  born  at  Canterbury, 
Orange  Co.,  on  Oct.  18,  1837,  and  was  the  only  child 
of  Rev.  Jonathan  Silliman,  for  nearly  thirty  years 
pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Canterbury. 
His  childhood  was  mostly  passed  in  the  society  of  his 
parents,  his  weak  physical  constitution  precluding 
his  attendance  upon  the  schools  of  his  day  for  any 
length  of  time.  His  early  education  was  received  at 
home.  He  acquired  knowledge  with  great  facility, 
and  his  memory  was  so  tenacious  that  what  he  once 
learned  he  seemed  never  to  forget.  His  mind  was 
inquisitive,  active,  and  discriminating,  and  he  was  in- 
terested in  almost  every  branch  of  art  and  science. 

When  he  was  about  fourteen  years  of  age  his  father 
purchased  a  farm  in  the  neighborhood  with  a  view  of 

educating  his  son  as  an  agriculturist,  and  two  years 
later  the  family  took  up  a  residence  upon  the  farm. 
After  some  time  spent  in  agricultural  pursuits  Mr. 
Silliman  formed  a  desire  to  study  engineering,  and 
he  spent  two  winters  in  the  pursuit  of  that  branch  of 
science  at  the  school  of  Rev.  A.  C.  Roe,  in  Cornwall. 
He  afterwards  spent  a  term  in  the  normal  school  at 
Montrose,  Pa.,  and  later  engaged  in  school-teaching 
for  a  time.  Having  finally  determined  to  make  the 
practice  of  law  his  life-work,  he  entered  the  Yale  Law 
School  at  New  Haven,  Conn.,  in  the  fall  of  1858,  and 
spent  one  year  at  that  institution.  The  following 
year  he  entered  the  Albany  Law  School,  with  a  view 
of  admission  to  the  bar  in  New  York  State,  and  con- 
tinued a  regular  and  diligent  scholar  until  his  gradu- 
a,tion  in  1860.    He  subsequently  located  at  Newburgh, 

where  he  acquired  considerable  reputation  for  hii 
knowledge  of  the  principles  of  the  law,  and  for  hi 
skill  in  managing  his  causes. 

It  was  at  this  time  that  the  civil  war  of  1861  broke 
upon  the  country  and  stirred  to  the  bottom  the  pa- 
triotism of  the  young  blood  of  the  North.  An  ardent 
Republican,  feeling  a  warm  interest  in  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  institutions  of  his  country,  and  a  devotion 
to  the  cause  of  liberty,  the  first  gun  that  opened  upon 
the  walls  of  Sumter  seemed  to  arouse  all  the  latent 
fire  of  patriotism  that  burned  in  the  bosom  of  young 
Silliman,  and  made  him  eager  to  enter  the  ranks  of 
the  Union  army  to  battle  for  his  country's  rights.  The 
battle  at  Bull  Run  made  him  still  more  restless,  and 
he  soon  after  participated  with  others  in  raising  a 
company  for  service  under  Col.  Morrison  in  the  Sec- 
ond New  York  Cavalry.  The  work  of  recruiting  #gr 
commenced  Sept.  15, 1861,  and  on  October  9th,  Mr.  Sil- 
liman went  into  camp  with  the  rank  of  second  lieu- 
tenant. The  captain  of  the  company,  James  Crom- 
well, a  friend  of  his  boyhood  days,  being  taken  ill, 
the  labor  of  drilling  fell  upon  Lieut.  Silliman,  He 
was  very  prompt  and  active  in  the  performance  of 
his.  duty,  and  on  Oct.  31, 1861 ,  received  a  commigsion 
as  first  lieutenant  of  the  company.  Soon  after  the 
regiment  entered  the  field,  but  after  lying  in  camp  foi 
several  months  at  Washington,  was  disbanded,  owing 
to  the  reduction  of  the  cavalry  force,  and  the  offioera 
returned  home.  Lieut.  Silliman  resumed  the  practice 
of  law,  this  time  in  his  native  village.  He  continuel 
his  business  until  the  President's  call  for  three  hun- 
dred thousand  volunteers,  in  July,  1862,  when  he  ac- 
cepted the  adjutancy  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twenty- 
fourth  New  York  Volunteers,  then  being  recruited  by 
Col.  A.  Van  Home-  Ellis  in  Orange  County.  Capt 
Cromwell,  of  Company  C,  having  been  promoted  to 
be  major  of  the  regiment  soon  after,  Adjt.  Silliman 
was  made  captain  of  that  compapy,  but  continued 
to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  adjutancy  until  the 
regiment  left  for  Washington,  on  Sept.  6,  1862. 

It  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  paper  to  detail  all  the 
movements  of  the  regiment  to  which  Capt.  Silliman 
belonged,  nor  how  at  Fredericksburg,  ChancelloB- 
ville,  Beverly's  Ford,  Gettysburg,  and  on  other  bloody 
fields  its  members  distinguished  themselves  for  bravery 
and  personal  courage.  In  all  the  engagements  in  which 
Capt.  Silliman  participated  he  manifested  the  courage 
of  a  brave  and  efiScient  soldier,  and  frequently  elicited 
the  warmest  commendations  of  his  superior  oflScete, 
Of  his  conduct  at  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville  Wey^' 
gant's  "  History  of  the  New  York  State  Volunteers" 
says,  "  Capt.  Silliman,  conspicuous  for  his  height,  dis- 
played great  gallantry ;  waving  his  sword  above  his 
head  he  ever  encouraged  his  men,  and  kept  his  eye  on 
the  colors,  of  which  he  had  charge,  his  being  the  color 
company."  Farther  on,  the  same  authority  adds,  "r 
braver  officer  than  he  showed  himself  to  be  on  the 
battle-fields  of  Chancellorsville  and  Gettysburg  h»« 
seldom  drawn  a  sword."    At  the  battle  of  Gettysburg 



Capt.  Silliman  commanded  his  regiment,  the  colonel 
and  major  having  been  killed,  and  the  lieutenant-col- 
onel wounded.  He  manifested  great  coolness  and 
courage,  and  assisted  by  his  lieutenant,  James  Grier, 
virtually  saved  the  fortunes  of  the  day. 

Ou  July  22,  1863,  Capt.  Silliman  was  detailed  to 
'proceed  North  for  the  drafted  men  who  should  be  as- 
signed to  his  regiment,  and  was  stationed  on  Hiker's 
'Island,  near  New  York  City.  He  was  subsequently 
'detained  by  the  post-commandant,  because  of  his  use- 
'  fulness  in  organizing  the  new  material  for  the  army, 
and  first  drilled  some  of  the  white  conscripts,  and 
'when  the  Union  League  of  New  York  City  began  to 
"send  their  colored  recruits  to  Riter's  Island,'  he  asked 
'and  obtained  permission  to  drill  them.  He  continued 
'in  this  occupation  until  the  middle  of  January,  1864, 
;when  he  was  ordered  back  to  his  regiment.  He  re- 
^mained  with  the  regiment  until  February  5th  foUow- 
«ing,  when  he  received  a  commission  as  colonel  of  the 
'Twenty-sixth  United  States  Colored  Troops,  having 
ipreviously  passed  a  creditable  examination  before  the 
■examining  board  at  Washington.  He  at  once  repaired 
ito  New  York  and  spent  several  weeks  in  drilling  his 
iregiment.  On  March  18,  1864,  he  was  married  to 
iMary  L.,  daughter  of  Hugh  F.  Randolph,  of  Bloom- 
ifield,  N.  J.,  and  a  short  time  later  went  into  camp, 
(first  at  Annapolis,  Md.,  and  finally  near  Beaufort, 
iS.  C.  The  regiment  subsequently  engaged  in  the 
(campaigns  near  Hilton  Head,  and  in  one  engage- 
iment,  while  at  the  head  of  his  regiment.  Col.  Silli- 
^man  was  stricken  down  by  sun-stroke  and  carried 
(from  the  field.  He  obtained  a  short  furlough  soon 
(lafter  and  made  a  visit  to  his  home,  returning  to  his 
■command  on  Aug.  18,  1864.  He  participated  in  the 
.further  movements  of  the  army  in  South  Carolina,  a 
ipart  of  the  time  in  command  at  Beaufort,  and  ever 
."performing  the  part  of  a  gallant  and  true  soldier, 
(Until  Dec.  9,  1864,  when  he  received  a  severe  wound 
(in  the  thigh  while  commanding  the  attacking  brigade 
(dispatched  to  cut  the  Charleston  and  Savannah  Rail- 
jToad  near  Pocotaligo.  He  was  carried  to  the  rear, 
^his  leg  amputated,  and  was  finally  removed  to  Beau- 
jfort,  where  he  soon  after  died  fi-om  the  efiects  of  his 
,wound.  His  young  wife  was  near  him  to  the  last, 
,|and  as  the  strong  soldier  bade  adieu  to  life  a  smile  of 
jtriumph  illumined  his  face,  and  he  passed  quietly 
^way  to  join  the  shadowy  army  of  heroes  who  had  pre- 
ceded him  to  the  peaceful  realms  of  the  far  beyond. 
,  It  is  the  record  of  this  young  soldier  that  he  per- 
formed his  duty ;  his  glory  belongs  to  the  Republic,  in 
whose  service  he  died  and  in  whose  story  he  must 
ever  live.  His  death  caused  great  grief  in  his  regi- 
ment, so  highly  did  his  men  appreciate  all  that  he 
had  done  in  their  behalf.  His  remains  were  accorded 
military  honors  in  the  field,  and  were  finally  brought 
North  and,  in  accordance  with  the  wishes  of  his 
widow,  interred  at  Bloomfield,  N.  J.,  where  a  simple 
white  monument  marks  the  last  resting-place  of  a 
mother's  gift  to  her  country.    His  aged  and  afliicted 

'  parents  still  live  to  mourn  the  loss  of  an  only  child, 
the  hoped-for  comfort  of  their  declining  years,  and  a 
faithful  wife  still  mourns  in  solitude  the  loss  of  a 
kind  and  dear  husband. 

The  following  extracts  are  made  from  a  letter  written 
to  his  widow  on  March  14,  1865,  by  Brevet  Maj.-Gen. 
Rufus  Saxton,  under  whom  he  served  at  the  time  of 
his  death : 

"  During  nearly  the  whole  of  his  service  in  this 
department  as  colonel  of  the  Twenty-sixth  United 
States  Colored  Troops  he  served  with  me  and  Under 
my  command.  I  loved  him  very  dearly  as  a  friend, 
companion,  and  counselor,  honored  him  as  a  brave, 
skillful,  and  accomplished  soldier,  and  sorrowed 
deeply  for  his  loss.  He  was  one  of  those  gifted  men 
who  are  equal  to  any  position  they  may  be  called  to 
fill.  He  was  one  of  the  most  efficient  colonels  I  have 
ever  known  in  service,  as  the  bearing  and  deeds  of  his 
splendid  regiment  have  ever  borne  evidence.  His  acts 
bear  witness  to  his  faith  in  God  and  humanity,  and 
that  black  muster-roll  which  he  headed  in  her  cause 
shall  be  to  him  a  crown  of  glory.  I  have  seen  him 
in  battle  when  the  danger  was  most  imminent,  and 
he  ever  seemed  as  collected  as  if  upon  ordinary  duty. 
He  fell  at  his  post  in  action,  with  his  face  to  the  foe, 
bravely  battling  for  the  freedom  and  country  that  he 
loved,  and  soon  another  hero  had  gone.  Of  all  that 
long  muster-roll  of  heroes  whose  lives  this  war  has 
cost  the  nation,  there  was  no  braver,  truer,  or  more 
worthy  one  than  Col.  William  Silliman.  A  grateful 
country  should  cherish  his  memory,  for  he  served  her 
faithfully  and  honorably,  and  at  last  gave  up  his  noble 
life  to  her  cause." 


Company  I,  Seventy-first  Regiment,  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y., 
was  recruited  in  Newburgh,  principally  from  Company 
L,  Nineteenth  Regiment,  N.  G.  S.  N.  Y.,  between  the 
20th  and  31st  of  May,  1861,  by  Capt.  A.  V.  H.  Ellis. 
There  was,  of  course,  the  usual  red-tape  connected 
with  the  organization.  Col.  Brown,  of  the  Nineteenth, 
readily  gave  his  consent,  but  Go  vernor  Morgan  refused 
to  permit  to  leave  the  State.  Capt.  Ellis 
thereupon  took  the  company  on  his  own  responsibility 
to  New  York.  Col.  Vosburgh,  of  the  Seventy-first, 
with  whom  Capt.  Ellis  had  made  his  arrangements, 
having  died,  it  was  for  some  days  a  matter  of  doubt 
whether  the  company  would  be  accepted.  The  com- 
pany was  furnished  transportation  to  Washington, 
however,  and  after  its  arrival,  through  the  efforts  of 
Secretary  Seward,  it  was  accepted,  and  mustered  in 
the  service  for  three  months.  After  being  stationed 
at  the  navy-yard  at  Washington  until  June  28th,  it 
was  sent  with  Company  F,  of  same  regiment,  to 
Chapel  Point  and  Port  Tobacco,  but  returned  without 
encountering  the  enemy.  The  company  had  in  the 
mean  time  been  furnished  with  U.  S.  rifles.  Harper's 
Ferry,  1850,  pattern.  Left  navy-yard  July  16th,  ar- 
rived in  Washington,  and  was  brigaded  with  the  First 



and  Second  Ehode  Island  Infantry,  Second  Ehode 
Island  Battery,  and  Second  New  Hampshire  Infantry, 
under  Col.  Burnside.  The  company  was  placed  in 
charge  of  two  twelve-pound  boat  howitzers,  July  4th. 
To  these  guns' prolongs  were  attached,  and  they  were 
drawn  all  the  way  by  hand  (twenty  men  to  each)  to 
Bull  Run  battle-field,  and  eight  miles  on  the  return 
march.  Crossed  Long  Bridge  July  16th,  and  reached 
Ball's  Cross-Eoads ;  on  the  17th  reached  Fairfax  Court- 
House;  18th,  reached  Centreville ;  arrived  on  Bull 
Eun  battle-field  at  11  a.m.  on  the  21st,  and  entered 
action  supported  by  Second  Ehode  Island  Battery  and 
Seventy-first  Infantry;  fired  232 .shots  (shrapnel  and 
canister) ;  drew  out  of  the  conflict  on  order  at  3  p.m. 
with  the  loss  of  one  man  killed,  private  Samuel  0. 
Bond ;  two  wounded,  James  C.  Taggart  and  John  W. 
E.  Mould,  the  latter  taken  prisoner.  At  5  p.m.  ordered 
to  leave  the  field;  reached  Centreville  at  10  p.m.,  and 
marched  thence  for  Washington.  Left  Washington 
for  New  York  July  24th,  with  rifles ;  arrived  at  New- 
burgh  27th,  and  mustered  out  on  the  30th.  The  offi- 
cers of  the  company  on  this  service  were : 

A.  Van  Home  Ellis,  captain ;  George  W.  Hawkins, 
second  lieutenant;  Wm.  H.  Garrison,  second  sergeant; 
John  McMeekin,  third  sergeant ;  James  D.  Hamilton, 
fourth  sergeant ;  Charles  Decker,  first  corporal ;  Mar- 
shal M.  Van  Zile,  second  corporal ;  Henry  F.  Travis, 
third  sergeant;  Thomas  Eiley,  fourth  sergeant. 

May  28, 1862,  the  company  was  again  recruited,  only 
seven  hours  being  required  for  the  purpose.  Its  period 
of  service  was  again  three  months,  spent  on  guard  duty 
in  and  around  Washington.     The  officers  were : 

A.  Van  Home  Ellis,  captain;  Wm.  H.  Garrison, 
first  lieutenant ;  James  C.  Taggart,  second  lieutenant ; 
John  W.  Forsyth,  first  sergeant;  Henry  F.  Travis, 
second  sergeant;  John  McMeekin,  third  sergeant; 
Jas.  B.  Montgomery,  fourth  sergeant;  Thos.  Eiley, 
fifth  sergeant;  Eobert  Acheson,  David  M.  DeWitt, 
Win.  M.  Verplanck,  Edward  J.  Hall,  corporals. 

Capt.  Ellis  resigned,  and  came  home  to  organize  a 
regiment  in  1862,  when  Garrison  was  promoted  cap- 
tain ;  Taggart,  first  lieutenant ;  Acheson,  second  lieu- 
tenant, and  Edwin  J.  Marsh,  corporal. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  features  in  the  history 
of  the  company  was  the  large  number  of  officers  and 
privates  who  went  from  it  to  more  extended  terms  of 
service.  Capt.  Ellis  became  colonel  of  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth;  Travis,  captain  One  Hundred 
and  Twenty-fourth;  Eichard  M.  and  Frank  Hines, 
captains  in  Fifty -sixth  ;  Chas.  B.  Wood,  captain  One 
Hundred  and  Twenty- fourth ;  James  A.  Grier,  lieu- 
tenant One  Hundred  and  Twenty- fourth ;  B.  F.  Cham- 
berlain, major  First  Virginia  Cavalry ;  Van  Zile,  cap- 
tain One  Hundred  and  Sixty-eighth  ;  Geo.  C.  Morton, 
captain  Ira  Harris  Cavalry.  But  the  list  is  too  long 
for  further  repetition.  The  enthusiasm  of  its  mem- 
bers continued  from  May,  1861,  to  the  close  of  the 
war,  quenched  only  in  many  by  an  honored  death  on 
the  field  of  battle. 


On  the  26th  May,  1862,  Col.  William  E.  Brown, 
commanding  the  Nineteenth  Eegiment  Militia,  te. 
ceived  orders  to  march  with  his  regiment  to  Washing- 
ton, D.  C.  Many  of  the  members  having  previoni^ 
enlisted  in  volunteer  regiments,  it  was  found  neceniii 
to  recruit  the  ranks  of  the  regiment,,  which  was  done, 
and  the  regiment  left  Newburgh  for  the  seat  of  wb 
on  the  4th  of  June,  by  way  of  Jersey  City,  Philadel- 
phia, and  Baltimore.  On  its  arrival  in  Baltimote 
(June  6th)  the  regiment  was  ordered  to  Mount  Claw. 
The  next  day  orders  were  received  to  proceed  to  Stu- 
art's Hill,  and  to  establish  a  camp  at  that  place  on 
the  grounds  previously  occupied  by  the  Seventh  N, 
G.  S.  N.  Y.  The  regiment  remained  here  until  the 
2d  of  July,  when  orders  were  received  from  Maj.-Gea. 
Wool  for  two  companies  to  proceed  to  Fort  McHeniy, 
and  the  remainder  to  go  to  Fort  Marshall.  On  the 
14th  of  July  four  companies  were  ordered  from  Fort 
Marshall  to  Fort  Delaware,  where  they  remained 
until  the  10th  of  August,  when  they  returned  to  Fort 
Marshall.  Orders  were  then  received  for  the  compi- 
nies  at  Fort  Marshall  to  proceed  to  Havre  de  Grace, 
Md.,  for  the  purpose  of  guarding  the  railroad  from 
that  place  to  Baltimore.  On  the  28th  of  Augusttie 
companies  at  Fort  McHenry  were  ordered  to  report  to 
Col.  Brown,  when  the  whole  regiment  proceeded  Id 
Newburgh,  where  it  arrived  on  the  30th  of  Augmii 
and  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  of  the  United 
States  on  the  6th  of  September.    The  officers  were: 

Field  and  Staff. — William  E.  Brown,  colonel ;  Jama 
Low,  lieutenant-colonel ;  David  Jagger,  major ;  George 
Waller,  quartermaster ;  Wm.  M.  Hathaway,  adjutant 

While  in  the  field  the  officers  of  the  regimentlealg|| 
that  the  quota  of  the  county  under  the  July  call  hid 
not  been  filled,  and  that  nine  months'  men  would  be 
accepted.  On  the  14th  of  August  Col.  Brown  left 
Havre  de  Grace  and  proceeded  to  Albany,  and  there 
tendered  to  Governor  Morgan  the  services  of  the  regi- 
ment for  nine  months.  It  was  not  accepted.  On  the 
arrival  of  the  regiment  at  Newburgh  (August  30th) 
the  tender  was  renewed  and  again  refused.  On  the 
17th  of  September  Col.  Brown  made  a  third  tender, 
which  was  formally  accepted  on  the  18th.  In  the 
mean  time  Governor  Morgan  gave  an  acceptance  and 
an  authorization  to  Isaac  Wood,  Jr.,  of  Newburgh,  to 
raise  a  regiment — to  be  known  as  the  One  Hundred 
and  Sixty-sixth — for  three  years'  service.  ThuaW- 
thorizations  were  given  for  the  raising  of  two  regimenli 
in  the  same  district,^-one  under  Col.  Wood  for  thw 
years,  and  one  under  Col.  Brown  for  nine  months.  Qp^ 
Wood  and  his  friends  thinking  that  he  could;>fl|| 
with  better  success  if  the  term  of  his  regiment  *■ 
reduced  to  nine  months,  made  application  to  theQJS 
ernor  and  received  an  order  to  that  effect,  whichrf» 
further  complicated  the  situation  and  made  the  rivsl'J 



more  complete.  It  soon  became  evident  that  both 
could  not  succeed,  and  Col.  Wood,  after  recruiting  two 
hundred  and  seventy-two  men,  abandoned  the  field, 
and  his  volunteers  were  consolidated  with  the  "  Iron- 
sides," or  One  Hundred  and  Seventy-sixth  Regiment, 
and  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  at 
New  York  City,  Nov.  20,  1862. 

Recruiting  for  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-eighth 
began  Sept.  18,  1862,  and  ended  Feb.  11,  1863.    In 
December,  1862,  it  barely  escaped  consolidation  with 
some  other  regiment,  and  but  for  a  change  in  the 
State  administration  would  never  iave  taken  the  field. 
The  regiment  left  Camp  Sprague,  at  Newburgh,  Feb. 
2,  1863,  with  seven  hundred  and  fifty  men,  and  left 
|Park  Barracks,  New  York,  Feb.  13,  1863,  with  eight 
hundred  and  thirty-five  men.    It  reached  Yorktown, 
Va.,  February  18th,  where  it  was  assigned  to  the 
Fourth  Army  Corps,  M'aj.-Gen.  Keyes ;  Gen.  Richard 
Busteed's   brigade;    Second    Division,  Gen.    Rufus 
King.     It  remained  at  Yorktown  on  garrison  and 
provost  duty  during  nearly  the  full  term  of  its  ser- 
vice.   In  June  one  hundred  and  forty  men  under 
'Capt.   Daniel  Torbush,   in    company   with    detach- 
ments from  other  regiments,  proceeded  on  a  gun- 
'boat  up  the  York  River  to  West  Point,  and  from 
thence  to  the  Mattapony  River,  and  landed  at  Walker- 
'town,  where  the  detachment  from  the  One  Hundred 
"and  Sixty-eighth  was  ordered  to  a  position  on  the 
Richmond  road  and  ordered  to  hold  it  under  any 
circumstances,  while  the  remainder  of  the  force  went 
in  another  direction.     As   anticipated,  the   detach- 
ment was  attacked  by  a  company  of  cavalry  and 
infantry,  who  were  repulsed  with  a  loss  of  fourteen 
killed.     The  detachment  lost  one  killed  (William 
S.  Avery,  of  Co.  A),  five  wounded,  and  two  taken 
prisoners.   The  other  portion  of  the  expedition  did  not 
meet  the  enemy,  but  having  accomplished  the  object 
in  view,  the  whole  party  returned  to  Yorktown. 

On  the  26th  September  as  part  of  the  Second  Bri- 
gade, Second  Division,  Eleventh  Army  Corps,  the 
regiment  was  placed  en  route  for  Chattanooga ;  reached 
Bridgeport,  Ala.,  where  it  remained  on  picket  and 
guard  duty  until  October  14th,  when  it  left  Bridge- 
port en  route  for  Newburgh,  where  it  arrived  on  the 
i20th,  and  was  mustered  out  on  the  31st.  The  casual- 
ties of  the  regiment  were  as  follows  : 

1           Killed  in  battle 1 

Died  of  eickneea 18 

DiBcharged  for  diaability 16 

"         by  oivil  authority 2 

"         "    courtrmartial 1 

I          £«signed 1 

Taken  prisonerB 13 

I           Deeerters 184 

,           Mustered  out 600 

Total 835 

The  large  number  of  deserters  was  accounted  for  by 
(the  fact  that  many  claimed  that  their  period  of  enlist- 
(ment  had  expired.  Many  of  the  men  were  in  camp 
(and  field  duties  nearly  or  quite  one  year,  and  some 
for  a  longer  time. 

,    Following  ia  the  roll  of  commissioned  officers,  from 

the  adjutant-general's  report  of  1868,  the  date  of  com- 
mission being  first  given,  followed  by  the  date  of  rank : 

Wm.  R.  Brown,  March  17, 1863  ;  Feb.  11,  1863 ;  mnatered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

James  Low,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  26, 1862;  resigned  Aug.  27, 1863. 
James  G.  Beunison,  Nov.  3, 1863  ;  Aug.  27,  1863  ;  not  must,  as  lieut.<coI. 

George  Waller,  Feb.  2, 1863  ;  Jan.  12, 1S63 ;  dismissed  June  9,  1863. 
James  C.  Bennison,  Nov.  3, 1863  ;  June  9, 1863 ;  not  mustered  as  mi^or. 
Daniel  TorbuBh,  Kot.  3, 1863 ;  Aug.  27, 1863  ;  not  mustered  as  mtgor. 

Wm.  M.  Hathway,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Sept.  29, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 


Jas.  H.  ADderson,  July  1, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment  Oct.  31, 1863. 
George  G.  Spencer,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Sept.  27, 1862 ;  mustered  out  at  expi- 
ration of  term  of  service  July  1, 1863. 

Jacob  M.  Leigbton,  mustered  out  with  regimeut  Oct.  31, 1863. 

Atsietxmt  Surgeon. 
Edward  B.  Root,  April  30, 1863 ;  April  17, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 


R.  Howard  Wallace,  March  17, 1863 ;  Feb.  11,  1863 ;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  Oct.  31, 1863. 


William  H.  Terwilliger,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  9, 1863  j  mustered  out  with 
regiment  Oct.  31, 1863. 

Daniel  Torbush,  Feb.  2, 1863;  Dec.  2, 1862;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31,1863. 

James  H.  Anderson,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  20, 1863  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

Isaac  Jenkinson,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  20, 1863  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

Bennett  Gilbert,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  14, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

George  McClcary,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Dec.  22, 1862  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
■  ment  Oct.  31, 1863. 

Samuel  Hunter,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  12, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31, 1863. 

John  D.  Wood,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  21, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31, 1863  (brevet  major  N.Y.V.). 

James  0.  Rennison,  Feb,  2, 1863;  Not.  26,1862;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

Myron  A.  Tappan,  April  27, 1863  ;  Feb.  11, 1863 ;  resigned  June  3, 1863. 

Marshal  Van  Zile,  Sept.  14, 1863 ;  July  1, 1863;  must,  out  with  regiment 

Oct.  31, 1863. 

First  Lieut£nante. 

Nathan  Hubbard,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  9, 1863;  mustered  out  with  regiment 

Oct.  31,  1863.  . 
Oliver  Taylor,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Oct.  25, 1862  ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31, 1863. 
I  Jacob  K.  R.  Oakley,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  25, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  reg- 
I  iment  Oct.  31, 1863. 

I   Archibald  Ferguson,  Feb.  2,  1863 ;  Nov.  25,  1862 ;  mustered  out  with 

regiment  Oct.  31,  1863. 
I   James  H.  Searles,  Feb.  2, 1863;  NoV.  14, 1862;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct  31, 1863. 
Lawrence  Brennan,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  3, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 
James  T.  Chase,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  12, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 

Oct.  31, 1863. 
DeWitt  C.  Wilkin,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  21, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 
Wm.  D.  Dickey,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  26,  1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
I  ment  Oct.  31,  1863. 

;    Marshal  Van  Tile,  April  27,1863;  Feb.  11, 1863;  promoted  to  captain 
I  Sept.  14, 1863.  ' 

I   George  B.  Brainsted,  Sept.  14, 1863 ;  July  1,  1863 ;  mustered  out  with 
I  regiment  Oct.  31, 1863. 



Second  Lieutenants. 

Thomas  P.  Terwilligor,  Feb.  2, 1863;  Jan.  9, 1863;  must  out  with  ragl- 
meiitOct31, 1863. 

Isaac  N.  Morehouse,  Feb.  2,1863 ;  Nov.  17, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

James  H.  Anderson,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  20,  1863;  promoted  to  quarter- 
master July  1,1863. 

George  C.  Marvin,  Feb.  2, 1863;  Jan.  20, 1863;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

Andrew  J.  Gilbert,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  14, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Got.  31, 1863. 

Samuel  C.  Wilson,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  20, 1862 ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

Peter  Terwilliger,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Jan.  12,  1863  ;  mustered  out  with  regi- 
ment Oct.  31, 1863. 

George  W.  Hennion,  Feb.  2, 1863 :  Jan.  21, 1863;  died  Sept.  21,  1863,  at 
Manassas  Junction,  Ya. 

Daniel  Low,  Jr.,  Feb.  2, 1863 ;  Nov.  26, 1862;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31, 1863. 

George  K.  Brainsted,  April  27, 1863 ;  Feb.  11, 1863  ;  promoted  to  first  lieu- 
tenant Sept.  14, 1863. 

Bartley  Brown,  Sept.  14, 1863 ;  July  1, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment 
Oct.  31, 1863. 

Lester  Genang, ;  July  1, 1863 ;  mustered  out  with  regiment  Oct.  31, 


The  records  of  the  three  regiments  (One  Hundred 
and  Sixty-sixth,  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-eighth,  and 
One  Hundred  and  Seventy-sixth)  are  made  more  com- 
plete by  adding  that  the  One  Hundred  and  Seventy- 
sixth  was  sent  to  the  Department  of  the  Gulf  as  part 
of  the  Nineteenth  Corps,  and  participated  in  the  Red 
River  campaign  in  1864 ;  subsequently  in  Gen.  Sheri- 
dan's campaign  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  Va.,  in 
the  summer  and  fall  of  the  same  year,  and  in  Georgia 
and  North  Carolina  in  the  winter  and  spring  of  1865. 
Its  nine  months'  men  were  mustered  out  in  Novem- 
ber, 1863,  and  the  regiment  finally  April  27,  1866, 
having  been  kept  in  the  field  by  its  three  years'  men 
and  drafted  men  and  substitutes.  A  considerable 
percentage  of  the  Orange  County  men  were  for  three 
years.  T.  Henry  Edsall,  of  Goshen,  adjutant,  was 
mustered  out  in  November,  1863,  but,  with  his  com- 
rades from  the  county,  had  some  rough  experiences  in 
Louisiana.  A  letter  of  June  26,  1863,  states  that 
after  remaining  at  Brashear  City  for  a  month,  the 
regiment  was  sent  to  Thibodeaux,  where  it  was  at- 
tacked by  a  force  of  cavalry,  and  lost  ten  killed  and 
twenty  wounded.  They  had  the  satisfaction  of  rout- 
ing the  enemy  {the  Second  Texas)  and  capturing 
thirty  prisoners.  The  day  succeeding  this  action 
(June  23d),  learning  of  the  approach  of  a  vastly  supe- 
rior force  of  the  .enemy,  the  regiment  fell  back  to 
Brashear  City,  retreated  from  that  place,  and  barely 
escaped  to  New  Orleans  Without  annihilation,  one 
hundred  and  forty  men  only  reaching  the  point  of 
safety,  the  remainder  having  been  taken  prisoners. 
The  casualties  in  Company  D  at  Thibodeaux  were 
Nelson  Smith,  corporal,  of  Chester,  mortally  wounded 
and  taken  prisoner;  J.  E.  Redner,  private,  of  Chester, 
wounded  through  the  wrist ;  William  H.  H.  Hall,  of 
Chester,  wounded  and  taken  prisoner ;  George  Slau- 
son,  of  Monroe,  wounded  and  taken  prisoner;  S.  K. 
Wood,  sergeant,  of  Newburgh,  accidentally  wounded 
in  jaw. 

As  in  other  cases,  the  names  of  the  volunteers  In 
the  regiments  named  will  be  found  in  the  town  liiti, 
In  the  official  roster  we  recognize  the  names  of  the 
following  officers : 

T.  Henry  Edsall,  adjutant,  ITflc.  18, 1862;  mustered  out  by  expiratiuii  of 

term  Nov.  16, 1863. 
Sprague  K.  Wood,  sergeant ;  promoted  second  lieutenant  'Dec  ?1, 188J- 

flrat  lieutenant,  April  13,  1865 ;  captain.  May  29, 1865 ;  miuteral 

out  with  regiment  April  27, 1866. 
Joseph  Goodsell,  second  lieutenant,  Dec.  19, 1862 ;  first  lienteaan^  8ai 

29, 1863;  captain,  Feb.  23, 1864;  dismissed  June 22, 1864;  diaild% 

removed  Jan.  17, 1865 ;  resigned. 


This  company,  known  locally  as  the  "Middletown 
Cavalry,"  was  recruited  by  Morris  I.  McComal,  at 
Middletown,  as  part  of  Col.  Van  Wyck's  "Tenth 
Legion,"  in  the  autumn  of  1861.  It  was  detached  from 
the  Legion  and  mustered  as  Oo.  C,.  First  Moanttd 
Rifles,  with  ninety-five  men.  The  officers  were :  Morris 
I.  McComal,  captain ;  Charles  F.  Allen,  first  lieu- 
tenant; Arthur  Hagen,  second  lieutenant;  Ardioe 
Robbins,  orderly  sergeant ;  C.  R.  Smith,  quartermastei 
sergeant.  The  company  served  its  term  of  three  years, 
and  quite  a  number  of  its  men  re-enlisted.  Lienii 
Allen  and  Smith  resigned,  and  died  in  civil  life  since 
the  war.  Quartermaster-Sergeant  Smith  was  promoted 
lieutenant,  as  were  Sergts.  James  Eaton,  Frank  Mills, 
and  Fred.  Penney.  Capt.  McComal  resigned  in  1862, 
and  re-entered  service  in  Fifteenth  Cavalry  in  1863. 


This  regiment  was  organized  at  New  York  City  to 
serve  three  years.  The  companies  of  which  it  wns 
composed  were  raised  in  the  counties  of  New  York, 
Queens,  Rensselaer,  Washington,  and  Orange,  in  tWi 
State,  and  the  regiment  also  included  two  companies 
from  Connecticut  and  two  from  Indiana.  The  vol- 
unteers from  Orange  were  mainly  in  Company  B,  of 
which  Charles  E.  Morton,  of  New  Windsor,  was  first 

It  was  mustered  into  the  United  States  service  from 
Aug.  9, 1861,  to  Oct.  8,  1861.  The  original  memben 
were  mustered  out  Sept.  10,  1864,  and  the  veterans 
and  recruits  organized  into  four  companies.  During 
the  months  of  September  and  October,  1864,  eight 
new  companies  were  raised  in  the  central  part  of  the 
State  to  serve  one  year.  The  regiment  was  musteied 
out  June  5,  1865. 

The  regiment  was  first  known  as  the  Seventh 
(Harris  Light)  New  York  State  Volunteers,  and  wu 
changed  to  Second  Regiment  (Harris  Light)  Cavalry, 
New  York  Volunteers,  Dec.  81,  1862.  Alanson  M. 
Randall,  U.S.A.,  was  colonel  of  the  regiment  frooi 
November,  1864,  to  muster  out  in  1865.  He  wm'» 
native  of  Newburgh. 

The  names  of  those  from  Orange  County  who  1* 
longed  to  this  regiment  may  be  found  to  some  extuf 
in  the  soldiers'  lists  at  the  close  of  the  chapters  upon 
the  several  towns. 




This  regiment  received  some  of  its  members  from 
Orange  County,  but  was  largely  from  other  parts  of 
the  State,  the  list  of  counties  represented  comprising 
Onondaga,  Ontario,  Orange,  Oneida,  Chatauqua,  Cat- 
taraugus, Genesee,  Tompkins,  and  Erie.  It  was  mus- 
tered into  the  service  of  the  United  States  from  Aug. 
8, 1863,  to  Jan.  14,  1864.  It  was  consolidated  with 
the  Sixth  New  York  Cavalry  June  17,  1866,  and  the 
consolidated  force  was  designated  the  Second  New 
York  Provisional  Cavalry. 

Recruits  were  obtained  for  the  regiment  in  the  fall 
and  winter  of  1863-64  by  Capt.  Morris  I.  McComal, 
of  Middletown,  who  had  recruited  the  Middletown 
Cavalry,  in  1861,  for  the  Tenth  Legion,  and  which 
was  made  a  company  of  the  First  Mounted  Rifles ; 
and  also  by  Lieut.  Charles  H.  Lyon,  of  Newburgh. 
McComal  was  first  lieutenant,  Jan.  6,  1864 ;  captain, 
Nov.  9,  1864;  discharged  by  consolidation,  June  17, 
1865.  Lyon  was  first  lieutenant,  Jan.  6,  1864 ;  pro- 
moted adjutant,  June  7,  1865,  but  not  mustered  ;  dis- 
charged by  consolidation,  June  17,  1865.  For  names 
of  volunteers  see  town  lists. 


This  company  was  recruited  in  the  winter  of  1863 
-64.  mainly  in  Orange  County.  It  was  mustered  into 
service  at  Fort  Lyon,  Va.,  Feb.  3,  1864,  with  the  fol- 
lowing officers:  William  D.  Dickey,  of  Newburgh, 
captain ;  Alfred  Newbatt  and  Julius  Niebergall,  first 
lieutenants ;  John  Ritchie  and  Robert  B.  Keeler,  of 
Newburgh,  second  lieutenants.  It  remained  in  Fort 
Lyon  until  March  27th,  when  it  was  ordered  to  Brandy 
Station,  reported  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  was  assigned  to  duty  in 
the  Artillery  Reserve.  The  regiment  was  brigaded 
with  the  Sixth  Heavy  Artillery.  They  moved  with 
the  army  on  the  4th  of  May,  acting  as  guard  for  the 
am  munition  train  until  May  5th,— just  one  day, — when 
the  regiment  volunteered  to  "  go  in,"  and  accordingly 
on  the  6th  it  "went  in,"  and  participated  in  the 
battles  of  the  6th  and  7th. 

At  this  time  the  brigade  was  made  a  flying  column, 
for  the  purpose  of  reinforcing  any  part  of  the 
line  needing^  assistance.  In  this  capacity  it  passed 
through  the  sanguinary  battles  around  Spottsylvania, 
at  Laurel  Hill,  Todd's  Tavern,  and  Haines'  Tavern, 
and  for  its  gallant  conduct  in  this  last  engagement 
was  complimented  by  Gen.  Meade  in  a  general  order. 
At  the  crossing  of  the  North  Anna  River  the  regi- 
ment, though  not  actually  engaged,  yet  sustained 
a  very  heavy  fire,  and  lost  severely  in  killed  and 
wounded.  At  Bethesda  Church  and  Tolopotomy 
Creek  it  was  engaged,  and  its  numbers  were  here 
again  greatly  reduced. 

While  near  Cold  Harbor  the  brigade  was  perma- 
nently attached  to  the  Fifth  Corps,  and  led  the  ad- 
vance of  the  army  until  the  Chickahominy  was 
crossed,  and  then  acted  as  rear-guard  from  that  river 

until  the  James  River  was  reached.  On  June  17th  it 
arrived  in  front  of  Petersburg,  and  took  part  in  the 
numerous  engagements  which  occurred  near  that  city. 
On  the  15th  of  August  Capt.  Dickey  was  placed  in 
command  of  the  Third  Battalion,  its  commanding 
officer  being  incapacitated  by  sickness,  and  the  com- 
mand of  Company  M  fell  upon  Lieut.  Ritchie,  who 
led  it  through  the  bloody  engagements  that  took  place 
in  the  struggle  for  the  possession  of  the  Weldon 
Railroad,  in  one  of  which  the  company  lost  one-third 
of  its  men  in  killed  and  wounded.  The  regiment 
was  again  complimented  by  Gen.  Meade  for  gallant 
conduct.  The  following  are  some  of  the  engagements 
in  which  Company  M  specially  participated :  Peebles' 
Farm,  or.  Poplar  Spring,  Chapel  House,  Hatcher's 
Run,  the  famous  raid  down  the  Weldon  Railroad, 
Dabney's  Mill,  etc.  The  loss  of  the  company  in 
killed,  wounded,  and  prisoners  in  their  year  of  service 
was  three  officers  and  ninety-five  men, — over  half 
their  number.     It  was  mustered  out  in  July,  1865. 

The  following  promotions  of  members  of  Company 
M  were  made,  viz. .  Capt.  William  D.  Dickey,  to  be 
major ;  Second  Lieuts.  Keeler  and  Ritchie,  to  be  first 
lieutenants ;  Sergts.  Joseph  M.  Dickey  and  Riemann, 
to  be  second  lieutenants. 


The  Seventh  Independent  Battery  was  recruited  by 
Capt.  Peter  C.  Regan  as  a  part  of  the  "  Tenth  Legion." 
It  left  Newburgh  with  the  Legion  on  the  7th  of  No- 
vember, 1861  ;  arrived  in  Washington  on  the  11th ; 
was  organized  as  an  iiidependent  battery  Jan.  10, 
1862,  and  assigned  to  Casey's  division,  subsequently 
Peck's  division,  and  afterwards  to  the  Seventh  Corps. 
When  the  Eighteenth  Corps  was  organized  the  bat- 
tery was  included  in  it  as  part  of  the  Second  Division. 
It  served  also  a  short  time  in  the  Tenth  Corps  at  Ber- 
muda Hundred.  When  mustered  out  it  formed  part 
of  the  artillery  brigade  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Corps. 

The  battery  participated  in  the  siege  of  Yorktown, 
battles  of  Williamsburg,  Savage's  Station,  Fair  Oaks, 
and  Malvern  Hill ;  sustained  the  fire  of  a  rebel  bat- 
tery at  Harrison's  Landing ;  was  engaged  in  the  siege 
of  Suffolk,  at  Bermuda  Hundred,  and  in  action  at 
Petersburg,  Dutch  Gap,  Fort  Harrison,  Hatcher's 
Run,  and  Port  Walthal.  It  was  on  garrison  duty  at 
Norfolk  eighteen  months ;  also  at  Fort  Drewry,  Man- 
chester, and  Suffolk,  and  in  the  investment  of  Peters- 
burg and  Richmond.  Its  first  active  service  was  on 
the  24th  of  May,  1862,  near  Seven  Pines,  where  it  was 
engaged  with  the  batteries  of  the  Washington  (New 
Orleans)  Artillery,  and  lost  one  man  wounded,  and 
one  horse  killed.  The  enemy  were  exposed,  and  lost 
a  considerable  number  in  killed  and  wounded.  At 
Fair  Oaks,  May  31st,  after  Casey's  division  had  been 
engaged  and  driven  back,  and  after  Battery  A,  First 
N.  Y.  Artillery,  had  lost  all  its  guns,  and  another  bat- 
tery two  guns,  the  Seventh  was  brought  up  and  held 
the  road  for  more   than  an   hour  without  support. 



Here  it  had  ten  men  killed  and  wounded,  and  thirty- 
seven  horses  killed,  and  lost  a  battery-wagon,  forge, 
and  one  caisson,  but  recovered  them  the  next  day. 

The  battery  was  three  times  recruited  by  transfers 
from  other  organizations,  veteran  re-enlistrnents,  and 
new  recruits,  and  maintained  an  honorable  record 
until  the  war  closed.  It  was  mustered  out  July  22, 
1865.  Its  members  from  Or.inge  County  will  be  found 
in  the  town  lists.  The  official  roll  of  its  commissioned 
officers  is  as  follows,  the  first  date  given  being  that 
of  commission,  followed  by  the  date  of  rank : 

Peter  C.  Began,  Jan.  10, 1862 ;  Oct.  1,  1881 ;  mastered  out  with  battery 
July  22, 1866. 

First  Lieutenants. 

Eugene  Sheibner,  Jan.  10, 1862 ;  Nov.  15, 1861 ;  resigned  June  25, 1862. 

Abram  Kniffin,  Dec.  30, 18G2  ;  Nov.  1, 1862  ;  mustered  out  on  expiration 
of  service  Oct.  26, 1864. 

Martin  V.  Mclntyre,  June  14,  1862 ;  Feb.  14,  1862 ;  mustered  out  with 
battery  July  22, 1865. 

John  S.  Bennett,  enlisted  Aug,  15, 1861 ;  served  two  yeara ;  re-enlisted 
Oct.  23,  1863 ;  promoted  to  first  sergeant  May  1,  1864 ;  first  lieu- 
tenant, Jan.  9, 1865  ;  mustered  out  with  battery  July  22, 1865. 

Second  Lieutenants. 

Abram  Kniffin,  Jan.  10, 1862  ;  Oct.  1, 1861 ;  promoted  to  firet  lieutenant 
Dec.  30, 1862. 

Charles  S.  Harvell,  Dec.  30, 1862  ;  Nov.  1, 1862  ;  mustered  out  on  the  ex- 
pinition  of  his  term  of  service  Jan.  19, 1865. 

Abram  Smith,  March  14, 1865 ;  Feb.  25, 1865 ;  mustered  out  with  battery 
July  22, 1866. 

William  H.  Lee,  Jan.  10, 1862 ;  Oct.  2, 1861 ;  resigned  May  14, 1862. 

Edward  Kelly,  June  20, 1863 ;  March  1, 1863  ;  dismissed  April  18, 1865. 

John  B.  Broseu,  Jr.,  Dec.  29, 1864;  Dec.  1, 1864 ;  mustered  out  with  bat- 
tery July  22,  1865. 


This  regiment,  known  as  Serrell's,  was  organized  in 
New  York  City  to  serve  three  years.  It  was  mus- 
tered into  the  service  of  the  United  States  from  Sept. 
10,  1861,  to  Feb.  12,  1862.  The  original  members, 
except  veterans,  were  mustered  out  by  detachments 
on  the  expiration  of  their  terms  of  service,  and  the 
regiment,  composed  of  veterans  and  recruits,  retained 
in  service  until  June  30,  1865,  when  it  was  mustered 
out  in  accordance  with  the  orders  of  the  War  Depart- 

This  was  a  large  and  important  regiment  in  a  neces- 
sary department  of  the  service.  It  is  said  to  have 
had  from  three  hundred  to  four  hundred  men  from 
Orange  County.  Some  of  their  names  may  be  found 
in  the  lists  accompanying  the  chapters  upon  the 
several  towns. 

Company  C,  Ninety-eighth  Regiment  of  infantry, 
was  recruited  mainly  in  Newburgh,  in  the  winter  of 
1863-64,  by  Capt.  James  H.  Anderson  and  Lieut.  J. 
K.  E.  Oakley,  then  recently  returned  from  a  term  of 
service  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixty-eighth  Regi- 
ment. Lieut.-Col.  Wead,  then  commanding  the 
Ninety-eighth,  proposed  that  a  person  should  be  se- 
lected for  second  lieutenant  and  a  full  company  raised. 
Joseph  A.  Sneed,  formerly  of  Company  B,  Third  New 
York  Infantry,  was  accordingly  selected  for  second 

lieutenant,  and  early  in  February,  1864,  over  eightr 
men  reported  for  duty  at  Riker's  Island. 

On  arriving  at  the  rendezvous  of  the  regiment, 
however,  a  difficulty  arose.  Col.  Wead  had  intended 
to  consolidate  his  smaller  companies  to  make  room 
for  the  new  ones.  To  do  this  it  was  necessary  to  pro. 
cure  an  order  from  department  headqaartets.  Thjj 
order  he  was  unable  to  obtain  in  time  to  take  the  field, 
and  hence  sixty  of  the  Orange  County  recruits  wen 
assigned  to  Company  C,  making,  with  the  thirty-five 
already  in  the  company,  ninety- five  men,  under  com- 
mand of  Capt.  Anderson  and  Lieuts.  Oakley  and 
Sneed,  and  twenty-four  men  were  assigned  to  Com- 
pany I,  Capt.  E.  M.  Allen. 

The  subsequent  history  of  the  company  is,  of  course, 
blended  with  that  of  the  regiment.  At  Drury's  Bluff 
the  regiment  saved,  by  its  coolness  and  firmness,  the 
right  wing  of  Gen.  Butler's  army  from  a  very  dan- 
gerous flank  attack,  which  had  already  demoralized 
one  brigade;  at  Cold  Harbor,  from  June  1st  to  12th, 
it  was  constantly  under  fire,  and  in  the  charge.s  of  the 
1st  and  3d  lost  over  one  hundred  men  in  killed  and 
wounded.  At  Petersburg,  June  15th,  it  charged  and 
captured  the  outer  line  of  works  defending  that  city, 
and  from  that  time  until  August  was  almost  constantly 
under  fire.  The  colors  of  the  regiment  were  the  first 
to  be  planted  on  Fort  Harrison,  September  29th,  and 
it  was  the  first  regiment  to  enter  Richmond  after  the 
evacuation  by  Lee's  army,  April  3,  1865.  After  the 
surrender  it  was  on  post  and  garrison  duty  at  Rich- 
mond, Manchester,  Burkesville,  Danville,  and  other 
points  in  Virginia,  until  the  31st  of  August,  when  it 
was  mustered  out  of  service  at  Richmond. 

Out  of  the  eighty-four  men  who  went  out  with  Capt 
Anderson,  thirteen  were  killed  or  died  of  wounds  fe- 
ceived  in  action,  twenty-three  were  wounded,  more 
or  less  severely,  and  five  died  of  disease  contracted  in 
the  service.  Capt.  Anderson  resigned,  and  was  hon- 
orably discharged  in  September,  1864,  on  account  of 
physical  disability.  Lieut.  Sneed,  having  sufiered  some 
months  from  fever,  resigned  in  January,  1865.  From 
May  24th  until  November  19th  the  company  was 
under  command  of  Lieut.  Oakley.  He  was  then  ap- 
pointed adjutant,  and  the  command  fell  upon  Orderly 
Sergt.  Clark  B.  Colwell,  who,  on  the  2d  of  December, 
received. a  commission  as  first  lieutenant, — a  well- 
earned  promotion,  and  one  that  gave  the  greatest  satii- 
faction.  Lieut.  Oakley  was  commissioned  captain  at 
the  same  time,  but,  preferring  the  position  of  adjn- 
tant,  did  not  muster. 

The  personal  record  of  a  very  large  percentage  of 
the  officers  and  privates  of  the  volunteers  under  C«pt 
Anderson  will  be  found  in  the  Newburgh  list. 


The  following  is  an  abstract  of  reports  from  supe^ 
visors  of  towns  and  treasurer  of  county,  showing 
amount  of  moneys  received  for  bounties  and  war  ex- 



penses,  and  from  what  sources  received,  in  the  years 
1862, 1863, 1864,  and  1865. 

Blooming-Grove.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $10,000 ; 
1865,  $9900;  from  town  loans  1863,  $31,000;  from 
State,  through  paymaster-general,  $10,000;  total, 

Chester.— From  town  taxe.s  1864,  $7916.26;  1865, 
$9009.88;  from  town  loans  1868,  $4200;  1864,  $21,200; 
from  State  (bonds),  $11,866.53 ;  total,  $54,192.67. 

Cornwall.— From  town  taxes,  1864,  $69,200 ;  total, 

Crawford.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $7901.75 ;  1865, 
$18,258.02 ;  from  town  loans  1864,  $27,812.62 ;  1865, 
$15,992.50;  from  State,  cash  $700,  State  bonds 
$13,000;  interest  on  State  bonds,  $487.25;  miscella- 
neous, $35 ;  total,  $84,187.12. 

Deerpark.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $19,465.50; 
1865,  at  one  time  $24,092.39,  at  another  $25,573.94; 
from  town  loans  1864,  $146,950 ;  from  State,  cash 
$26,900;  total,  $242,981.83. 

Goshen. — From  town  taxes  1865,  at  one  time 
$111.12,  at  another  $9923.43;  from  town  loans  1864, 
$40,096 ;  1865,  $2800 ;  from  State,  cash  $4450,  State 
bonds  $25,000,  interest  on  State  bonds  $782.50,  other 
sources  $70 ;  total,  $83,233.05. 

Greenville.— From  town  taxes  1 864,  $4010.89 ;  1865, 
$6822.45;  from  town  loans  1864,  $25,159;  1865, 
$8132.50;  from  State,  cash  $2650,  bonds  $8000,  inter- 
est on  bonds  $231.67. 

Hamptonburgh. — From  town  taxes  1864,  $21,000 ; 
total,  $21,000. 

Minisink.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $1234.26 ;  1865, 
$7071.12;  from  town  loans  1863,  $118.70;  1864,  $23,- 
836.49;  1865,  $12,288.94;  from  State,  cash  $4500, 
bonds  $8000,  interest  on  bonds  $222.11 ;  total,  $57,- 

Monroe.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $22,271.90 ;  from 
town  loans  1864,  $66,420.84;  1865,  $38,775.91;  from 
State,  cash  $500,  bonds  $33,000  ;  total,  $160,968.65. 

Montgomery.— From  town  taxes  1862,  $3000 ;  1864, 
$54,250 ;  total,  $57,250. 

Mount  Hope.— From  town  taxes  1865,  $11,034.68; 
from  town  loans  1864,  $35,475 ;  1865,  $4978.56 ;  from 
State,  cash  $3400,  bonds  $8000;  total,  $62,888.24. 

Newburgh.— From  town  taxes  1862,  $24,931 ;  1864, 
$25,368  ;  1865,  $21,538 ;  from  town  loans  1862,  $29,950; 

1864,  $180,550;  1865,  $86,100;  from  State,  bonds, 
$97,200;  total,  $465,637. 

New  Windsor.— From  town  taxes  1864,  $2956.39; 

1865,  at  one  time  $1650.45,  at  another  $2221.84;  from 
town  loans  1864,  $26,886.87 ;  from  State,  cash  $15,000; 
total,  $48,715.55. 

Wallkill.— From  town  taxes  1862,  $4000;  1864, 
$91,100 ;  total,  $95,100. 

Warwick.— From  town  taxes  1863,  $2000;  1864, 
$11,960;  1865,  $19,725;  from  town  loans  1862, 
$2000;  1864,  $71,575;  1865,  $47,760;  from  State, 
cash  $4300,  bonds  $40,000,  interest  on  bonds  $1750; 
total,  $201,070. 

Wawayanda.— From  town  loans  1864,  $26,800; 
1866,  $12,450;  from  State,  cash  $4500,  bonds  $8000; 
total,  $51,750. 

Total  for  all  the  towns. — From  town  taxes  1862, 
$31,931 ;  1863,  $2000 ;  1864,  $348,634.95 ;  1865,  $166,- 
932.32;  from  town  loans  1862,  $81,950;  1863,  $35,- 
318.70 ;  1864,  $692,761.82 ;  1865,  $229,278.41 ;  from 
State,  cash  $76,900,  bonds  $252,066.53,  interest  on 
bonds  13473.51,  other  sources  S105 ;  total,  $1,871,- 

By  the  County.— From  taxes  1864,  $1800;  1865, 
$90,649.50 ;  from  loans  1864,  $421,000 ;  total,  $513,- 

Towns  and  County. — From  taxes  1862,  $31,931; 
1863,  $2000;  1864,  $350,434.95;  1865,  $257,581.82; 
from  loans  1862,  $31,950;  1863,  $35,318.70;  1864, 
$1,113,761.82;  1865,  $229,278.41;  from  State,  cash 
$76,000,  bonds  $252,000.53,  interest  on  bonds  $3473.51, 
other  sources  $105 ;  final  total  for  towns  and  county, 

All  these  sums  were  raised  by  official  action.  The 
donations  of  supplies  and  the  cash  subscriptions  (the 
latter  especially  heavy  the  first  year)  are  not  included 
in  the  statement.  , 

The  draft  exemption  of  three  hundred  dollars,  paid 
by  a  large  number,  may  also  be  taken  into  the  ac- 
count, swelling  the  aggregate  of  the  moneys  expended 
for  war  purposes  by  the  people  of  Orange  to  an  im- 
mense sum. 




Fkom  a  very  early  period  in  its  history  the  com- 
mercial business  of  the  river  towns  of  the  county  has 
been  a  feature  of  no  small  importance,  although, 
viewed  from  the  stand-point  of  a  large  commercial 
port,  it  would  perhaps  be  regarded  as  scarcely  worthy 
of  notice.  Introduced  by  the  skippers  of  Holland, 
in  the  exchange  of  rum  and  trinkets  for  the  beaver- 
skins  of  the  Indians,  it  was  subsequently  prosecuted 
with  advantage  by  the  West  India  Company  for  half 
a  century.  From  New  York  to  Albany — New  Am- 
sterdam to  Fort  Orange  perhaps  we  should  say — 
this  company  had  but  one  trading-post,  that  at  Wilt- 
wick  or  Kingston,  although  there  were  no  doubt 
points  along  the  Hudson  at  which  their  trading 
vessels  stopped  for  traffic.  At  a  later  period,  and 
especially  during  the  early  years  of  English  colonial 
administration,  individual  ventures  were  made  in 
trading  posts,  which  were  conducted  in  form  and 
manner  familiar  to  many  in  connection  with  the 
present  Indian  tribes  of  the  West,  and  perhaps  with 



quite  as  much  fraud  and  debauchery.  In  1686,  David 
Toshack  and  his  servant,  Daniel  Maskrig,  from  Scot- 
land, established  one  of  these  posts  at  the  mouth  of 
Murderer's  Creek,  and  continued  it  until  Toshack's 
death,  ten  years  later.  It  is  not  improbable  that  this 
post  became  the  foundation  of  the  subsequent  com- 
mercial business  of  the  Ellisons  at  New  Windsor. 
John  Ellison,  an  immigrant  from  England  in  1688, 
established  himself  as  a  merchant  in  New  York, 
where,  in  1703,  he  built  a  store  and  wharf  at  the  foot 
of  Little  Queen  Street.  With  sloops  constructed  for 
the  purpose,  he  sent  his  goods  up  the  Hudson  for  trade 
with  the  European  settlers  as  well  as  with  the  In- 
dians, very  much  in  the  manner  pursued  by  the  Hol- 
land merchants  who  had  preceded  him.  The  old 
Murderer's  Creek  post  was  regularly  visited,  and  at 
a  later  period  the  European  settlers  united  in  erecting, 
at  what  is  now  New  Windsor  village,  a  store- house 
for  their  mutual  accommodation.  Here  they  brought 
whatever  they  might  have  to  sell  or  exchange  and  de- 
posited it  until  such  time  as  the  trading  sloop  should 
arrive,  which  may  have  been  three  or  four  times  in 
a  year  or  oftener.  To  a  certain  extent  a  banker  as 
well  as  a  merchant,  Ellison  loaned  money  to  his  cus- 
tomers, and  among  others  to  William  Sutherland,  in 
1718,  and  took  a  mortgage  on  Sutherland's  land,  and 
soon  after  came  into  its  possession.  On  the  property 
thus  acquired  his  son,  Thomas  Ellison,  built  a  dock 
and  store-house  as  early  as  1725,  and  established  a 
regular  sloop  line  from  thence  to  his  father's  wharf 
at  the  foot  of  Little  Queen  Street.  Similar  ventures 
were  made  by  others  at  different  points  in  the  limits 
of  the  present  county,  and  especially  at  Newburgh, 
where  a  union  store-house  was  erected  in  1730,  and  a 
sloop  line  established  by  Alexander  Colden.  Pre- 
cisely what  constituted  the  products  of  the  people  of 
the  county  at  that  time  is  a  matter  of  conjecture. 
Butter,  pork,  and  grain,  so  many  years  staples,  were 
probably  the  principal  part  of  the  yield  of  the  farmers. 
The  great  business  of  .the  period,  however,  was  lum- 
bering, for  which  avocation  the  dense  woodlands  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  river  gave  abundant  opportunity 
for  saw-mills  and  sturdy  woodsmen,  whose  pathway 
is  still  marked  by  deserted  mill  privileges,  and  who 
found  little  diflBiculty  in  obtaining  advances  from  the 
merchant  traders.  Very  large  for  its  times  was  the 
trade  of  Cadwalader  Colden,  Jr.,  of  Coldenham,  in 
this  field  of  commercial  enterprise.  In  1767  it  is 
written  of  the  commerce  of  Newburgh  that  "  many 
people  from  the  back  parts  of  the  country  bring  their 
produce  to  send  to  New  York,  having  at  least  three 
boats  belonging  to  the  place  that  constantly  go  from 
thence  to  New  York  and  return  back  again  with  goods, 
which  creates  a  very  considerable  trade."* 

From  the  small  beginnings  thus  briefly  referred  to 
local  traffic  accumulated  until  Newburgh  Bay  was 
white  with  the  sails  of  vessels  bearing  to  the  sea-board 
the  products  of  farmers,  not  only  of  Orange  County, 
but  of  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  and  Western  New 

York,  who  found  through  them  the  most  direct  route 
to  a  market.  For  over  a  hundred  years  New  Windaor 
was  a  chief  mart  in  this  traffic ;  foi*  over  one  hundred 
and  fifty  years  Newburgh  was,  and  still  is,  largely  en- 
gaged in  the  carrying  trade,  while  Cornwall  for  a  time 
was  a  successful  competitor.  And  there  were,  other 
commercial  ventures.  Newburgh  was  a  port  of  eonn 
importance  in  colonial  days  in  the  whaling  trade,  m 
coasting,  and  in  traffic  with  the  West  Indies.  All  thit 
went  down  during  the  Revolution.  After  the  war 
ships  were  built  and  manned  for  the  Liverpool  trade 
and  cleared  through  the  New  York  custom-house,— 
the  "  Liverpool  Packet,"  the  "  William  Penn,"  and 
the  "  Ontario,"  the  latter  of  five  hundred  tons,  and 
the  largest  ship  cleared  at  New  York  at  the  time  of 
her  construction.  Under  the  embargo  and  thewarof 
1812  these  ventures  were  closed,  and  though  whaling 
was  renewed  at  a  later  period  by  the  Newburgh 
Whaling  Company  (1831),  and  a  lumber  trade  carried 
on  with  Liverpool  and  Australia  as  late  as  1877,  no 
ocean  trade  is  now  prosecuted. 

Adverting  more  particularly  to  those  who  haye 
been  engaged  in  commercial  undertakings,  it  may  be 
remarked  that  although  Col.  Thomas  Ellison,  of  New 
Windsor,  was  the  first  to  establish  himself  there,  he 
was  not  without  early  contemporaries.  Joseph  Sack- 
ett,  Jr.,  had  there  a  dock  and  store-house  as  early  ai 
1742 ;  Matthew  DuBois  was  similarly  located  prior  to 
1765,  and  in  that  year  united  with  Ellison  in  resisting 
the  order  of  the  officers  of  customs  requiring  all  sloops 
trading  on  the  Hudson  to  enter  and  clear  at  Albany 
or  New  York,  while  the  name  of  William  Jackson 
stands  associated  with  the  era  of  the  Revolution.  The 
business  of  the  Ellisons,  however,  was  for  many  years 
far  in  excess  of  that  of  their  contemporaries.  After 
the  Revolution,  among  those  in  the  trade  may  be  noted 
the  names  of  Ellison,  Isaac  and  Abraham  Schultz, 
Gillespy  &  Scudder,  Isaac  Schultz  &  Son,  Joseph  Mor- 
rell,  Samuel  M.  Logan,  William  Walsh,  Reuben  Eey- 
nolds,  Samuel  Floyd,  and  Daniel  Borden.  In  1832, 
Knapp,  Dalson  &  Co.  sailed  the  steamboat "  Norfolk,'' 
Capt.  Jacob  Wandell,  and  the  sloop  "Spy,"  Capt 
George  L.  Sherwood.  The  barge  "Experiment," 
built  as  a  steamboat  at  New  Windsor  in  1828,  for  the 
Cornwall  trade,  subsequently  sailed  from  New  Wind- 
sor under  command  of  Capt.  Dyer  Brewster.  The 
latest  advertised  enterprise  (1850)  was  that  of  Josejii 
Calrpenter,  who  sailed  the  "Norfolk,"  Capt.  Lewis (i 
Carpenter.  Though  at  one  time  the  trade  at  that 
place  was  drawn  from  a  large  section  of  country,  it 
steadily  decreased  under  the  influence  of  the  superior 
roads  leading  to  Newburgh,  and  was  wholly  destroyed 
by  the  construction  of  the  Erie  Railroad  and  the 
Newburgh  branch. 

From  Newburgh  the  first  shippers  were  Alexi 
Colden,  who  came  to  be  the  owner  of  the  old 
store-house  and  wharf  as  early  as  1740.    At  a  later 
Maj.  Isaac  Belknap,  Capt.  Donaghy,  William  Hard- 
ing, Nehemiah  Denton,  Richard  Buckingham,  Mii 



Lewis  Clark  were  probably  engaged  in  sailing  sloops 
to  New  York.  Belknap  was  the  successor  of  Colden, 
and  Nehemiah  Denton  sailed  from  a  wharf  near  Balm- 
Tille,  where  he  had  a  grist-  and  flour-mill.  Their 
business  was  suspended  during  the  Revolution,  as 
well  as  that  of  Capt.  Coleman,  who  was  engaged  in 
trade  with  Nantucket.  From  1798  the  record  is  more 
complete.  From  the  Colden  Wharf— George  Gardner, 
1798  to  1809 ;  George  Gardner  &  Son,  1810-22 ;  Henry 
Eobinson,  1823-26 ;  T.  Powell  &  Co.,  1835-44 ;  Reeve, 
Moore  &  Co.,  1845;  Powell,  Eamsdell  &  Co.,  iall  of 
1845-67 ;  H.  Eamsdell  &  Co.,  1858-65.  From  Walsh's 
Wharf— Hugh  Walsh,  Derick  Amerman,  Crawford  & 
Harris,  and  others,  until  1808 ;  F.  Crawford  and  C. 
Belknap  &  Co.,  1809-17  ;  F.  &  D.  Crawford,  1817-30; 
D.  Crawford  &  Co.,  1881-37 ;  Crawford,  Mailler  & 
Co.,  1838-54;  W.  K.  Mailler  &  Co.,  1865-57;  W.  K. 
Mailler  &  Son,  1868-69 ;  W.  0.  Mailler,  1860-69 ;  W. 
O.  Mailler  &  Co.,  1870-73.*  From  Anderson's  Dock, 
foot  of  Third  Street— John  Anderson,  1798  to  1803. 
From  Ludlow's  Dopkf  (formerly  John  Anderson's) — 

1843-44.t  From  dock  foot  of  Fourth  Street— Farmers' 
Company ,g  1806-13;  B.  &  I.  Case,  1814-20;  Abm. 
Stagg  &  Co.,  1820-24 ;  John  Mount  &  Co.,  1826-26 ; 
and  by  Oakley  &  Davis,  1827-39.  From  Carpenter's 
Dock,  south  of  Second  Street — Caleb  Coffin,  1800; 
Jacob  and  Leonard  Carpenter  and  B.  Carpenter  &  Co., 
1802-64;  Homer  Eamsdell  &  Co.,  1865-76.  From 
Balmville — Daniel  Smith  and  others  until  1818  ;  H. 
&  J.  Butterworth,  1819;  Selah  Tuttle  &  Son,  1820, 
who  were  the  last  occupants.  In  1846  the  firm  of 
Wardrop,  Smith  &  Co.  was  organized  and  commenced 
business  from  a  dock  and  store-house  erected  by  J. 
Beveridge  &  Co.  at  the  foot  of  Fifth  Street.  This 
firm  was  continued  until  1858,  when  C.  C.  Smith  sold 
his  interest  to  Hiram  Falls.  On  the  death  of  Mr. 
Wardrop  the  firm  was  dissolved,  and  Falls  &  John- 
ston became  its  successors.  On  the  death  of  Mr. 
Falls,  Johnston  &  Alsdorf  continued  the  business  un- 
til 1870,  when  it  passed  to  Alsdorf  &  Skidmore,  who 
sold  to  Homer  Ramsdell  in  February,  1872,  and  re- 
tired from  the  trade.     On  the  1st  of  February,  1865, 


Alexander  Falls  and  Jonathan  Hedges  sailed  sloop 
"Favorite,"  Benjamin  Case,  Jr.,  master,  in  1799. 
Their  successors  were  Jacob  &  Thomas  Powell,  1802- 
13;  Selah  Reeve  and  William  H.  Falls,  1814-24;  Se- 
lah Reeve  &  Son,  1825-26;  Christopher  and  George 
Reeve,  1827-29 ;  C.  Reeve,  1831,  who  sold  to  D.  Craw- 
ford &  Co.  From  DeWint's  Dock,  north  of  Third 
Street— George  Gardner,  1815-21 ;  Miller  &  Smith, 
1822-24;  E.  Case,  1835;  Houston,  Johnston  &  Co., 
1838 ;  Christopher  Reeve,  1842 ;  Reeve,  Moore  &  Co., 

•  The  barge  "Newburgh,"  then  owned  by  this  firm,  together  with  a 
fall  cargo  of  freight,  and  also  their  store-honse,  etc.,  were  destroyed  by 
fire  in  June,  1873,  and  at  the  close  of  the  season  the  firm  retired  from 
the  frelgbtlng  bnslness. 

t  Robert  Ludlow,  father  of  Charles,  Robert  C,  and  Augustus  C.  Lud- 
low, of  the  United  States  navy,  and  of  Mm.  Thomas  Powell,  bought  the 
property  from  Water  Street  to  the  river  in  1796,  and  built  a  store  on 
Water  Street  and  a  new  dock  in  the  rear.  During  its  ownerahip  by  the 
Powells  it  was  called  Powell's  Dock,  and  subsequently  Reeve's  Dock, 
The  old  store-bouse  was  moved  to  Crawford's  Dock  and  consolidated  with 
that  of  D.  Crawford  ft  Co.,  and  was  destroyed  in  the  fire  of  1872. 

Homer  Ramsdell  bought  the  dock  property  and  barge 
of  B.  Carpenter  &  Co.,  and  consolidated  the  business 
of  that  firm  with  the  firm  of.  Homer  Ramsdell  &  Co; 
During  the  season  the  large  store-house  of  the  firm  was 
removed  to  a  new  foundation,  and  the  store-house  of 
Ramsdell  &  Co.  removed  and  united  with  it,  forming 
by  far  the  largest  and  most  complete  structure  on  the 
Hudson.  The  firm  of  Homer  Ramsdell  &  Co.  is  now 
the  only  freight  line  between  Newburgh  and  New 
York ;  their  barges  have  a  carrying  capacity  of  five 
hundred  tons  each  ;  their  daily  fi'eights  probably  ex- 

X  The  DeWint  store-house  and  the  Oakley  &  Davis  store-house  acUoin- 
ing  were  destroyeil  by  fire  Dec.  18,  1848. 

^  This  company  appears  to  have  been  a  regularly  organized  association ; 
its  busiuess  was  conducted  by  directors  who  were  generally  changed  an- 
nually. After  the  dissolution  of  the  company,  a  similar  association  was 
organized  by  an  act  of  incorporation,  passed  by  the  Legislature,  April* 
1825.  This  company  originated,  it  is  said,  with  Mr.  Jonathan  Haebrouck* 
who  was  its  principal  manager.  The  "  Chancellor  Livingston"  was  run 
for  a  few  trips,  in  the  name  of  the  company,  from  the  old  red  store-house* 
t  and  tlien  the  project  was  abandoned. 



ceed  the  weekly  freights  of  twenty  years  ago,  being 
greatly  augmented  by  the  trade  of  the  entire  eastern 
division  of  the  Erie  Railroad. 

The  business  was  conducted  entirely  by  sloops  until 
1830.  The  introduction  of  steam  vessels,  however, 
was  proposed  in  1825,  at  a  meeting  of  sloop-owners 
(June  6th),  and  a  committee  appointed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  making  inquiry  "  relative  to  the  building  of  a 
good  and  sufficient  steamboat  or  boats,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  conveying  freight  or  passengers  from  this  vil- 
lage and  landings  adjoining."*  This  action  was 
doubtless  intended  to  allay  the  feeling  against  sloop 
navigation  which  had  grown  out  of  the  disaster  of 
the  '•  Neptune,"  in  November  of  the  previous  year.f 
Here  the  matter  rested  until  the  winter  of  1829-30, 

*  "  A  meeting  of  sloop-ownera  was  held  June  6,  1825, — Selah  Reeve, 
chaimiHn,  ftrid  DHvId  Crawford,  secretHry, — to  consider  the  expediency  of 
placing  a  Rtfambnat  on  the  Kewhurgh  line.  After  di8CUHsi<in«  it  was 
*  Rwoloed,  That  a  committee,  conKisting  of  Jamps  Wiltsie,  John  P.  De- 
Wint,  Uriah  Lockwond,  John  Wiltnie,  Cliri&topher  Rveve,  and  David 
Orawford,  he  authnrized  to  make  the  necessary  inquiry  and  obtain  all 
the  infurniation  iu  their  power  relHtive  to  the  building  of  a  g<iocl  and 
sufficient  steaniliuat  ur  Ixiats,  for  the  purpose  of  conveying  frel^lit  or 
pasHciigei-s  fruni  this  village  and  landings  adjuinlng.*  " — Index,  June  7. 

t  "  Lose  OF  THK  Sloop  Nepttinr. — On  November  24th,  about  noon,  the 
sloop  *  Neptune.^  on  her  way  from  New  Tork  to  this  village,  a  short  dis- 
tance below  PallopePs  iHland.was  upset,  filled,  and  sunk.  At  the  time  of 
this  melancholy  event  it  is  understood  she  had  on  board  from  fifty  tu  fifty- 
five  passengers,  a  mujurity  of  whom  were  drowned.  It  appears  that  the 
vessel  left  New  Turk  under  command  of  lier  fiist  hand,  Mr.  John  Decker 
(Captain  Halutead  being  detained  iu  the  city),  Mith  from  forty  to  fifty 
tons  uf  plaster  and  Rume  eight  or  ten  tons  of  mercliandise  un  board. 
About  half  of  the  plaster  was  put  in  the  hold  and  the  remainder  piled 
on  the  deck.  In  the  Highlands  the  wind  was  high,  which  induced  the 
commander,  when  below  West  Point,  to  take  a  double  reef  in  the  main- 
sail and  other  measures  of  caution  for  the  safe  delivery  of  \m  charge. 
When  off  Little  Stony  Point,  with  very  little  way  on  the  vessel,  a  flaw 
struck  her  and  huve  her  down.  Tliis  caused  the  plaster  on  deck  to  shift 
from  windward  to  leeward.  M.ust  of  the  male  passengers  were  on  deck, 
and  one  or  two  uf  the  females,  and  some  t^n  or  twelve  women  and  rIx 
or  seven  children  in  the  cabin.  The  shifting  of  the  phister  created  the 
utmost  confUBiun  on  board.  The  water  rushed  into  the  scuttle  of  the 
forecastle,  which  was  to  leeward,  then  into  the  cabin,  and  consteinatiuur 
dismay,  and  death  presented  their  appalling  features  to  all  on  board.  In 
a  few  minutes  she  filled  and  plunged  headlong  tu  the  bottom.  All  in  the 
cabin  perinhed.  Tliose  un  deck  were  plunged  into  a  cold  and  turbulent 
element  or  had  been  carried  down  with  the  vessel.  The  boat  was  afloat, 
and  when  the  sloop  was  going  down  was  occupied  by  Decker  and  Wool- 
aey,  hut  without  nars, — they  were  supplied  by  Mr.  Sturm,  whose  oyster- 
boat  was  just  ahead  of  the  sloop,  and  they  made  utmost  exertions  to 
save  the  unfoitunates.  Seventeen  pei-sons  were  rescued  {)y  th«m  and 
the  other  iHiats  which  came  to  their  assistance,  but  the  rest  perished. 

"  The  fuUuwing  are  the  names  of  those  who  were  saved  *  John  Decker, 
Levi  D.  Woolsey,  Mr.  Thome,  of  Newburgh ;  Joseph  Mulluck,  A.  Carey, 
Jesse  Green,  of  Minisink;  Alfred  Crawford,  Alexander  Crawford,  John 
Rose, of  Crawford;  Mr.  Sprague,  Mrs. Bowers,  Mr.  Smiley,  Mr.  Ander- 
son, of  SulUvun  County;  Lewis  Broom,  Patdck  Kelley,  of  WallUill ;  A. 
Plerson,  of  Montgomery;  and  a  lad  from  Bluomiug-tirore.    Total,  17. 

"The  following  persons  were  known  to  have  been  on  hoard  the  sloop: 
Mrs.  Couch  and  two  children,  J.  Loveland,  and  J.  Smiley,  of  Sullivan 
County;  Mi«.  Graham  and  two  children,  of  Crawford ;  John  Leader,  of 
BlooDiiug-Grove ;  Samuel  Carlisle,  Jacob  Polhemns,  Mrs.  McClanghery, 
of  Newburgh;  Mrs.  Kuab.of  Wallkill;  Messrs.  McCurdy,  Weed,  Hens- 
ler,  Mrs  Churchill  and  Cochrane,  of  Montgomery;  John  Oreenleaf, 
George  Evertson,  Matilda  Helms,  William  Kelley  and  child,  of  Minl- 
sfok;  Mi-s.  Dean,  trf  Cornwall ;  P.  W.  DaiJondres  and  Mrs.  Trout,  of  New 
York.  Total,  26.  It  ia  supposed  that  a  number  of  others  were  on  board, 
which  would  make  the  whole  equal  tu  the  number  stated,  whose  uamea 
and  cunnectiona  have  nut  yet  been  discovered.  The  sloop  sunk  In  fifty 
or  sixty  feet  of  water.  The  owners,  Messrs.  Miller  &  Smith,  succeeded 
in  raising  her." — Index,  Nov.  1824. 

when  Mr.  Christopher  Reeve  purchased  the  steamer 
"  Baltimore,"  which  was  placed  on  the  Newburgh  line 
in  the  spring  of  1830,1  and  ran  from  the  wharf  of  the 
Messrs.  Reeve  and  that  of  D.  Crawford  &  Co.  Rude  in 
model  as  was  this  steamer,  her  appearance  was  hailed 
with  every  demonstration  of  popular  regard;  Uu 
newspapers  recorded  her  advantages,  and  the  brueb 
of  the  painter  traced  her  outlines  on  many  sign-boardt. 
But  her  triumph  was  short;  her  purchase  had  not 
been  made  when  Mr.  Benjamin  Carpenter  laid  thft 
keel  at  the  ship-yard  of  Cornelius  Carman,  Low  Pointy 
of  the  steamer  "  William  Young."  This  vessel  wai 
launched  July  17,  1830,  and  commenced  running  in 
September  of  the  same  year.?  Though  of  nearly  the 
same  appearance  as  the  "  Baltimore,"  she  was  re- 
garded as  of  better  model,  and  her  owner  claimed 
that  she  had  "  power  sufficient  to  make  her  average 
trips  in  about  six  hours ;"  but  his  anticipations  were 
very  far  from  being  realized. 

Messrs.  Reeve  and  Crawford  continued  the  "  Balti- 
more" one  year,  when,  some  dissatisfaction  arising, 
Mr.  Reeve  sold  his  interest  to  Mr.  Crawford,  who  ooa- 
tinued  her  on  the  line  until  1835,  when  she  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  route  between  Newburgh  and  Albany. 
The  Messrs.  Reeve  (1832)  supplied  the  place  of  the 
"Baltimore"  in  their  line  with  the  steamer  "L^- 
lator;"  and  dnring  the  same  season  Oakley  &  Davb 
put  on  their  line  the  "  Providence."  ||  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1833,  D.  Crawford  &  Co.  built  the  steamer 
"Washington,"  and  commenced  running  her  in  No- 
vember of  that  year.1[  This  boat  was  far  superior  to 
any  in  the  trade,  and  the  competition  which  she 
created  aroused  the  energies  of  Mr.  Carpenter,  who 
built  in  1835  the  "  James  Madison,"  a  boat  superior 
in  many  respects  to  the  "  Washington  ;"  she  was  the 
first  beam-engine  steamer  in  the  trade.  Duringjw 
same  season  Oakley  &  Davis  changed  the  "Provi- 
dence" for  the  "Superior;"  and  Mr.  Powell,  who  for 
several  years  had  been  living  in  retirement,  now  again 
entered  the  list  of  competitors,  and  built  the  steamer 

X  **  Hnlf  of  the  excellent  steamboat 'Baltimore*  has  heen  purchased tv 
D.  Cniwfonl  &  Co.,  and  we  underHtaud  that  she  will  start  alteniiCdf 
from  Reavers  and  fh>m  Crawfurd's  Docks,  (owing  a  sloop  and  taking  pii. 
sengers  from  each  dock  tvsice  a  week.  We  have  already  spokeo  of  i 
steamlHtnt  in  a  state  of  forwardness,  owned  by  Benjamin  Gnrpentfr;  tod 
probably  the  other  sloop-owners  will  make  similar  arrangements."— (?•* 
ette,  Feb.  7,  18S0. 

g  Though  not  the  first  steamboat  in  the  Newburgh  trade,  as  hMbsM 
claimed,  the  -'  William  Young"  was  the  firat  built  expressly  fur  tbit 
trade.  She  was  more  complete  in  her  accommodations  ^r  pHBSfnpn 
than  her  preUecesxor,  the  *' Baltimore.'*  and  had  more  of  thechsractv 
of  what  was  then  regarded  as  a  firet^class  steamer. 

I  "  Farmers  and  frei^^hters  will  be  abundantly  accommodated  irfft 
steamboats  this  season.  In  addition  tu  the  *  N>  illiam  Young,*  vbfck 
will  continue  to  run  from  Carpenter's,  and  the  *  Baltimore,*  vb|H 
will  run  this  seoson  from  Orawford^s  Dock,  will  be  added  the  *  Lcf* 
lator,*  which  will  tow  from  Beeve*8  Duck,  and  the  '  Pruvldeoca,'  Ii%fti 
Oakley  &  Davi8*8.  We  understand  vessels  will  depart  from  thisvUlip 
on  Tu'Sdays,  Wednesdays,  Thursdays,  Fridays,  and  Saturdays.  W 
enterprising  spirit  evinced  by  these  arrnngemeuta  deeerree,  mA  VI 
confidt^ntly  hope  will  meet  with,  a  corresponding  liberality  from  tl* 
public.*'— &T36//6,  Feb.  26, 1832. 

If  "  The  "  Baltimore"  and  the  "  Washington"  were  run  by  thlf  i* 
during  the  season  of  1834. 



"Highlander,"  which  commenced  running  in  Sep- 
tember. She  was  a  boat  of  the  first  chiss  in  speed, 
her  only  rival  being  the  "  Rochester,"  then  on  the 
New  York  and  Albany  line.  As  their  days  of  sailing 
from  New  York  were  the  same,  racing  was  always  in 
order ;  and  the  story  is  that  in  order  to  settle  the  point 
of  speed  a  bet  of  one  thousand  dollars  a  side  was 
made.  The  race  came  off,  and  the  "  Highlander"  lost 
by  half  a  minute  on  a  straight  run  from  New  York  to 
the  Newburgh  wharf.  The  "  Osceola,"  a  neat  and 
swift  craft,  next  attacked  the  "Highlander."  Both 
boats  ran  on  the  morning  line, — the  former  from 
Poughkeepsie,  and  the  latter  -from  Newburgh  and 
Fishkill ;  but  the  "  Highlander"  was  victorious.  In 
1846,  Powell,  Ramsdell  &  Co.  built  the  "Thomas 
Powell,"  and  placed  her  on  the  morning  line."*  She 
was  subsequently  sold  to  Capt.  Anderson  and  placed 
on  the  morning  line  between  Rondout  and  New  York, 
and  was  the  last  of  the  Newburgh  steamers. 

The  first  barge — the  "Minisink" — was  placed  on 
the  line  by  Crawford,  Mailler  &  Co.  in  1841,  in  lieu  of 
the  "  Washington,"  which  was  put  on  the  New  York 
and  Albany  line  as  an  opposition  boat,  and  subse- 
quently sold  to  the  People's  line.  In  1842,  Christo- 
pher Reeve  re-entered  trade  with  the  barge  "  Union." 
In  1845,  Wardrop,  Smith  &  Co.  put  on  the  steam- 
barge  "  Caledonia,"  and  in  1851  the  barge  "  Wall- 
kill."  Johnston  &  Falls  took  out  the  boilers  and  en- 
gine of  the  "  Caledonia,"  and  changed  her  name  to 
"  Union,"  and  Alsdorf  &  Skidmore  exchanged  her  for 
the  propeller  "Thomas  McManus,"  and  made  three 
trips  a  week  during  the  season  of  1870-71.  B.  Car- 
penter &  Co.  sold  the  "  James  Madison"  in  1846,  and 
purchased  the  barge  "  Superior."  In  1848,  Powell, 
Ramsdell  &  Co.  built  the  barge  "  Newburgh,"  and 
substituted  her  for  the  "  Highlander;''  in  1851  they 
built  the  barge  "Susquehanna,"  and  ran  her  in  con- 
nection \yith  the  "Newburgh."  Subsequently  the 
"  Newburgh"  was  transferred  to  Wm.  K.  Mailler  &  Co., 
and  the  "  Minisink"  to  B.  Carpenter  &  Co.  In  1870, 
Homer  Ramsdell  added  the  barge  "  Charles  Spear"  to 
the  line  of  Homer  Ramsdell  &  Co.,  who  ran  her  in 
connection  with  the.  barges  "Susquehanna"  and 
"Minisink,"  each  boat  making  two  trips  a  week, 
forming  a  daily  line.  The  latter  was  withdrawn  in 
1873,  and  daily  trips  made  with  the  "  Spear"  and  the 
"  Susquehanna." 

The  early  steamboat  captains  were :  "  Baltimore," 
Robert  Wardrop,  1830-32,  Samuel  Johnson,  1833; 
"  William  Young,"  Seth  Belknap,  1830,  Whitehead 
Halstead,  1831,  Charles  Halstead,  1833;  "Provi- 
dence," Levi  D.  Woolsey,  1831-33,  Samuel  R.  Logan, 
1884;  '-Washington,"  Robert  Wardrop,  1834;  "Su- 
perior," James  H.  Leeds,  1835;  "Madison,"  Eli  Perry, 
1835;  "Highlander,"  Robert  Wardrop,  1835.  In 
nearly  all  cases  the  persons  named  were  previously  in 
command  of  sloops. 

•  On  the  luth  July,  1846,  the  •'  Thom»s  PowpU"  made  the  trip  from 
New  York  to  Newburgh  ia  two  hours  and  forty  minutes  running  time. 

Trade  from  Cornwall  was  probably  early  centred 
with  the  Ellisons  of  New  Windsor,  and  with  the 
Hazards  at  Orangeville  (now  Moodna).  The  latter 
was  perhaps  on  the  precise  site  which  was  occupied 
by  Toshack  in  1686.  The  land  was  subsequently 
patented  to  Mary  Ingoldsby,  from  whom  it  was  pur- 
chased (1728)  by  David  Mandevill,  who  sold  a  por- 
tion of  it  to  Samuel  Hazard,  who,  in  company  with 
his  brother  Nathaniel,  laid  out  a  township  plot  under 
the  name  of  Orangeville,  erected  a  'flouring-mill  and 
store,  and  constructed  a  wharf  at  Sloop  Hill  (in  Corn- 
wall), from  which  sloops  were  sailed.  Large  quanti- 
ties of  grain,  converted  into  flour  at  their  mill,  found 
its  way  to  New  York  by  their  sloops.  Indeed,  flour 
was  one  of  the  staple  products  of  the  county  for 
many  years.  The  Hazard  mill,  Hasbrouck,  Denton, 
and  Belknap  mills  at  Newburgh,  and  the  Ellison, 
Schultz,  and  Trimble  mills  in  New  Windsor,  were 
quite  as  celebrated  in  their  day  as  some  of  the  favor- 
ite Western  brands  of  the  present  time. 

The  freighting  business  at  Cornwall  proper  began 
at  about  the  commencement  of  the  present  century, 
when  Capt.  Daniel  Tobias  sailed  a  sloop  and  kept 
a  store.  His  brother,  Isaac  S.,  continued  the  business 
after  1807,  and  constructed  a  dock  and  built  the  sloop 
"  Hector."  Capt.  Nathaniel  Ring  was  Tobias'  con- 
temporary. In  1810,  Capt.  Reuben  Reynolds,  of  New 
Windsor,  removed  to  Cornwall,  and  built,  in  company 
with  Tobias,  the  sloop  "Hamlet."  In  1812,  Capt. 
Tobias  sold  out  to  Isaac  Van  Duzer,  who  sailed  the 
sloop  "  Exchange,"  Capt.  John  Gifferth.  In  1828, 
Mr.  Van  Duzer  built  the  first  steamboat  for  freighting 
purposes  ever  constructed  on  the  river.  She  was 
built  by  Silas  Corwin,  of  New  Windsor,  and  her 
boiler  and  engine  were  furnished  by  Isaiah  and  John 
Townsend,  of  Albany.  She  was  named  the  "  Experi- 
ment," run  for  several  years  by  Mr.  Van  Duzer,  and 
then  sold  to  Weeks  &  Griffin,  who  sold  her  to  Henry 
Bertholf  &  Co.,  who  ran  her  four  or  five  years.  She 
next  became  the  property  of  Hudson  McFarland,  Mr. 
Mitchell,  Dr.  Morrison,  and  Captain  Tobias.  The 
latter  ran  her  for  a  year,  when  her  engine  became 
broken,  and  she  was  dismantled  of  her  machinery  and 
converted  into  a  barge,  and  was  sailed  as  such  from 
New  Windsor  by  Capt.  Dyer  Brewster.  The  steam- 
boat "  Wave"  succeeded  the  "  Experiment,"  and  sub- 
sequently the  "  Union"  was  put  on  and  officered  by 
Capt.  Tobias.  Then  came  the  "  General  Jackson," 
followed  by  the  "  Gazelle"  and  the  "  Caledonia,"  the 
two  last  named  merely  stopping  at  Cornwall  for 
freight.  About  1856,  Henry  Clark  bought  the  pro- 
peller "  Orange  County,"  and  put  her  on  the  line  un- 
der Capt.  Joseph  Ketchum.  Her  trips  were  continued 
until  1864,  when  the  commerce  of  Cornwall,  except 
by  river  boats  of  other  lines  and  by  the  branches  of 
the  Erie  road,  was  numbered  with  that  of  New 

f  Beaches  Cornwall. 




The  early  carrying  trade  from  New  Windsor,  New- 
burgh,  and  Cornwall  was  due  to  their  positions  as 
natural  entrep6ts.  They  were  the  most  accessible 
points  through  which  New  York  could  be  reached  by 
the  people  of  the  district,  as  well  as  by  those  residing 
in  northeastern  New  Jersey  and  Pennsylvania,  and 
in  their  direction  all  the  early  roads  tended.  These 
roads  were,  first,  the  king's  highway  or  public  road,* 
from  Kingston  to  New  Paltz,  and  from  thence  to 
Shawangunk  "  and  the  neighborhoods  annexed  to 
New  Paltz,"  and  from  New  Paltz  to  the  Palatine 
parish' of  Quassaick,  and  from  thence  through  New 
Windsor,  Cornwall,  the  Clove,  and  northeast  New 
Jersey  to  Fort  Lee  ;t  second,  the  old  Goshen  road, 
which  intersected  the  road  last  described  and  ran 
from  New  Windsor  to  Goshen,  and  from  thence  west 
to  the  Peenpack  settlements  on  the  Delaware,  where 
it  intersected  (third)  the  old  Mine  road  from  Kingston 
to  the  Minisink  country  of  New  Jersey  and  Pennsyl- 
vania ;  fourth,  the  king's  highway  from  Shawangunk 
through  Montgomery  to  Goshen,  and  thence  through 
Florida  and  Warwick  to  Sussex,  N.  J.,  intersecting 
the  king's  highway  to  Fort  Lee;  fifth,  the  Little 
Britain  road,  running  almost  directly  west  from  New 
Windsor  to  the  Wallkill,  and  intersecting  the  road 
from  Shawangunk  to  Goshen,  and  with  a  branch  on 
its  eastern  extremity,  called  the  Wallkill  road,  to 
Newburgh.  From  four  points  of  the  compass,  cov- 
ering an  arc  of  not  less  than  three  hundred  miles, 
these  roads  all  came  together  at  New  Windsor  on 
lines  almost  as  direct  as  a  bird  would  fly.  Newburgh, 
lying  north  of  this  centre,  shared  only  in  the  travel 
of  the  routes  to  the  north  and  northwest,  with  a  single 
road  running  west  through  Coldenham  to  Mont- 
gomery, which  had  been  constructed  by  the  Coldens. 
To  these  facts  New  Windsor  was  indebted  for  its  early 
commercial  supremacy. 

At  what  precise  period  the  main  lines  described 
were  opened  it  would  be  difficult  to  determine ;  it  is 
fair  to  presume,  however,  that  they  did  not  antedate 
settlement,  and  it  is  also  fair  to  presume  that  they 
were  substantially  based  on  trails  which  had  been 
followed  by  the  Indians  for  ages,  except,  perhaps,  the 
Little  Britain  road.  A  crude  network  of  main  and 
divergent  paths  through  the  forests  these  Indian  trails 
were,  but  in  the  absence  of  better  routes  they  were 
traveled  by  the  first  settlers  until  they  became  well 
known,  and  ultimately  lost  their  original  character 
by  enlargement  and  improvement.  The  "  old  Mine 
road,"  to  which  reference  has  been  made  in  another 

*  A  king^B  highway  wa^  simply  a  road  opened  and  worked  according 
to  law  as  public  roade  now  are. 

-f-  A.  branch  &om  this  road  ran  from  Fort  Lee  to  Stony  Point,  where 
the  Hudson  was  orossed  by  the  king^s  (public)  ferry  to  Peekskill.  The 
road  then  ran  down  through  Westchester  and  crossed  the  king's  (public) 
bridge  at  Harlem.  Before  the  Eevolutiou  it  was  a  much-traveled  route 
to  Philadelphia  from  New  England,  and  it  was  this  fact  that  led  to  the 
fortifications  at  Yerplanck's  and  Stony  Point 

chapter,!  may  be  cited  as  an  example.  It  was  origi. 
nally  the  great  trail  from  the  Minisink  country  to 
Esopus,  with  thousands  of  intersecting  paths.  Whether 
the  trail  was  known  to  the  Dutch  settlers  of  Eeopm 
at  the  time  of  the  last  Indian  war  (1664)  is  not  a 
question  which  can  aflfect  its  title  to  antiquity,  nor 
the  fact  of  its  early  travel,  of  which  its  "  Yagh  houae^* 
or  resting-places,  are  sufficient  evidence,  and  which 
were  in  existence  in  1704.  Between  1704  and  1734 
it  became  a  king's  highway  under  colonial  law,  and 
as  such  was  the  subject  of  petition  to  the  General 
Assembly,  of  which  it  is  said  in  the  journal  of  pro- 
ceedings :  "  The  petition  of  Jacobus  Swartwout,  Wil- 
liam Provost,  William  Cool,  and  others,  freeholden 
and  inhabitants  residing  and  living  in  Minisink,  in 
the  county  of  Orange  and  Ulster,  was  presented, 
setting  forth  that  several  persons  in  West  New  Jersey 
and  Pennsylvania  having  no  other  way  to  transport 
their  produce  than  through  the  Minisink  road,  and 
there  being  about  forty  miles  more  to  repair  before 
they  came  to  Esopus,  that  they  (the  persons  referred 
to)  be  compelled  to  work  on  said  road  and  assist  in  re- 
pairing it  to  the  house  of  Egbert  DeWitt,  in  the  town 
of  Rochester,  in  the  county  of  Ulster."  In  other 
words,  the  petitioners  intended  no  doubt  to  have  it 
understood  that  as  they  had  made  the  road;  it  was 
but  just  that  those  who  used  it  should  help  to  main- 
tain it.  It  was  an  important  road,  and  the  link  which 
was  made  to  intersect  it  from  Goshen  was  also  as 
important  one,  as  it  shortened  by  many  miles  the 
route  to  tide-water.  That  the  king's  highway  from 
Kingston  to  New  Paltz  and  Newburgh,  and  thence  to 
Fort  Lee,  was  substantially  on  an  original  Indian 
trail  is  presumed  from  the  fact  that  it  was  a  line  of 
travel  by  the  Indians.  Throughout  the  entire  dis- 
trict all  the  trails  ran  to  the  Dans  Karamer,  the 
temple  in  which  the  Indians  worshiped  their  god 
Bachtamo.  The  branch  from  New  Paltz  to  Goahen, 
or  Shawangunk  to  Goshen,?  was  substantially  the 
"  Chawangon  trail,"  which  is  met  in  some  early  deeis. 
The  line  from  Sussex  was  as  clearly  one  as  any  of  the 
others,  and  also  its  intersecting  line  to  Goshen.  The 
known  points  in  communication  are  the  guidM  to 
this  conclusion, — the  Wawayanda  castles,  and  that  of 
Maringoman  on  the  Schunemunk.  That  Sarah  Wells, 
the  traditional  first  white  woman  on  the  Wawayanda 
Patent,  passed  over  the  bed  of  the  old  Goshen  road, 
or  substantially  so,  we  have  little  doubt. 

Whatever  may  have  been  their  connection  with 
original  trails,  or  whatever  the  date  of  their  construe- 

X  See  Chapter  II. 

\  This  road  was  opened  in  \TAS  by  Zacharias  Hofihian,  Beujtiai> 
Smedes,  and  Johannes  Decker,  commissioners  of  highways  "for  thept^ 
cinct  of  Shawangunk  and  tlie  neighborhood  of  Wallkill."  It  raa^faT 
or  near"  Goodwill  churoh,  and  through  Neelytown  to  the  Goshea  Uii% 
or  "  until  it  meets  the  road  laid  out  by  the  inhaliitauts  of  Goshen  to  tkl 
south  line  of  the  said  county  of  Ulster."  It  was  laid  out  under  vi  acta 
the  Assembly,  entitled  "  An  act  for  the  continuing  of  an  act  eutitlBd  la 
act  for  the  better  clearing,  ascertaining,  and  further  laying  out  poUk 
high  roads  in  the  county  of  Ulster." 



tion,  they  were  famous  old  roads  in  their  day.    The 
militia  moved  over  them  in  the  French  and  Indian 
war,  and  they  were  traversed  by  them  and  by  the 
"  ragged  Continentals"  during  the  Revolution.     Mrs. 
Washington,  with  her  carriage,  servants,  and  escort, 
en  route  for  New  Windsor  and  Newburgh,  Morgan 
and  his  riflemen  en  route  for  Boston  in  1774,  congress- 
men from  New  England  en  route  for  the  Continental 
Congress,*  prisoners  en  route  for  Easton,  passed  over 
the  line  from  New  Windsor  or  Newburgh  to  Sussex 
Court-House,  and  from  thence  to  their  destination, 
while  the  first  mail-routes   through  the  district  ran 
over  the  king's  highway  from  Rhinebeck  and  Kings- 
ton to  New  Paltz,  and  from  thence  via  Shawangunk, 
Goshen,  and  Warwick  to  Sussex.    "  The  establishing 
of  this  post-road,"  wrote  Cornelius  C.  Schoonmaker, 
who  then  (1792)  represented  the  Orange  and  Ulster 
district  in  Congress,  "  will,  I  am  in  hopes,  conduce 
much  to  the  circulating  of  newspapers  and  other  use- 
ful information  through  our  State  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Hudson,  the  inconvenience  attending  which  we 
have  long  experienced."     Surrounded  by  the  facili- 
ties of  the  present  era,  and  educated  to  their  con- 
veniences, it  is  diflBcult  to  realize  that  it  was  not 
always  so, — that  mail  matter  was  first  delivered  to  the 
people  of  Newburgh  at  Ward's  Bridge,  in  the  town 
of  Montgomery,  and  continued  to  do  so  until  some 
time  in  17!*5.t     From  whatever  point  they  may  be 
viewed,  these  old  roads  are  clothed  in  a  halo  of  local 
historic  interest, — even  their  roughest  stones  have  ser- 
mons in  them.   Our  reference  to  them  here,  however, 
has  a  definite  purpose,  and   that  accomplished,  we 
may  not  wander  into  other  fields. 

*  The  following,  from  the  diary  of  William  EUery,  member  of  the  Coii- 
tiuentHl  OuDgresa  from  Maasacbusetta,  who  left  Bightoii  on  horseback, 
Oct.  '20, 1777,  for  York,  Pa.,  is  of  interest  in  this  connection : 

"  Noo.  7(A.— Breakfasted  at  Adiiance's,  and  sat  off  for  Finhkill  where 
we  arrived  at  noon.  Cuald  get  no  provender  for  our  horses,  but  at  the 
Ciintl  (Cuntineutal,  i.e.,  military)  Stables.  Waited  upon  Gen.  Putnam 
who  was  paiiking  up  and  just  about  setting  off  for  White  Plains.  Chatted 
with  him  a  white,  and  then  put  off  for  the  Contl  Ferry  at  the  Ntirth 
Biver.  (Fishkill  is  eleven  miles  from  Adriance's,  and  the  ferry  six  miles 
from  Fishkill.)  In  our  way  tu  the  Ferry  we  met  President  Hancock  in 
a  lulkey,  escorted  by  one  of  bis  Secretaries  and  two  or  three  other  gen- 
tlemen, and  one  Light-horseman.  This  escort  surprised  us  as  it  seemed 
inadequate  to  the  purpose  either  of  defence  or  parade.  But  our  surprise 
was  not  of  long  continuance,  for  we  had  not  rode  far  before  w*e  met  six 
or  eight  Ligbt-horsenieu  on  the  canter,  and  just  as  we  reached  tile  Ferry 
a  boat  arrived  with  many  more.  These  with  the  Light-horsemen  and 
the  gentlemen  before  mentioned  made  up  the  escort  of  Mr.  President 
Hancock.— Who  would  not  be  a  great  man?  I  verily  believe  that  tlie 
President,  as  he  passed  through  the  Country  thus  escorted,  feels  a  more 
triumphaut  satisfaction  than  the  Col.  of  the  Queen's  Regiment  of  Ligbt 
Dragi'ons  attended  by  his  whole  army  and  an  escort  of  a  thousand 
Militia.  We  had  a  pleasant  time  across  tbe  Ferry,  and  jogged  on  to 
Major  Dubois  a  Tavei  n  about  9  or  11)  miles  from  thence,  where  we  put 
up  for  the  night.  We  were  well  entertained,  had  a  good  disli  of  tea,  and 
a  good  beef-steak.  We  had  neither  ate  nor  drank  before  since  we  break- 
&sted.  Br.  Cutter  invited  us  to  dine  with  bim  at  Fishkill ;  but  it  was 
Dot  then  dinner-time  and  we  were  anxious  to  pass  Hudson  and  get  on." 

"  Travels  in  North  America,"  by  M.  de  Chastelinx,  may  also  be  re- 
ferred to. 

t  The  date  of  the  establishment  of  the  post-olEce  at  Ward's  Briilge 
has  nut  been  ascertained.  From  an  advertised  list  of  letters  It  appears 
that  John  McKinstry  was  postmaster  in  1793. 


With  the  opening  of  the  present  century  came  a 
new  era  in  roads, — the  construction  of  turnpikes,  of 
which  the  Orange  turnpike  was  the  first  (1800).  The 
incorporators  to  the  company  were  William  Wickham, 
John  Steward,  James  Everett,  James  Carpenter, 
Thomas  Waters,  James  W.  Wilkin,  David  M.  West- 
cott,  Anthony  Dobbin,  Jonathan  Sweezy,  John  Wood, 
Solomon  Smith,  and  John  Gale,  Jr.  Its  capital  stock 
was  $6250,  and  its  line  ran  "  from  the  house  of  Moses 
Cunningham;  in  the  town  of  Cheescocks  (Monroe), 
to  the  intersection  of  the  roads  leading  from  Stirling 
Iron- Works,  near  the  house  of  Stephen  Sloots,"  run- 
ning in  the  bed  of  the  old  road  as  far  as  circumstances 
permitted.  By  act  of  1806  the  capital  was  increased 
$46,750,  and  permission  granted  to  the  company  to 
extend  the  road  "  southerly  to  the  line  of  the  State 
of  New  Jersey,  on  the  route  to  the  city  of  New 
York,  and  also  to  construct  a  new  road  from  the 
northerly  part  of  said  turnpike-road  to  the  intersec- 
tion of  the  Warwick  road,  near  the  village  of  Chester, 
on  the  route  to  the  city  of  Albany,"  the  entire  two 
taking  the  name  of  the  Orange  turnpike. 

An  undertaking  of  greater  magnitude  followed  in 
1801, — ^the  Newburgh  and  Cochecton  turnpike.  In 
reciting  the  history  of  this  enterprise  some  traditional 
errors  may  be  repeated,  but  in  the  main  our  glean- 
ings will  be  found  substantially  correct.  At  the  time 
of  its  incorporation  there  had  grown  up  in  Newburgh 
a  body  of  active  and  enterprising  men,  who,  finding 
themselves  in  the  possession  of  advantages  which  New 
Windsor  did  not  enjoy,  determined  to  make  the  best 
possible  use  of  their  opportunities.  In  this  they  were 
favored  by  circumstances  in  a  remarkable  degree. 
The  ancient  rivals  of  their  town — Kingston  and  New 
Windsor — had  gijbwn  fat  in  trade,  and  became  slug- 
gish and  indifierent,  while  they  were  fresh  and  ready 
for  venture.  In  the  western  part  of  Ulster  were  large 
unoccupied  sections  of  the  Minisink  and  Harden- 
burgh  Patents.  In  these  lands  John  DeWitt,  of  Du- 
chess, became  interested,  and,  after  examining  them 
with  a  view  to  their  sale,  resolved  uprfh  the  expedient 
I  of  opening  them  to  market  by  meaipPof  a  turnpike- 
road  to  tide-water.  Failing  to  enlist  the  people  of 
Kingston  in  his  plans  he  came  to  Newburgh,  Where 
he  met  with  that  encouragement  which  induced  him 
to  remove  his  family  thithef  and  to  emWark  in  the 
undertaking,  in  which  he  was  especially  joined*  by 
Johannes  Miller,  of  Montgomery,  who  was  also  a, 
large  holder  of  lands  in  the  new  district.  Under  their 
efforts  a  company  was  organized  and  application 
made  to  the  Legislature  for  a  charter,  which  was 
granted  March  20,  1801,  constituting  Robert  Bowne, 
John  DeWitt,  William  Seymour,  Levi  Dodge,  Johan- 
nes Miller,  Hugh  Walsh,  George  Clinton,  Jr.,  Wil- 
liam W.  Sackett,  Jacob  Powell,  John  McAuley, 
Charles  Clinton,  Samuel  McCoun,  George  Gardner, 
and  all  such  others  as  should  associate  for  that  pur- 
pose, a  body  corporate  and  politic  by  the  name  of 



"  The  President,  Directors,  aud  Company  of  the  New- 
burgh  and  Cochecton  Turnpike  Road,"  with  a  capital 
limited  to  $80,000,  and  authority  to  construct  a  turn- 
pike-road "in  the  nearest,  most  convenient,  and  di- 
rect route  from  the  village  of  Newburgh,  on  Hudson's 
River,  to  Cochecton,  on  the  Delaware  River.''  The 
stock  was  soon  taken  and  the  road  constructed,  run- 
ning a  line  of  sixty  miles,  with  substantial  bridges,  and 
all  the  appointments  of  a  good  road.  Though  for  a 
time  unprofitable  to  the  holders  of  its  stock,  who  were 
ready  to  sell  at  a  loss  of  fifty  per  cent.,  though  De- 
Witt  lost  his  life  in  the  work,  and  Miller  became 
financially  crippled,  the  road  ultimately  resulted  in 
immense  advantages  to  Newburgh  and  to  the  district 
which  it  opened.  It  may  have  been  the  outgrowth 
of  a  land  speculation,  butitgave  population  and  legal 
being  to  the  county  of  Sullivan  (1809),  as  well  as 
birth  to  other  undertakings  of  a  similar  character, 
which  as  justly  deserve  the  title  of  internal  improve- 
ments as  the  most  substantial  of  modern  railroad 

The  Cochecton  turnpike  was  followed,  in  1805,  by  an 
act  incorporating  "  The  President  and  Directors  of  the 
Newburgh  and  Chenango  Turnpike  Road  Company." 
Its  incorporators  were  Richard  B.  Church,  Asa  Sto- 
wel,  Nathaniel  Locke,  David  Cooper,  Anson  Carey, 
Elijah  Stowel,  and  all  such  others  as  should  be  asso- 
ciated with  them,  who  were  authorized  to  issue  stock 
to  the  amount  of  $162,000,  and  to  construct  a  turnpike- 
road  "  from  the  village  of  Oxford,  in  the  county  of 
Chenango,  and  run  by  the  most  direct,  practicable 
route  to  the  Susquehanna  River,  at  the  place  desig- 
nated by  law  for  the  Jerico  toll-bridge;  thence  across 
the  same  to  the  road  leading  to  the  court-house ; 
thence  to  the  west  branch  of  Delaware  River,  at  or 
near  the  house  of  Coenrad  Edict,  and  from  the  oppo- 
site side  of  'the  said  branch  to  the  east  branch  of  said 
river,  and  from  the  opposite  side  thereof  by  the  most 
direct  practicable  route  to  intersect  the  Newburgh 
and  Cochecton  turnpike-road."  The  object  of  the 
projectors  of  this  road,  who  were  residents  of  Che- 
nango County,  was  to  open  to  settlement  the  military 
tracts,  and  especially  the  "  twenty  township"  tract, 
purchased  for  the  State  from  the  Indians  in  1788. 
We  include  it  in  this  review  as  a  part  of  the  con- 
necting road  of  the  Cochecton. 

And  it  may  be  noted  here  that  the  opening  of  the 
military  tract  to  settlement  was  a  matter  in  which 
there  were  many  interested  parties.  As  a  reward  for 
services  in  the  Revolution,  these  lands  had  been  given 
to  oflScers  and  soldiers,  to  many  of  whom  they  were 
practically  worthless,  and  who  sold  their  locations  for 
merely  nominal  sums.  Gen.  James  Clinton,  of  New 
Windsor,  was  a  large  original  holder,  as  well  as  a 
subsequent  purchaser,  as  well  also  his  nephew,  Sur- 
veyor-General Simeon  DeWitt,  and  there  were  not  a 
few  Newburgh  capitalists  who  had  made  similar  in- 
vestments. Clinton  had  had  large  experience  in  bring- 
ing lands  into  market  in  Orange  and  Ulster,  and  from 

that  experience  he  had,  long  previous  to  the  Chjt 
nango  extension,  advocated  a  similar  project.  When' 
the  Cochecton  road  was  nearly  completed,  he  ob- 
tained a  hearing  from  his  Newburgh  neighbors.  Hii 
proposition  embraced  a  road  crossing  Sullivan  County 
to  Oxford,  Chenango  Co.,  and  thence  westward,  to  be 
known  as  the  "National  Appian  Way."  In'  1807 
Newburgh  sent  John  DeWitt,  Francis  Crawford 
Samuel  Sackett,  and  Daniel  Stringham  to  explore 
the  route,  at  least  in  part,  and  report  upon  its  feagi- 
bility.  After  performing  their  tasks,  the  committee 
submitted  a  favorable  report;*  but  it  was  deemed 
that  the  county  was  then  too  weak  to  engage  in  a 
work  of  such  magnitude,  and  its  further  prosecution 
was  dropped,  although  by  the  Cochecton  and  its  sub- 
sequent connections  it  was  partially  accomplished. 

Aroused  from  their  indifierence  to  progress,  parties 
in  Kingston  determined  if  possible  to  counteract  the 
enterprise  of  Newburgh,  and  to  that  end  obtained  in- 
corporation for  the  "  First  Southwestern  Turnpike' 
Company."  But  scarcely  was  their  undertaking  under 
way  when  the  "  Ulster  and  Orange  Branch  Turnpike 
Company"  was  chartered  (April  11,  1808),  the  act  for 
the  incorporation  of  which  authorized  Walter  Bur- 
ling, Elnathan  Sears,  Henry  Patmore,  Jr.,  David  Mil- 
liken,  Elias  Miller,  Charles  Johnston,  John  Crosby, 
Alexander  Thompson,  Jr.,  and  their  associates  to 
build  a  turnpike-road  from  the  Newburgh  and  Co- 
checton, in  the  town  of  Montgomery,  to  the  "  Great 
Southwestern,"  in  Liberty,  by  the  way  of  Newkirk'i 
Mills,  on  the  Shawangunk  River,  Roosa's  Pass,  and 
the  falls  of  the  Neversink.  The  capital  was  fixed  at 
$30,000.  With  the  "  Great  Southwestern"  as  the  ob- 
jective-point, the  "  Newburgh  and  Sullivan  Turnpike 
Company"  followed  in  1810,  with  a  capital  of  $35,000. 
James  Rumsey,  Cornelius  Bruyn7  Abraham  Jansen, 
John  D.  Lawson,  John  McAuley,  Moses  Rosenkrame, 
Nicholas  Hardenburgh,  and  Johannes  T.  Jansen,  its 
incorporators,  and  their  associates,  were  authorized  to 
construct  a  turnpike  "  from  the  northern  part  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Newburgh,"  on  the  most  direct  and  convenient 
route,  "  through  Rocky  Forest  and  New  Hurley,  ctosfr 
ing  the  Wallkill  at  or  near  Bryan's  bridge,  thence  flB" 
either  the  southerly  or  northerly  bounds  of  lot  No.  i, 
granted  to  Gerardus  Beekman,  where  the  ground  will 
admit,  to  the  Hoag-bergh  road ;  thence  to  the  Sha- 
wangunk Kill,  crossing  the  same  at  or  near  NicolM 

*  "  Ex^enaea  of  Appian  Way. 
"  HaoH  Walsh,  chairman  of  the  meeting  of  the  Inhabitants  of  New- 
burgh. in  account  with  John  DeWitt,  Francis  Orawford,  Samael  Backet, 
and  Daniel  Stringham : 

*'  1807.    June  24,  to  am't  of  our  expfinscs  for 

ourselves  aud  hureee £16    16«.  84 

To  cash  paid  shoeing  Sacket's  horse 7    6  ^^, 

To  cash  paid  eetUng  shoes,  Ur.  Crawford's  <  . 

horse 2    0          L 

To  one  State  map 14    0  ''^& 

To  cash  paid  Uiram  Weller  for  the  use  of  hia  ^r^ 

horsa  per  J.  D.  W.  15  days 6      0    0  *fe 

To  cash  paid  Sacket a      9  10  [jj:: 

£30      0    0 
1807.    Jane  10,  By  cash   received  by  Jacob  ^ti£t. 

Powell  orrs) £30     0    0"      %■ 



Janaen's  saw-mill ;  thence  on  to  Shawangunk  Moun- 
tains, crossing  the  same  at  or  near  Sam's  Point,  or 
pass  thence  through  Wawarsink,  to  a  point  at  or  near 
Neversink  Falls."    The  expressed  object  of  the  com-  I 
pany  was  "to  open  a  communication   through  the  | 
western  country,"  but  its  true  purpose  was  to  tap  the  \ 
"  Great  Southwestern,"  which  had  been  extended  to  ' 
Chenango  Point,  where  a  bridge  was  to  be  constructed. 

In  1809  an  important  connection  with  the  New- 
burgh  and  Cochecton  turnpike  was  chartered  under 
the  name  of  "The  President,  Directors,  and  Com- 
pany of  the  Minisink  and  Montgomery  Turnpike 
Road."  Its  incorporators  were  James  Finch,  Jr., 
Reuben  Neely,  Benjamin  B.  Newkirk,  Benjamin 
Woodward,  David  G.  Finch,  Jacob  Mills,  Alsop  Vail, 
Jr.,  Jacob  Cuddeback,  Richard  Shinser,  and  their 
associates,  and  its  capital  $35,000.  The  line  of  the 
road  began  "'at  the  New  Jersey  State  line,  near  the 
house  of  Benjamin  Carpenter,  in  the  town  of  Mini- 
sink,"  and  from  thence  ran  "  across  the  Shawangunk 
Mountains  to  the  house  of  David  G.  Finch,  in  the 
town  of  Deerpark ;  from  thence  to  or  near  the  house 
of  Benjamin  Woodward,  in  the  town  of  Wallkill,  and 
thence  on  the  most  direct  and  eligible  route  to  inter- 
sect the  Newburgh  and  Cochecton  turnpike-road  west 
of  the  eastern  line  of  Union  Street,  in  the  village  of 

A  northwestern  branch  or  connection  with  this 
read  was  chartered  in  1812,  under  the  name  of  the 
"  Mount  Hope  and  Lumberland  Turnpike  Company." 
The  capital  of  this  company  was  $35,000,  and  its  in- 
corporators were  James  Finch,  Jr.,  Elisha  Reeve, 
William  A.  Cuddeback,  William  Young,  Jr.,  Rich- 
ard Penny,  Charles  Murray,  Thomas  Everson,  and 
Lebius  Godfrey.  The  line  of  the  road  began  "  on  the 
Minisink  and  Montgomer}'  turnpike,  between  the 
dwelling-house  of  Dr.  Benjamin  B.  Newkirk  and  the 
store  occupied  by  Benj.  Dodge,  in  the  town  of  Wall- 
kill,"  and  ran  thence  across  the  "  Shawangunk 
Mountains  at  the  pass  near  Jonathan  Sares',  in  the 
town  of  Deerpark ;  thence  to  the  Bush  Kill  landing 
on  the  Neversink  River,  in  the  county  of  Sullivan ; 
and  thence  to  the  Big  Eddy,  or  Narrows,  on  the 
Delaware  River,  or  to  intersect  the  contemplated 
road  from  Big  Eddy  to  Snooks'  bridge  over  the  Nev- 
ersink River."  Mr.  Quinlan  states  that  George  D. 
Wickham,  of  Goshen,  who  owned  three-fourths  of  the 
land  in  the  present  town  of  Tusten,  was  the  father  of 
this  road,  and  himself  and  John  Duer,  of  Goshen, 
Benjamin  Woodward,  Benjamin  Dodge,  and  Benja- 
min B.  Newkirk,  of  Mount  Hope,  and  William  A. 
Cuddeback  and  Abraham  Cuddeback,  of  Deerpark, 
were  its  directors.  Work  was  not  commenced  until 
after  the  war  of  1812  had  closed,  when  the  road  was 
completed  as  far  as  Narrowsburgh,  and  under  an  act 
of  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  was  extended  to 
Honesdale.  Two  years  previous  to  its  charter  (1810) 
a  charter  was  granted  to  the  "  Narrowsburgh  Bridge 
Company," — Jeremiah    Lillie,    Jonathan     Dexter, 

Chauncey  Belknap,  Thomas  Belknap,  Samuel  F. 
Jones,  William  A.  Thompson,  William  W.  Sackett, 
Samuel  Preston,  and  Francis  Crawford,  directors. 
The  company  was  authorized  to  build  a  substantial 
bridge,  twenty-five  feet  wide,  "across  the  Delaware 
River  at  the  Narrows,  in  the  Big  Eddy,  in  the  county 
of  Sullivan,"  and  to  collect  tolls.  It  was  the  con- 
necting link  between  the  Mount  Hope  and  Honesdale 
roads,  and  although  both  have  ceased  to  be  turnpikes 
the  bridge  company  and  its  bridge  remain,  the  pres- 
ent structure  having  been  erected  in  1847.  "  These 
improvements,"  Mr.  Quinlan  adds,  "  were  for  the 
double  purpose  of  providing  an  outlet  for  a  territory 
of  Sullivan  rich  in  valuable  timber,  and  to  bring 
towards  the  Hudson  the  agricultural  products  of  the 
county  between  the  Delaware  and  the  Susquehanna, 
to  be  exchanged  for  merchandise." 

The  construction  of  turnpikes  was  by  no  means 
confined  to  the  Sullivan  County  lines.  "The  New 
Windsor  and  Blooming-Grove  Company"  was  char- 
tered April  3, 1801, — capital  $7500.  Its  incorporators 
were  John  Chandler,  Richard  Goldsmith,  William 
Adams,  James  Carpenter,  William  A.  Thompson, 
Abraham  Schultz,  Hezekiah  Howell,  Johannes 
Decker,  Jonathan  Brooks,  Jr.,  Thomas  A.  Thompson, 
Isaac  Schultz,  and  John  Gale,  Jr.  The  line  of  the 
road  was  "  from  the  village  of  New  Windsor  to  the 
intersection  of  the  Goshen  and  Warwick  road."  In 
1809  the  "Goshen  and  Minisink  Turnpike  Company" 
was  chartered, — capital  $20,000.  Incorporators,  Wil- 
liam Thompson,  William  Wickham,  Reuben  Hop- 
kins, George  D.  Wickham,  Peter  Gale,  James  Eldred, 
Increase  B.  Stoddard,  and  Benjamin  Sawyer.  The 
line  of  the  road  "  began  at  the  Delaware  River,  near 
the  house  of  Benjamin  Carpenter,  in  the  town  of 
Minisink,  and  ran  from  thence  to  or  near  the  house 
of  Increase  B.  Stoddard,  and  from  thence  on  the  most 
eligible  route  to  the  court-house  in  Goshen,  intersect- 
ing the  Wallkill  River  near  the  outlet  bridge."  June 
1,  1812,  the  company  was  authorized  to  extend  the 
road  from  Goshen  to  the  New  Windsor  and  Bloom- 
ing-Grove turnpike.  In  1816  the  "  Blooming-Grove 
and  Gray  Court  Turnpike  Company"  was  incorpo- 
rated,— capital  $60,000.  Incorporators,  Hector  Craig, 
Samuel  MofFatt,  Selah  Strong,  John  Brooks,  and 
their  associates.  The  road  ran  from  the  Blooming- 
Grove  and  New  Windsor  turnpike,  "near  the  dwell- 
ing-house of  Samuel  Moffatt;  thence  to  or  near  the 
Blooming-Grove  church,"  etc.,  "keeping  the  track 
of  the  present  road  as  nearly  as  may  be  convenient," 
to  the  dwelling-house  of  Joseph  Brewster;  thence 
to  the  grist-mill  of  Hector  Craig,  and  thence  to 
the  Warwick  road.  In  1810  "  the  Warwick  and 
Minisink  Turnpike  Company"  was  chartered, — cap- 
ital $22,500.  Incorporators,  John  Hathorn,  John 
Wheeler,  Jacobus  Post,  Robert  Farrier,  Cornelius 
Lezear,  Jeffry  Wisner,  John  Wisner,  Jr.,  Increase  B. 
Stoddard,  David  Christie,  Richard  Whitaker,  and 
their   associates.     The    line   began    "  between    the 



twenty-ninth  and  thirtieth  mile-stone"  on  the  bound- 
ary line  of  New  York  and  New  Jersey,  and  ran 
thence  northwesterly  through  the  village  of  Amity  to 
the  Pochuck  bridge ;  thence  to  the  southerly  margin 
of  the  Drowned  Lands;  and  thence  "on  the  most 
eligible  and  direct  route  to  intersect  the  Goshen  and 
Minisink  turnpike-road  on  the  east  side  of  the  Sha- 
wangunk  Mountains,  between  the  house  of  Increase 
B.  Stoddard  and  the  great  bog-meadow,  commonly 
called  Green's  bog-meadow."  In  1812  the  "  Goshen 
and  Westtown  Turnpike  Company"  was  incorporated, 
— capital  $17,500.  Incorporators,  Reuben  Hopkins, 
Freegift  Tuthill,  Benjamin  Strong,  Stephen  Jackson, 
James  Carpenter,  David  M.  Westcott,  John  G.  Hur- 
tin,  and  their  associates.  The  line  began  "  at  the  line 
which  divides  the  States  of  New  York  and  New  Jer- 
sey, between  the  fortieth  and  forty-first  mile-stone," 
and  extended  thence  to  the  village  of  Westtown ; 
thence  to  Rutgers'  Kill,  near  the  mill  of  Jones  &  Van 
Cleft;  thence  to  Pellet's  round  hill,  near  the  edge  of 
Wallkill;  and  thence  on  the  most  eligible  route  to 
intersect  the  Goshen  and  Minisink  turnpike  near  the 
village  of  Goshen."  It  will  readily  be  observed  by 
those  familiar  with  the  lines  described  that  the  New 
Windsor  and  Blooming-Grove  turnpike,  through  its 
connections,  became  a  trunk  line  from  Minisink  to 
the  Hudson,  with  intersecting  branches  traversing  an 
extensive  district  in  tfie  western  part  of  the  county. 

The  "  Newburgh  and  New  Windsor  Turnpike  Com- 
pany" was  chartered  April  2,  1806, — capital  $5000. 
Charles  Clinton,  Daniel  Stringham,  John  McAuley, 
George  Monell,  Hugh  Walsh,  Isaac  Hasbrouck,  Selah 
Reeve,  Joseph  Morrell,  Abraham  Shultz,  Richard 
Trimble,  Jonas  Williams,  John  D.  Nicoll,  and  Samuel 
Lockwood  were  its  incorporators.  The  road  ran  from 
the  south  side  of  Renwick  Street,  in  the  village  of 
Newburgh,  "along  the  margin  of  Hudson's  River," 
to  the  village  of  New  Windsor,  with  a  toll-bridge  over 
Qaussaick  Creek.  In  1809  the  "  New  Windsor  and 
Cornwall  Turnpike  Company"  was  chartered, — cap- 
ital $30,000.  Its  incorporators  were  Michael  Smith, 
William  A.  Clark,  William  Jackson,  Nathaniel  Sands, 
Joseph  Morrell,  Zebulon  Townsend,  John  Coffey,  and 
those  who  should  be  associated  with  them.  Its  line 
ran  "  from  the  south  end  of  the  Newburgh  and  New 
Windsor  turnpike,  in  "the  village  of  New  Windsor; 
thence  crossing  the  Murderer's  Creek  at  or  near  where 
the  toll-bridge  now  stands ;  thence  through  the  village 
of  Canterbury,  near  the  house  of  Stephen  Crissey ; 
thence  through  the  town  of  Monroe,  passing  near  the 
mills  of  Zebulon  ToWnsend,  till  it  shall  intersect  the 
Orange  turnpike-road  at  or  near  the  house  of  Adam 
Belcher,  in  the  said  town  of  Monroe."  For  the  con- 
nection which  this  road  established  reference  can  be 
made  to  the  Orange  turnpike,  the  Goshen  and  Mon- 
roe turnpike,  and  the  Monroe  and  Haverstraw  turn- 

In  1810  the  "Newburgh  and  Plattekill  Turnpike 
Company"  was  chartered, — capital  $14,000.     Jacob 

Powell,  Daniel  Smith,  John  Wells,  Jonathan  Bailey, 
Justus  Cooley,  and  Henry  Butterworth  were  its  in- 
corporators. Its  line  ran  north  from  Newburgh  to 
Plattekill,  in  Ulster  County,  where  it  was  connected 
with  the  New  Paltz  and  Plattekill  and  the  Marlbor- 
ough and  Plattekill  turnpikes,  the  main  line  through 
New  Paltz  extending  to  Kingston. 

In  1815  the  "Snake  Hill  Turnpike  Company"  was 
chartered, — capital  $14,000.  Jonathan  Hasbrouck, 
William  Taylor,  Hiram  Wheeler,  Nathaniel  DuBois, 
and  Jonathan  Hedges  were  its  incorporators.  Its  line 
ran  from  the  Cochecton  turnpike  to  DuBois'  grist- 
mill at  West  Newburgh,  and  thence  along  the  foot  of 
Muchattoes  Hill  to  the  New  Windsor  and  Blooming- 
Grove  turnpike.  In  1819  its  line  was  extended  by 
the  "Clove  Turnpike  Road,"— capital  $3000;  incor- 
porators, Nathaniel  DuBois,  Jacob  Carpenter,  Jona- 
than Hedges,  and  Jonathan  Hasbrouck, — ^which  ran 
from  the  point  where  the  Snake  Hill  turnpike-road 
intersected  the  New  Windsor  and  Blooming-Grove 
turnpike-road,  and  thence  to  the  New  Windsor  and 
Cornwall  turnpike-road  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain, 
near  the  house  of  Samuel  Seaman.  The  entire  line 
crossed  every  road  from  the  west  to  the  village  of  New 
Windsor.  Its  special  object  was  to  develop  the  lands 
of  Nathaniel  DuBois  and  Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  who 
were  incorporators  in  both  companies. 

In  1809  the  "  Dunderberg  and  Clove  Turnpike 
Company"  was  chartered, — capital  $20,000.  Incor- 
porators, Alexander  McComb,  William  Bell,  John 
Coffey,  Thomas  Donavan,  Robert  Lamoreui,  and 
Zebulon  Townsend.  Its  line  began  "  at  Joshua  Cald- 
well's ferry,  at  the  east  point  of  the  Dunderberg 
Mountains,"  and  ran  along  the  west  side  of  Hudson's 
River  to  or  near  Doddletown ;  from  thence  to 
Queensborough  Furnace ;  and  from  thence  northwest- 
erly to  the  road  running  through  Smith's  Clove  at  or 
near  the  house  of  Robert  Lamoreux,  in  the  town  of 
Monroe.  By  subsequent  legislation  the  company  was 
authorized  to  extend  the  road  "  from  the  northwest 
end  thereof  to  the  stage  road  leading  from  Albany  to 
the  city  of  New  York,  to  intersect  the  said  stage  road 
at  or  near  the  dwelling-house  of  John  Smith,  in  the 
town  of  Monroe." 

The  "  Fort  Montgomery  Turnpike  Company"  wi» 
chartered  April  9,  1814.  Its  incorporators  were 
Nathan  Smith,  Benjamin  Roosa,  Selah  Smith,  Robert 
Davenport,  David  Havens,  and  James  Davis.  Its 
capital  was  $10,000,  and  its  road  began  "  at  or  near 
Fort  Montgomery,  and  near  the  landing"  then  "occu- 
pied by  Nathan  and  Selah  Smith,"  and  ran  from 
thence  northwesterly  "to  the  Forest  of  Dean  mire- 
hole;  thence  southwesterly  to  the  Dunderberg  End 
Clove  turnpike,  near  or  at  the  house  of  Isaac  HoUet, 
in  the  town  of  Monroe." 

In  1810  the  "  BeUvale  and  Monroe  Turnpike  Com- 
pany" was  chartered, — capital  $9000.    Incorporates 
William  Noble,  Isaac  Vander  Zer,  Joel  WhediP 
Stephen  Bartholf,  and  associates.    The  line  of  du 



road  began  ■"  at  or  near  Bellvale  mills,  in  the  town  of 
Warwick,  and  from  thence  on  the  most  eligible  route 
to  the  Orange  turnpike,  to  intersect  the  same  at  or 
near  the  dwelling-house  of  Benjamin  Bennett,  in  the 
town  of  Monroe." 

In  1812  the  "Merritt's  Island  Turnpike  Company" 
was  incorporated, — capital  $10,000.  Incorporators, 
John  Wheeler,  William  Thompson,  Joshua  Sayre, 
George  D.  Wickham,  Michael  A.  Jones,  Eobert 
Ferrier,  Moses  Wisner,  and  those  who  should  be  asso- 
ciated with  them.  The  line  of  the  road  began  "  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Drowned  Lands,  ia  the  town  of 
Warwick,"  and  ran  from  thence  to  Pine  Island; 
thence  to  Pochuck  Creek,  near  the  house  of  Moses 
Wisner;  thence  to  Merritt's  Island;  and  thence  across 
the  Wallkill  to  the  mainland  on  the  west  side  of  the 
Drowned  Lands,  in  lot  No.  4  in  the  first  division  of 
the  Drowned  Lands. 

April  9,  1813,  the  "Great  Island  Turnpike  Com- 
pany" was  chartered.  Its  capital  stock  was  $15,000. 
Incorporators,  Keuben  Hopkins,  Gideon  Jennings, 
Daniel  Millspaugh,  Archibald  Owen,  and  Nathaniel 
Wheeler.  The  line  of  the  road  began  "  on  the  road 
leading  from  the  Goshen  court-house  to  Florida,  at  or 
near  the  place  where  the  south  line  of  the  Goshen 
town-lots  cross  the  same,  and  ran  "  from  thence  across 
the  Little  and  Great  Islands,  and  from  thence  to  the 
line  of  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  to  intersect  the  same 
between  the  thirty-fourth  and  thirty-eighth  mile- 

In  1818  the  "White  Oak  Island  Turnpike  Com- 
pany" was  chartered, — capital  $5000.  Its  incorpo- 
ra,tors  were  Samuel  S.  Seward,  Jesse  Jayne,  Thomas 
Sweezy,  Samuel  Tuthill,  John  Curtice,  James  Vail, 
John  W.  Vanderolf,  Robert  Carr,  William  A.  Smith, 
and  Horace  Dibble.  Its  line  began  "  at  or  near  the 
church  in  the  village  of  Florida,"  and  ran  from  thence 
to  the  northwest  point  of  Round  Hill,  and  from  thence 
to  the  Great  and  Merritt's  Islands  turnpike,  on  White 
Oak  Island.  The  "Gardner's  Island  Turnpike  Com- 
pany" was  chartered  the  same  year, — capital  $15,000. 
Incorporators,  William  Thompson,  John  Bradner, 
Jesse  Woods,  Roger  Howell,  and  George  D.  Wickham. 
The  line  of  the  road  began  "  at  or  near  the  intersec- 
tion of  the  Merritt's  Island  and  Great  Island  turn- 
pike on  Pine  Island,"  and  ran  from  "thence  across  the 
Drowned  Lands  and  Pochuck  Kill  to  Gardner's 
Island,  and  from  thence  across  the  Drowned  Lands, 
by  or  near  the  house  of  Jesse  Woods,  to  the  Jersey 

In  1823  and  '24  two  additional  connections  were 
made  with  the  Orange  turnpike.  First,  the  "  Goshen 
and  Monroe  Turnpike  Company,"  chartered  in  1823,— 
capital  $7000.  Its  incorporators  were  Roger  Par- 
mele,  John  Wallace,  Thomas  G.  Evans,  Lewis  H.. 
Roe,  Nathaniel  Roe,  Cornelius  Board,  and  those  who 
should  associate  with  them.  The  line  of  the  road 
began  "  at  the  court-house  in  Goshen,''  and  ran  thence 
to  Chester;  thence  to  the  "Orange  turnpike  between 

the  first  and  second  mile-stones."  The  second,  "The 
Monroe  and  Haverstraw  Turnpike  Company,"  was 
incorporated  in  1824,  capital  not  stated.  Its  incorpo- 
rators were  Roger  Parmele,  Joseph  Black  well,  Henry 
McFarland,  George  Kyle,  Robert  Parkinson,  Samp- 
son Marks,  Abraham  Gurnee,  Abraham  Goetchius, 
George  Wyant,  Matthew  Benson,  Walter  Brewster, 
Samuel  Brewster,  Samuel  Goetchius,  Samuel  Smith, 
John  Suffern,  Edward  D.  Noyelles,  Lawrence  D. 
Noyelles,  John  F.  Smith,  Adam  Dater,  Jacob  Marks, 
Elias  Gurnee,  John  B.  Secor,  John  Rose,  Jacob  Odell, 
Harman  Felter,  "  and  their  heirs  and  assigns."  The 
road  ran  from  the  Orange  turnpike,  "  near  Parmele's 
slitting-mill,"  to  the  "  creek  landing  on  Hudson's 
River,  in  the  town  of  Haverstraw." 

The  list  of  turnpikes  is  completed  with  the  "  Otis- 
ville  Turnpike  Company,"  which  was  chartered  Feb. 
19,  1828.  The  capital  of  this  company  was  $5000. 
Its  incorporators  were  Stacey  Beakes,  Isaac  Otis,  Levi 
Westbrook,  and  Abner  P.  Gillet.  The  line  of  the  road 
began  "  at  or  near  the  dwelling-house  of  Isaac  Otis, 
in  the  town  of  Calhoun"  (Mount  Hope),  and  ran  thence 
"  along  the  centre  of  the  old  road  to  the  dwelling  of 
said  Isaac  Otis,  and  from  thence  to  Westbrook's  basin 
on  the  Hudson  and  Delaware  Canal,  in  the  county  of 

From  this  enumeration  it  will  be  seen  that  during 
the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century,  and  principally 
within  its  first  decade,  the  people  of  the  county  in- 
vested not  less  than  half  a  million  of  dollars  in  the 
construction  of  turnpikes.  Viewed  from  the  stand- 
point of  the  present,  the  sum  was  not  large ;  but  con- 
sidered in  connection  with  the  condition  of  the  people 
and  the  value  of  money  at  the  time  when  the  expen- 
diture was  made,  when  the  population,  ranging  from 
thirty  thousand  to  forty  thousand,  had  scarcely 
emerged  from  the  poverty  entailed  by  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  when  they  were  suffering  from  the  embarass- 
ments  of  the  embargo  and  the  war  of  1812,  it  assumes 
a  different  aspect,  and  clearly  establishes  the  extent 
of  the  traffic  which  demanded  the  outlay  and  the 
energy  with  which  it  was  undertaken  and  consum- 
mated. As  already  remarked,  the  results  of  the 
system  were  largely  to  the  advantage  of  Newburgh, 
changing,  as  it  did,  the  commercial  centre  from  New 
Windsor,  and  establishing  at  Newburgh  extensive 
connection  with  western  New  York.  In  1819  the 
trade  of  Newburgh  had  reached  Canandaigua  by  turn- 
pikes, over  which  passed  stage-coaches  conveying 
passengers,  and  freight  wagons  laden  with  goods. 
During  the  summer  of  that  year  a  company  was  or- 
ganized for  the  construction  of  a  steamer  on  Cayuga 
Lake,  with  a  view  to  extend  the  route  southward  to 
Ithaca.  The  first  meeting  of  the  stockholders  of  this 
company  was  held  at  Ithaca,  December  20th,  when 
David  Woodcock,  Oliver  Phelps,  James  Pompelly,  Jo- 
seph Benjamin,  and  Lewis  Tooker  were  chosen  direc- 
tors, who  appointed  David  Woodcock,  president, 
Charles  W.  Conner,  treasurer,  Charles  Humphrey,  sec- 



retary,  and  Oliver  Phelps,  agent.  The  people  of  New- 
burgh  were  asked  to  contribute  thesiim  of  one  thousand 
dollars  to  the  enterprise.  Nineteen  hundred  dollars, 
however,  were  immediately  subscribed  and  paid ;  and 
in  1820  the  first  steamer  on  Cayuga  Lake  plied  in 
connection  with  stage  lines  from  Newburgh,  "per- 
forming the  route  to  Ithaca  in  two  days."  In  1834 
the  line  was  extended  to  Geneva  and  Buffalo,  and  the 
entire  route  from  New  York  via  Newburgh  to  Buf- 
falo was  performed  in  sixty-five  hours,  "the  shortest 
and  most  expeditious  route  from  the  Hudson  River  to 
the  western  country,"* 

This  western  commerce  was  materially  impaired  by 
the  construction  of  the  Erie  Canal  in  1825,  while  that 
which  was  less  remote  was  similarly  afiected  by  the 
Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  in  1828.  The  latter, 
extending  from  Bondout  to  Port  Jervis,  and  from 
thence  to  Honesdale,  crossed  the  track  of  all  the  turn- 
pike connections  with  Sullivan  County  west  of  the 
Shawangunk  Mountains,  and  was  fatal  to  several  of 
them.  The  statement  made  by  Mr.  Quinlan — "the 
territory  that  this  road  would  have  accommodated 
would  have  supported  the  turnpike  had  it  not  been 
for  the  construction  of  the  Delaware  and  Hudson 
Canal" — has  a  more  general  application  than  to  the 
Mount  Hope  and  Lumberland  road.  In  common  with 
other  residents  in  the  southern  tier  of  counties,  the 
people  of  Orange  felt  that  injustice  had  been  done  to 
them  in  the  construction  of  the  Erie  Canal,  and  were 
ready  to  ask  the  State  for  aid  to  counteract  the  in- 
jurious results  of  that  enterprise  which  they  were  ex- 
periencing. At  this  juncture  McAdam  had  satisfac- 
torily demonstrated  to  many  that  a  stone  road  was 
superior  to  all  others,  and  it  was  urged  that  the  State 
should  build  one  from  Buffalo  to  the  Hudson.  The 
proposition  was  favorably  considered  by  the  Legis- 
lature, and  commissioners  were  appointed  to  survey 
the  different  routes.  Perhaps  the  road  would  have 
been  built  could  there  have  been  a  satisfactory  termi- 
nus on  the  Hudson  selected,  but  Catskill,  Pough- 
keepsie,  and  Newburgh  labored  to  secure  it.t  The 
commissioners  reported  in  favor  of  Catskill,  and  the 
remainder  of  the  story  is  soon  told:  the  bill  author- 
izing the  building  of  the  road  was  defeated  in  the 
Legislature  in  March,  1826.     But  the  seed  planted 

*  The  folluwing  items  are  from  "  Williams'  Annual  Register"  for 

"Stage  Lines. — Newburgh  and  Geneva  mail  stage,  ria  BInghamton, 
Owego,  and  lthaca,'leaves  Newburgh  daily  at  2  o'clock  a.m.  (after  ar* 
rival  of  night  boats  fnim  New  York  and  Albany).  Newburgh  and 
Goeben  stage  daily  at  9  a.m. 

"  DUtanceifrmn  Newburgh  to  lUixica,  Geneva^  and  Buffalo. 

MontiYiee 20  110 

Ni-w  Turk  Slate  Line 23  l:)3 

Montgomery  12 

Blooiningburgh 12  24 

Borne 3  27 

Moiiticello W  40 

Oichi-ctou 20  60 

Mount  Pli'asant 2.i  SS 

Tuncliaunuck 7  90 

Owpgo 8  141 

Itllata k  ...     2!)  I7U 

G.ueva 46  195 

Buflalii JOB  301 

Portland  on  Lake  Krie SO  351 

f  David  Bugfcles.  Selah  Reeve,  Jonathan  Fisk,  Ward  M.  Gazlay,  and 
Thomas  Phillips,  Jr.,  were  appointed  a  committee  to  take  charge  ol  the 
interests  of  Newburgh  In  the  matter,  at  a  public  meeting  In  January, 

by  Gen.  Clinton  in  his  grand  "  Appian  Way,"  and 
partially  brought  to  fruit  in  the  Newburgh  and  Co. 
checton  turnpike  and  its  western  connections,  had 
not  been  seconded  by  McAdam  with  utterly  barren 
results, — it  made  the  construction  of  the  Erie  Railroad 

But  while  commercial  relations  with  the  west  were 
impaired  by  the  Erie  and  Delaware  Canals,  the  terri- 
tory  unaffected  by  those  avenues  had  received  in- 
creased development  through  the  turnpikes  which 
had  been  constructed,  and  poured  its  abundant  har- 
vests upon  the  Hudson  River  entrepdts.  The  trade  of 
Cornwall  and  New  WindsorJ  was  large,  while  that  of 
Newburgh  was  unprecedented  in  its  previous  history. 
The  years  1835,  1836,  and  1837  were  especially 
marked  by  substantial  business  activity,  as  well  as  by 
that  which  formed  a  part  of  the  unsubstantial  ven- 
tures of  the  times.  Speaking  of  this  period,  the  Rev, 
James  R.  Willson,  in  an  address  delivered  before  the 
Newburgh  Literary  Association,  remarked,  "The 
average  arrivals  and  departures  daily,  estimated  to- 
gether, cannot  fall  much  short  of  three  hundred,  or 
eighty-four  thousand  in  one  season.  The  sections  of 
country  in  the  interior,  occupied  by  these  travelen, 
are  generally  connected  with  this  village  by  some 
commercial  ligament.  Great  numbers  of  these  trans- 
act much  business  here.  From  late  estimates  of  the 
daily  amount  of  exports  from  Newburgh,  it  would 
seem  that  in  one  season  they  cannot  fall  much  below 
four  and  one-half  millions  of  dollars."  But  this 
flood-tide  of  fortune  was  practically  the  close  of  the 
old  era  of  trade  and  commerce,  an  era  which  now 
lives  only  in  traditions  of  turnpike  travel,  and  of  long 
caravans  of  farmers'  wagons — the  Jersey  wagoru, 
the  Pennsylvania  wagons,  the  county  wagons,  and 
the  Ulster  and  Sullivan  County  wagons — laden  with 
produce  for  market,  or  returning  with  merchandise^ 
many  of  which  stopped  short  at  Goshen  when  the 
Erie  road  reached  that  village  in  1841,  and  gave  to  it 
a  temporary  activity,  and  which,  as  a  peculiar  feature 
of  that  era,  few  persons  now  living  remember  as  a  re- 
ality with  which  they  were  familiar,  but  which  many 
do  as  the  source  of  the  wealth  which  they  have  in- 


It  is  not  our  purpose  to  discuss  the  question  of  the 
origin  of  the  system  of  internal  improvements  in  the 
State,  or  to  attach  to  any  one  person  the  honor  due  to 
many  in  their  development.  They  were  eminently 
the  outgrowth  of  what  may  be  termed  natural  causee. 

X  Practiaally  the  commerce  of  New  Windsor  entered  upon  its  decay  tt 
the  opening  of  the  century,  and  continued  with  decreasing  volume  until 
it  closed.    The  cpusue  gives  the  following  comparative  figures : 


Population,  1782 1,487 

1790 2,366 

"  180(1 8,268 

"  1810 4.027 

"  1820 5,812 

"  1855 1A773 

"  1(«7B  (city) 17,322 

"  1876  (town) 3,538 

A'ew  Windsor, 

Population,  1782 —  VSL 

"  179U 

"  1800 

"  1810 

»  1820 

"  I860 

"  1875 




Going  back  to  the  colonial  era,  we  find  the  province 
peculiarly  fortunate  in  its  natural  system  of  water- 
communication.  Then,  to  the  north,  at  the  head  of 
boat-navigation,  the  Hudson  was  connected  by  an 
easy  portage  with  Lakes  George  and  Cbamplain,  and 
through  them  with  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  great  river 
of  the  Canadaa;  whilst  to  the  west  the  Mohawk, 
the  principal  affluent  of  the  Hudson,  gave  easy  access, 
scarcely  interrupted  by  a  few  short  portages,  to  the 
basin  of  the  great  lakes  and  to  the  magnificent  river 
system  of  the  Mississippi.  Like  many  of  our  old 
roads,  these  water-routes  had  been  followed  by  the 
Indians  in  their  canoes  for  ages.  Important  beyond 
present  appreciation  for  the  purposes  of  either  com- 
merce or  of  war  during  the  colonial  era,  their  improve- 
ment became  a  matter  of  earnest  thought  before  the 
war  of  the  Revolution  came  on,  nor  was  it  lost  sight 
of  during  that  eventful  period,  for  we  find  Governor 
Clinton,  in  1780,  inviting  Washington  to  a  survey,  and 
the  latter  accompanying  him  to  Albany  and  Saratoga, 
that  he  might,  from  personal  inspection,  be  able  to  j 
contribute  practical  suggestions.  In  1792  we  have 
the  report  of  a  committee  appointed  by  the  directors 
of  the  "  Western  Inland  Lock-Navigation  Company" 
to  examine  the  Mohawk  River  from  Schenectady  to 
Fort  Schuyler,  who  found  that  the  uninterrupted  lock- 
navigation  could  be  secured  by  an  expenditure  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars.  In  1800,  Gover- 
neur  Morris  suggested  a  direct  canal  from  Lake  Erie 
to  the  Hudson,  through  the  centre  of  the  State.  His 
plan  was  to  tap  the  lakes  and  have  a  continuous  slope 
therefrom  to  the  highlands  bordering  the  Hudson,  and 
a  series  of  locks  thence  to  the  river.  The  subject  was 
discussed  until  in  1808,  James  Geddes  was  appointed 
to  survey  a  canal  route.  His  report  excited  general 
attention,  and  secured  the  ready  approval  of  DeWitt 
Clinton,  who,  through  his  connection  with  his  uncle, 
Governor  George  Clinton,  and  his  conversations  with 
his  father,  James  Clinton,  was  already  thoroughly  in- 
doctrinated with  tlie  object  the  accomplishment  of 
which  was  sought.  In  1810  commissioners,  of  whom 
DeWitt  Clinton  was  the  head,  were  appointed  to  ex- 
plore a  canal  route  through,  the  centre  of  the  State. 
The  commissioners  reported  in  1811,  and  presented 
the  importance  of  the  improvement  so  forcibly  that 
they  were  continued  and  authorized  to  borrow  and 
deposit  money  and  take  cessions  of  land.  During  the 
war  of  181-2  the  project  was  held  in  abeyance,  but  in 
1816  a  definite  survey  was  authorized,  and  on  the  4th 
of  July,  1817,  the  work  of  construction  was  begun  at 
Rome.  On  the  26th  of  October,  1825,  DeWitt  Clin- 
ton, then  Governor,  and  who  for  fifteen  years  had  de- 
voted the  best  efforts  of  his  life  to  the  accomplishment 
of  the  work,  entered  the  canal  on  his  packet-boat  at 
Buffalo,  and  arrived  at  New  York  on  the  4th  of  No- 
vember, his  coming  heralded  by  signal  cannon  and 
blazing  beacon-fires.  But  great  as  was  the  work  which 
had  then  been  accomplished,  it  was  found  crude  and 
imperfect,  and  improvement  after  improvement  has 

been  added  to  it,  until,  with  its  connections,  its  orig- 
inal cost  has  been  multiplied  many  times,  but  can 
never  exceed  the  great  fund  of  wealth  and  develop- 
ment which  it  has  given  to  the  State. 

No  doubt  there  were  many  men  who  regarded  the 
construction  of  the  Erie  Canal  as  a  visionary  project; 
and  we  are  not  sure  that  had  we  been  living  at  that 
time  we  might  not  have  been  one  of  the  number,  and 
still  less  are  we  sure  that  we  might  not  have  regarded 
the  project  of  Maurice  Wurtz — who  proposed  to  tap 
the  coal-fields  of  Pennsylvania  with  railroad  and  canal 
and  place  a  hundred  thousand  tons  of  anthracite  coal 
on  the  New  York  market  annually,  at  a  time  when 
six  thousand  tons  would  glut  all  the  cities  on  the 
Atlantic  coast — as  a  monomaniac;  yet  Maurice  Wurtz, 
with  the  aid  of  his  brother  William,  and  some  people 
who  are  now  regarded  as  eminently  sensible  and  far- 
seeing,  accomplished  the  task  whereunto  he  was  called. 
Directly  touching  the  county  of  Orange,  the  Dela- 
ware and  Hudson  Canal  was  the  first  of  the  system 
of  improvements  which  now  intersect  and  bisect  it  in 
almost  all  directions — the  trunk  lines  of  railroads  and 
their  connecting  branches,  which  have  revolutionized 
its  commercial  avenues  and  placed  it  in  the  first  rank 
of  wealth  and  development.  After  many  fruitless 
surveys  to  find  a  practical  route  to  the  Hudson,  being 
debarred  from  Newburgh  by  the  Shawangunk  Moun- 
tains, the  old  Indian  trail  (the  Mine  road  route)  was 
adopted.  The  company  was  incorporated  April  23, 
1823,  with  a  capital  of  $1,500,000,  with  the  right  to 
use  $50,000  in  banking  until  1844,  and  the  credit  of 
the  State  was  loaned  for  $800,000  in  stock.  The  canal 
was  begun  in  July,  1825,  and  opened  for  use  in  Octo- 
ber, 1828.  Its  length  from  Rondout  to  Port  Jervis  is 
fifty-nine  miles ;  from  Port  Jervis  to  the  Lakawaxen, 
twenty-four  miles;  from  Lakawaxen  to  Honesdale, 
twenty-six  miles ;  thence  by  sixteen  miles  of  railroads 
to  the  coal-fields.  The  original  cost  of  the  New  York 
section  was  $1,424,994,  and  of  the  Pennsylvania  sec- 
tion (under  charter  from  Pennsylvania),  $612,123. 
The  first  locomotive  engine  in  America  was  imported 
from  England,  and  used  on  the  road  from  Honesdale. 
The  canal  runs  through  the  town  of  Deerpark,  from 
Port  Jervis  at  the  south,  on  the  Delaware,  to  Cudde- 
backville,  and  on  to  the  line  of  the  town  on  the  north, 
and  adds  $300,000  to  its  real  estate  valuation. 

With  a  view  to  counteract  the  detrimental  effect  of 
the  opening  of  the  Delaware  Canal,  the  people  of 
Newburgh,  in  1829,  united  in  the  organization  of  a 
company  for  the  construction  of  a  railroad  to  connect 
with  the  coal-fields  of  Pennsylvania,  and  on  the  30th 
of  April,  1830,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  consti- 
tuting and  appointing  David  Crawford,  Christopher 
Reeve,  John  P.  DeWint,  Thomas  Powell,  Joshua 
Conger,  Charles  Borland,  William  Walsh,  John 
Forsyth,  and  their  associates,  "  a  body  corporate  and 
politic  by  the  name  of  the  Hudson  and  Delaware 
Railroad  Company,"  for  the  purpose  of  constructing 
a  single  or  double  railroad  or  way  from  any  part  of 



the  villageofNewburgh,  through  thecounty  of  Orange, 
to  the  Delaware  River.  The  capital  of  the  company 
was  fixed  at  $500,000,  with  power  to  increase  the  same 
to  $1,000,000,  if  necessary;  and  David  Crawford, 
Charles  Borland,  Peter  Cuddeback,  Thomas  Powell, 
J.  P.  DeWint,  Joseph  Kernochan,  Peter  H.  Schenck, 
and  John  W.  Knevels  were  appointed  commissioners 
to  open  subscriptions.  This  act,  however,  became 
void,  no  effort  having  been  made  to  build  the  road 
"  within  three  years"  after  the  time  of  its  passage. 

Meanwhile,  the  present  New  York,  Lake  Erie  and 
Western  Railroad  was  struggling  into  being.  As 
already  intimated,  this  project  was  the  outgrowth  of 
Gen.  Clinton's  "  Appian  Way"  and  McAdam's  stone 
road ;  but  it  may  be  added  that  the  Baltimore  experi- 
ment of  1829,  of  cars  furnished  with  masts  and  sails 
and  propelled  by  wind,  had  not  a  little  to  do  in  finally 
cradling  it.  Aroused  by  a  pamphlet  issued  at  that 
time,  in  which  the  writer,  advocating  an  "  Atlantic 
and  Mississippi  Railway,"  running  at  least  partially 
on  the  present  line  of  the  Erie,  a  convention  of  dele- 
gates from  all  the  southern  counties  of  the  State,  ex- 
cept Orange  and  Rockland,  was  held  at  Owego,  on  the 
20th  of  December,  1831,  at  which  it  was  resolved  to 
apply  to  the  Legislature  for  a  charter  for  a  railroad 
from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Hudson.  We  say  a  railroad, 
but  not  in  the  sense  that  the  term  is  now  understood, 
for  the  proposition  was  to  make  a  road  suitable  for  the 
use  of  horses,  so  that  tlie  inhabitants  who  lived  along 
the  route  could  employ  their  own  cars  and  motive- 
power.  "  Animal  power,"  said  the  manager,  "  may 
be  considered  the  natural  power  of  the  country ;  and 
on  long  routes,  where  great  inequalities  in  the  amount 
of  transport  and  travel  will  occur,  where  the  com- 
modities to  be  conveyed,  instead  of  presenting  a  reg- 
ular supply,  will  probably  amount  to  many  times  as 
much  some  months  as  others,  the  use  of  horses  max 
be  expected,  for  a  time  at  least,  to  be  practically 
cheaper  than  steam."  A  road  for  locomotives,  it  was 
agreed,  would  cost  from  twelve  thousand  to  fourteen 
thousand  dollars  per  mile,  while  one  for  animals  could 
be  made  for  five  thousand  or  six  thousand  dollars,  and 
on  the  latter  the  company  would  be  at  no  expense  for 
engines,  carriages,  etc.  To  carry  out  this  magnificent 
plan  one  million  of  dollars  was  all  that  was  asked. 
Books  of  subscription  were  opened  July  9,  1833,  and 
the  amount  subscribed.  Unfortunately,  however,  a 
large  part  of  the  stock  was  taken  by  one  William  G. 
Buckner,  who,  on  the  last  day  and  at  the  last  moment, 
took  all  that  was  not  secured  by  others.  A  year 
passed,  during  which  the  company  did  not  receive 
enough  from  its  stockholders  and  others  to  make  ne- 
cessary surveys.  In  1834  the  Legislature  was  ap- 
pealed to  to  grant  fifteen  thousand  dollars  to  enable 
Benjamin  Wright  and  his  subordinates  to  examine 
the  route.  The  amount  asked  was  granted,  and  the 
survey  made,  but  it  failed  to  give  vitality  to  the  pro- 
ject. In  1835  the  Legislature  was  petitioned  to  ena- 
ble the  State  to  become  a  stockholder. 

It  was  at  this  point  in  the  history  of  the  road  that, 
on  the  30th  of  November,  1835,  a  meeting  of  the  citi- 
zens of  Newburgh  was  held  at  the  Orange  Hotel  (pur- 
suant to  a  call  signed  by  David  Ruggles,  John  For- 
syth, Nathaniel  DuBois,  Charles  H.  Bellows,  Olivet 
Davis,  and  David  Crawford),  of  which  Gilbert  0. 
Fowler  was  chosen  president,  Nathaniel  DuBois,  vice- 
president,  and  John  W.  Knevels,  secretary.  The  sub- 
jects discussed  at  this  meeting  were  mainly  these 
two,  viz. :  What  course  should  be  puroued  in  refer- 
ence to  an  application  to  the  Legislature  for  a  sub- 
scription on  the  part  of  the  State  to  the  New  York 
and  Erie  Railroad  Company;  and,  the  feasibility  of 
uniting  the  Hudson  and  Delaware  road  with  that  of 
the  New  York  and  Erie.    The  meeting 

"  BeaoXved,  That  we  will  unite  in  the  application  to  the  Legislature  for 
a  8ul)Scription  on  the  part  of  the  State  to  the  stock  of  the  New  Tork  tod 
Erie  Railroad  Company.  That  we  will  nleu  join  in  a  petition  to  the  Leg- 
islatnre  for  the  grant  of  a  charter  upon  liberal  terms  incorporating  t 
company  to  construct  a  railway  from  this  Tillage  to  the  Delaware  Birar, 
and  that  we  will  bear  our  proportion  according  to  oui  several  meanill 
subscription  to  the  stuck. 

"  Reaolvedt  That  a  committee  of  five  persons  be  appointed  to  conui. 
nicate  witti  the  directors  of  the  New  York  and  Erie  Railroad  Compaqr, 
and  present  to  them  a  proposition  (as  detailed  to  the  meeting)  forunitlDg 
the  efforts  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  vicinity  with  that  company  in  thfl 
successful  prosecution  of  the  project  for  constructing  a  railroad  from  Lake 
Erie  to  the  Hudson  Elver." 

On  this  committee  the  following  persons  were 
placed,  viz. :  John  W.  Knevels,  Nathaniel  DuBois, 
Oliver  Davis,  and  G.  O.  Fowler.  The  following  reso- 
lution was  unanimously  concurred  in,  viz. : 

"  Reaolved,  That  a  committee  be  appointed  whose  duty  it  shall  be  to 
give  the  required  legal  notice  iu  the  piipUc  newspapers  of  our  liiteutioD 
to  apply  for  an  act  of  incorporation  for  the  coustrnction  of  a  railwij 
from  the  village  of  Newburgh  to  the  Delaware  River;  to  prepare  snd 
circulate  petitions  to  the  Legislature  in  liehalf  of  this  application;  to 
draft  the  act  of  incorporation,  and  report  their  proceedings  to  the  lOMt- 
ing  at  the  time  to  which  it  shall  stand  adjourned.'* 

The  following  persons  were  appointed  upon  the  last- 
mentioned  committee,  viz.  :  John  W.  Knevels,  Abra- 
ham M.  Smith,  John  Forsyth,  John  Thayer,  Benja- 
min H.  Mace. 

Now  began  the  struggle  to  secure  the  eastern  ter- 
minus of  the  Erie  at  Newburgh ;  and  the  interests  of 
the  Delaware  road,  as  a  distinct  project,  awaited  the 
issue.  We  cannot  now  intelligently  review,  perhaps, 
the  discussions  involved  in  the  proposition  ;  nor  is  it 
necessary  in  view  of  the  experiences  of  the  Erie, 
which  soon  demonstrated  that  neither  Newburgh  aff" 
Piermont  was  the  proper  outlet  for  the  road,  and  that 
the  line  over  the  Oxford  grade  should  never  have 
been  adopted.  Practically,  the  discussion  assumed 
this  phase,  viz.:  the  route  to  Newburgh  cut  off  Goshen 
from  the  main  line ;  to  run  through  Goshen  made  the 
Piermont  outlet  a  necessity.  The  adoption  of  the 
Piermont  outlet  settled  the  controversy,  and  was  at 
that  time,  perhaps,  the  wisest  course  that  could  have 
been  pursued,  as  it  at  least  gave  the  nearest  connec- 
tion with  New  York  City  without  passing  out  of  the 
State,  and  made  the  present  connections  through  Wp 
Jersey  more  immediately  possible.     In  the  course  oT 



time,  the  line  through  Goshen,  the  Oxford  grade,  and 
the  Shawangunk  Mountains  will  share  the  fate  of 

When  it  became  known  that  those  who  were  most 
active  in  the  Erie  Company  had  decided  in  favor  of 
the  Piermont  route,  the  citizens  of  Newburgh  again 
took  up  the  Delaware  project,  and  on  the  21gt  of  April, 
1836,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  "to  renew  and 
amend"  the  original  charter.  By  this  act  "  David 
Crawford,  Christopher  Eeeve,  Oliver  Davis,  John  For- 
syth, Thomas  Powell,  Joshua  Conger,  David  Ruggles, 
Benjamin  Carpenter,  and  their  associates"  were  consti- 
tuted abodypoliticandcorporate,bythe  nameof  "The 
Hudson  and  Delaware  Railroad  Company,"  for  the 
purpose  of  constructing  a  road  "  commencing  in  the 
north  part  of  the  village  of  Newburgh,  and  running 
from  thence  along  the  Hudson  River  in  front  of  said 
village  as  far  as  the  trustees  of  the  said  village" 
should  determine,  and  thence  to  the  Delaware  River. 
The  capital  stock  of  the  company  was  fixed  at 
$500,000,  and  Gilbert  O.  Fowler,  Charles  Borland, 
John  Forsyth,  Thomas  Powell,  Benjamin  H.  Mace, 
John  P.  DeWiht,  Abraham  M.  Smith,  James  G.  Clin- 
ton, and  John  W.  Knevels  were  appointed  commis- 
sioners to  open  subscriptions. 

On  the  15th  of  June,  1836,  the  first  election  for  di- 
rectors under  the  amended  act  was  held  at  the  Or- 
ange Hotel,  when  Thomas  Powell,  John  Forsyth,  Da- 
vid Crawford,  Benjamin  Carpenter,  John  P.  DeWint, 
John  Ledyard,  Christopher  Reeve,  Gilbert  0.  Fowler, 
James  G.  Clinton,  Nathaniel  DuBois,  Samuel  G.  Sne- 
den,  David  W.  Bate,  and  Oliver  Davis  were  chosen. 
At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the  directors  Thomas 
Powell  was  elected  president;  David  W.  Bate,  vice- 
president;  John  Ledyard,  tresKurer;  and  James  G. 
Clinton,  secretary. 

A  survey  of  the  route  was  made  soon  after  by  John 
B.  Sargeant,  who  reported  the  length  of  the  proposed 
road  as  thirty-eight  miles,  and  the  cost  as  ten  thou- 
sand dollars  per  mile.  Stock  to  a  sufficient  amount 
having  been  subscribed,  steps  were  taken  to  grade  the 
section  between  Washingtonville  and  the  Quassaick 
Creek.  Ground  was  broken  on  the  3d  of  November, 
1836,  with  appropriate  ceremonies,  and  the  auspicious 
event  was  celebrated  by  a  general  illumination  of  the 
village.  In  response  to  a  petition  on  the  part  of  the 
citizens  interested  in  the  road,  the  Legislature,  in  the 
early  part  of  the  session  of  1837,  passed  an  act  ena- 
bling the  trustees  of  the  village  to  purchase  at  par 
one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars  worth  of  the 
stock.  The  subscription  was  made  in  accordance 
with  the  provisions  of  the  act ;  and  on  the  10th  of 
January,  1888,  the  trustees  paid  their  first  and  last 
installment  of  ten  thousand  dollars. 

The  financial  reverses  of  1837  prostrated  the  enter- 
prise; and  although  a  considerable  portion  of  the 
section  placed  under  contract  in  August,  1836,  was 
graded,  the  work  was  not  continued.  However,  in 
1840,  the  Erie  Company  having  asked  the  aid  of  the 

State,  the  whole  influence  of  the  citizens  of  Newburgh 
was  exerted  to  compel  that  company,  as  a  condition 
of  aid,  to  construct  a  branch  road  to  Newburgh.* 
The  effort  was  unsuccessful;  the  Erie  Company  re- 
ceived a  loan  of  the  credit  of  the  State  to  the  amount 
of  three  million  dollars.  The  embarrassment  of  the 
Erie  Company  culminated  in  1842,  and  its  affairs 
were  placed  in  the  hands  of  assignees.  In  1845,  the 
company  having  again  applied  to  the  Legislature  for 
aid,  the  citizens  of  Newburgh  again,  and  this  time 
with  success,  pressed  the  proposition  for  a  branch 
road.  Their  efforts  led  to  a  conference  with  the  Erie 
Company,  which  resulted  in  the  submission  of  bills  to 
the  Legislature, — the  first  releasing  the  company  from 
the  payment  of  the  three  million  dollars  loan,  on  con- 
dition that  a  bona-fide  subscription  to  that  amount 
should  be  secured  within  eighteen  months ;  the  second, 
requiring  the  company  to  construct  a  branch  to  New- 
burgh within  six  years  after  the  passage  of  the  act. 
To  more  certainly  secure  the  latter,  a  written  agree- 
ment was  made,  on  the  19th  of  March,  between  the 
directors  of  the  Hudson  and  Delaware  Company  and 
the  directors  of  the  Erie  Company,  by  which  the  for- 
mer conveyed  to  the  latter  "  all  the  grants,  lands,  im- 
munities, franchises,  improvements,  rights,  privileges, 
maps  and  charts,  and  all  of  the  real  and  personal  es- 
tate of  every  kind  whatsoever  belonging"  to  that  com- 
pany under  and  by  virtue  of  its  charter,  in  consid- 
eration of  the  sum  of  not  less  than  forty  thousand 
dollars;  the  Erie  Company  agreeing  as  a  further 
consideration  that  on  the  passage  of  the  bill,  then 
before  the  Legislature,  authorizing  the  company 
to  construct  a  Branch  Road  to  Newburgh,  and  also  the 
bill  releasing  the  company  from  the  payment  of  the 
three  millions  loaned  to  it  by  the  State,  that  then, 
upon  the  bonix-fide  subscription  of  the  Hudson  and 
Delaware  Company  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars 
to  the  capital  stock  of  the  Erie  Company,  the  latter 
would  construct  the  branch  to  Newburgh  and  issue  to 
the  Hudson  and  Delaware  Company  stock  to  the 
amount  of  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand  dollars. 
On  the  payment  of  twenty-five  per  cent,  of  the  sub- 
scription of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  "  the  same, 
together  with  a  sum  equal  to  twice  that  amount,"  to  be 
furnished  by  the  Erie  Company,  was  to  be  "  actually 
expended"  upon  the  branch  "  simultaneously  with 
and  as  rapidly"   as  that  company  should  progress 

*  At  a  meeting  of  the  citizens  of  Newburgh,  held  March  4, 1840, — 
Moses  H.  Belknap,  president,  and  Solomon  TuthiU,  clerk, — it  was 

"  Remlved,  That  if  the  Lef;islatnre  shall  grant  further  aid  to  the  New 
York  and  Erie  Railroad  Company  by  any  former  or  future  law,  to  be 
passed  for  that  purpose,  in  such  case  the  expenditure  thereof  shall  be 
made  under  the  more  immediate  superrision  of  the  State ;  and  upon  the 
middle  and  western  sections  of  said  road,  where  the  same  would  connect 
with  works  already  constructed,  such  as  the  Delaware  and  Hudson,  the 
Chenango  and  Chemung  Canals,  and  the  Ithaca  and  Owego  Kailroad, 
and  yield  an  immediate  profit,  which  cannot  be  effected  by  conbtructing 
the  eastern  end  of  said  road  in  the  first  place,  as  is  now  being  done. 

"  Reaolvedy  That  no  such  further  aid  be  granted,  unless  it  be  accompa- 
nied by  legislative  provision  for  the  construction  of  a  branch  of  said 
road  terminating  at  Newburgh." 



with  its  main  line ;  and  this  ratio  of  payments  and 
expenditures  was  to  continue  until  three  hundred 
thousand  dollars  was  expended.  In  case  that  sum 
did  not  complete  the  branch,  then  further  subscrip- 
tions, by  the  Hudson  and  Delaware  Company,  if 
made,  should  "  be  immediately  applied  to  the  con- 
struction of  said  branch  and  the  putting  of  the  same 
in  operation."  The  interests  of  the  roads  being  thus 
harmonized,  the  bills  referred  to  were  passed  by  the 
Legislature  on  the  14th  of  May  following.  The  stock 
subscription  required  from  the  Hudson  and  Delaware 
Company  under  the  agreement  was  soon  raised,  and 
fifteen  thousand  dollars  in  addition, — in  all,  one  hun- 
dred and  fifteen  thousand  dollars.  The  following  are 
the  names  of  the  subscribers,  and  the  number  of 
shares  taken  by  each,  as  nearly  as  can  be  ascertained : 


Atwood,  William 1 

Agiiew,  William 25 

Bsrclny,  David  H 6 

Brlkimp,  A.  &  M.  H 5 

Brtts,  Fre<lerii:k  J 20 

Belknap,  Aunm 10 

Beveridgp,  J.  ft  Co 100 

BreiiDan,  Patriclc 5 

Bennett,  Hiram 10 

Brown,  .lohn  W 5 

Bnckinghani,  B.  F 2 

Bncliauau,  H.  P 2 

Buntun,  Lewis  S 5 

Barker,  John 3 

Chaml>ere,  James 15 

Chanilteis,  Jolin 5 

Calyer,  Daniel  K 2 

CrawriinJ,  David 50 

Crawford,  Mailler  ft  Co 60 

Cleary,  William 3 

Cornwell,  George 5 

Corwiu,  Halsey  A  Co 8 

Clu^ton,  Jithn 3 

DeWiiit,  John  P 100 

DeOrolf,  James 3 

BuBoia,  NHtl]»niel 20 

Falld,  Hiram 3 

Fan-iuKton,  Daniel 20 

Felter,  Thepon 2 

Fo«ler,  Jacob  V.  B 6 

Fowler,  M.  V.  B 5 

Gardner,  Silas  D 2 

Gerwrd.  Franklin 3 

Gowtley,  James 1 

Gorliam,  John  R. 3 

Hasbronck,  Wm.  C 5 

Harris,  John 10 

Halsey,  Walter 10 


Haabrouck,  Eli 5 

Halstead  ft  Co .'i 

Hathaway,  Odell  S 10 

Hawkins,  Wm.  H 1 

Horton  ft  McCanily 10 

Johnes,  Edward  R 10 

Kemp,  Robert  D 3 

Kernochan,  Joseph 6U 

Lander,  Tobaa  D 2 

Little,  John 2 

Little.  Thomas 2 

Mecklem,  George 5 

Miller,  C.  B 15 

Monell,  John  J 5 

Moflat,  D.  H 5 

Niveu,  T.  M 10 

Nicoll,  Wm.  C 1 

Oakley,  Ltaac  K 4 

Powell,  Thos.  ft  Co 250 

Purdy,  Henry  L 2 

Robinson,  C'apt.  Henry 50 

Stanton  ft  Clark 3 

Sneed.  Georj:e 3 

^pie^  ft  Wilson 2 

Smith,  Corns.  C 10 

Smith,  Wm.  P.  C 5 

Smith  ft  Booth 5 

Smith,  Oi-ville  M 3 

Storm,  GaiTet 50 

Tvler,  Benjamin 10 

Van  Nort,  Benj.  W 10 

Weed,  Harvey 60 

Williams,  Saiiiuel 3 

Walsh,  Henry 5 

Zaiiriskie,  A.  G 3 

Wiley,  John - 5 

Wauffli,  James  S 2 

Whited,  J.  J.  ft  Co S 

On  the  fulfillment  of  this  stock  subscription  by  the 
citizens  of  Newburgh,  it  was  their  prerogative  to  be 
represented  in  the  board  of  the  Erie  Company  by  a 
local  director,  and  Homer  Bamsdell  was  accordingly 
nominated  by  the  subscribers,  and  elected  as  ^uch  di- 
rector in  the  summer  of  1845.  The  first  contracts 
made  by  the  Erie  Company  upon  its  reorganization 
under  the  amended  act  of  1845  were  those  for  con- 
structing the  Newburgh  branch  and  that  part  of  the 
main  line  between  Middletown  and  Otisville.  The 
work  was  carried  forward  under  the  agreement  until 
in  1847,  when,  by  reason  of  enormous  expenditures 
upon  the  main  line  between  Otisville  and  Bingham- 
ton,  and  when  only  about  one  hundred  and  fifteen 
thousand  dollars  (the  amount  subscribed  at  New- 
burgh) had  been  expended  upon  the  branch,  the  Erie 
Company  was  so  pressed  for  money  that  a  suspension 
of  the  work  upon  the  branch  was  deemed  imperative. 
To  prevent  this  and  to  bridge  over  the  necessities  of 
the  hour,  the  Newburgh  director  agreed  to  negotiate 

the  acceptances  of  the  company  for  each  successive 
monthly  estimate  until  January,  1849,  at  which  time 
all  were  to  mature.  During  this  time  the  further  gam 
of  one  hundred  and  thirty  thousand  dollars  was  ex- 
pended upon  the  branch. 

The  opening  of  the  main  line  of  the  Erie  to  Bing. 
hamton,  on  the  27th  of  December,  1848,  was  attended 
by  a  cost  far  exceeding  the  estimates,  and  the  finance) 
of  the  company  were  correspondingly  embarrassed. 
Added  to  this  were  heavy  drains  for  work  then  being 
vigorously  pushed  upon  the  Susquehanna  divigioD,8o 
that  the  directory,  in  January,  1849,  deemed  them- 
selves forced  to  discontinue  the  expenditures  upoa 
the  branch.  At  this  juncture  the  Newburgh  director 
proposed  to  raise  the  sura  of  one  hundred  and  forty- 
five  thousand  dollars  upon  the  acceptances  of  the  com- 
pany, to  mature  May,  1851,  and  to  pay  the  same  to 
the  company,  provided  responsible  parties  in  New- 
burgh would  indorse  the  acceptances,  and  also  pro- 
vided the  company  would  execute  a  mortgage  upon 
the  branch  as  security  for  the  amount.  In  view  of 
the  compulsory  clause  in  the  act  of  1845,  releasing 
the  company  from  the  payment  of  the  three  milliob 
dollar  loan,  conditioned  upon  finishing  the  road  to 
Dunkirk  and  also  the  Newburgh  branch,  in  May, 
1861,  and  as  a  financial  measure,  the  board  of  direc- 
tors accepted  the  proposition  and  adopted  the  fol- 
lowing preamble  and  resolution : 

"  At  a  meeting  of  the  directors  of  the  New  York  and  Erie  Bailrai 
Company,  the  foUowing  preamble  and  resolution  were  unanimoul; 
adopted(Jan.  10, 18491: 

*'  Wher&Uf  There  has  already  been  expended  upon  the  Newburgb 
branch,  in  conformity  to  agreement,  about  the  sum  of  two  hnndndaii 
forty-live  thousand  dollars,  which,  together  with  the  sums  Decesau;  to 
complete  the  pi  esent  contracts,  say  twenty  thousand  dullarB,  will  DfO^ 
make  up  the  amount  required  to  be  advanced  by  this  company  towud 
the  construction  of  said  branch  road,  as  per  agreement  of  19th  of  Marah, 
1S46 ;  and  whereas,  the  inhabitants  of  Newburgh,  in  order  to  secare  the 
conipletiim  of  the  said  mail  by  the  first  day  of  Septemtier  next,  propw 
to  advance  upon  the  Hcceptancee  of  this  company  one  hundred  and  Ibr^- 
five  thousand  d<  liars  for  that  purpose;  and  whereas,  upon  the  extenrioa 
of  the  main  line  of  our  road  to  Elmira,  if  not  earlier,  said  branch  nal 
will  be  of  great  value  if  completed  ;  therefore 

^HeKolved,  That  the  supeiinteuding  engineer  upon  the  Newburgh  biuofc 
is  hereby  authorized  to  draw  upon  the  treasurer  of  this  company  in  nnl 
not  less  than  five  hundred  dollars  to  an  amount  in  the  aggregate  of  okk 
hundred  and  forty-five  thousand  dollars,  which  drafts  shall  be  paysUt 
in  May,  1861  (the  time  prescribed  by  the  law  of  tbia  State  for  thsot^- 
pletion  of  saiil  branch  road),  and  bear  interest  at  seven  per  cent  per 
annum  payable  half-yearly;  and  that  Homer  Bamsdell  be  authoriud to 
procure  the  money  upon  said  acceptances  and  deposit  it  with  the  tress, 
urer  to  be  applied  toward  the  purchase  of  iron  rails  and  completioD  of 
said  branch  road  as  aforesaid;  and  that  the  president  is  her«liy  sutbw^ 
ized  to  issue  such  orders  as  shall  be  necessary  to  carry  out  the  intsDtloi 
of  the  foregoing  preamble  and  resolution. 

**  A  true  copy,       Nathaniel  Habsb,  Secy.** 

"  In  consideration  of  and  in  conformity  to"  thii 
preamble  and  resolution,  the  following  persons  made 
written  agreement,  on  the  15th  of  January,  1849,  tt 
indorse  the  acceptances  of  the  Erie  Company  for  the 
sums  set  opposite  their  names : 

T.  Powell  ft  Co J45.000 

J.  Beverldge  ft  Co 25,000 

John  P  DeWint 26,0(10 

B.  Carpenter  ft  Co 10,010 

Adam  Lilbnm » 1,000 

Crawford,  Mailler  ft  Co. f|^ 

J.  V.  B.  Fowler  ft  Co. !*• 

F.  Gerard  and  Jaa.  DaOluff.     1  A* 

Wm.  C.  Haabrouck 1;*5 

N.  Beeve l,l» 



George  Mecklem tSOO 

Spitr&WjIaon 50O 

Euoch  Carter 500 

Udell  S.  Hathnway 3,0<i0 

Chriatopher  B.  Miller 2,0(Vl 

Aaron  B.  Belknap 1,0(10 

k>nu.  0.  Smith (1,000 

tauton,  Clark  ft  Co 1,000 

lenj.  Tyler 1,000 

>anlt'l  Farrington 1,000 

L&H.  H.Belknap 1,000 

'no.  J.  Honell 1,000 

Darwin.  HalMV  ft  Co 1,000 

MchardC.  Smith 1,000                                               $14ij,500 

These  acceptances  were  also  all  indorsed  by  Thomas 
Powell  &  Co.  On  the  23d  of  February  following, 
Messrs.  Powell,  Bamsdell  &  Co.  and  J.  Beveridge  & 
Do.  purchased  two  thousand  tons  of  railroad  iron, 
then  in  the  hands  of  Davis,  Brooks  &  Co.,  at  forty 
dollars  per  ton  and  duties  thereon,  for  which  the  notes 
of  Powell  &  Co.  were  given  for  fifty-five  thousand 
dollars,  and  the  notes  of  Beveridge  &  Co.  for  twenty- 
three  thousand  dollars.  In  addition  to  the  iron. 
Homer  Eamsdell  purchased  the  depot-grounds, — em- 
bracing the  river-front  between  the  Whaling  Com- 
pany's dock  and  the  north  line  of  Western  Avenjie, 
and  also  a  lot  south  of  the  dock  of  John  W.  Wells, ' 
fronting  one  hundred  and  sixty-five  feet  on  Water 
Street  and  the  river, — paying  for  the  same  twenty 
thousand  dollars.  The  property  of  John  W.  Wells, 
ninety-one  feet  on  the  river,  with  a  quit-claim  to  one- 
half  of  Western  Avenue,  was  condemned  and  taken 
on  the  award  of  commissioners  at  forty  thousand  dol- 
lars. On  settlement  in  June,  it  was  found  that  Powell 
&  Co.  were  at  that  time,  through  indorsements,  ac- 
ceptances, and  advances,  responsible  for  two  hundred 
and  two  thousand  two  hundred  and  nineteen  dollars. 
The  capital  thus  furnished  completed  the  branch,  and 
on  the  9th  of  January,  1850,  its  opening  was  cele- 
brated with  appropriate  festivities. 

The  old  Delaware  and  Hudson  Company  left  be- 
hind, as  memorials  of  its  existence,  a  partly-graded 
track  and  the  stock  subscription  of  the  village  of 
Newburgh  (110,000),  upon  the  debt  for  which  the 
interest  was  annually  paid  until  the  village  became  a 
city.  The  details  of  its  history,  as  well  as  those  of 
the  construction  of  the  branch,  now  serve  as  monu- 
ments to  the  memory  of  those  who  were  their  projec- 
tors and  supporters.  The  efibrt  of  1837  is  now  an 
accomplished  fact :  the  coal-mines  of  Pennsylvania 
are  in  connection  with  Newburgh  by  rail ;  but  the  ad- 
vantages of  the  earlier  enterprise  passed  away,  to  a 
very  large  extent,  with  its  opportunity. 

The  time  may  not  be  distant,  however,  when  more 
direct  connection  with  the  coal-fields  than  by  the 
main  line  of  the  Erie  and  the  Newburgh  branch  will 
be  effected  through  the  Warwick  Valley  Railroad  and 
the  Wawayanda  Railroad  and  its  connections  in  New 
Jersey.  The  Warwick  Valley  Railroad  was  the  out- 
growth of  a  proposition,  made  soon  after  the  comple- 
tion of  the  Newburgh  branch,  to  extend  its  line  to 
the  Delaware  River,  for  which  a  survey  and  maps 
were  made  and  there  rested.  In  1859,  Mr.  Grinnell 
Burt  and  other  residents  of  Warwick  practically  re- 
vived the  project  by  organizing  the  "  Warwick  Valley 
Railroad  Company,"  under  the  following  board  of 
directors:  Grinnell  Burt,  John  Rutherford,  Thomas 
B.  DeKay,  Ezra  Sanford,  James  B.  Wheeler,  Milton 

McEwen,  James  Burt,  John  H.  Brown,  John  L.  Wel- 
ling, William  Herrick,  James  P.  Houston,  and  Nathan 
R.  Wheeler.  On  organization,  the  directors  elected 
Grinnell  Burt,  president;  Milton  McEwen,  vice- 
president;  James  B.  Wheeler,  treasurer;  William 
Herrick,  secretary.  The  capital  stock  was  $100,000, 
of  which  Newburgh  furnished  $10,500.  When  the 
road  was  completed,  the  bonded  and  floating  debt 
amounted  to  a  little  over  one  hundred  thousand  dol- 
lars, forty  per  cent,  of  which  has  since  been  paid  out 
of  the  earnings  of  the  road,  and  a  surplus  of  an  equal 
amount  has  been  expended  to  extend  the  road  to  the 
New  Jersey  State  line.  In  consideration  of  these 
payments  and  to  create  a  surplus  fdnd,  a  stock  divi- 
dend of  one  hundred  per  cent,  was  declared  to  the 
stockholders  in  1867.  Regular  annual  dividends  of 
seven  per  cent,  have  been  paid  from  the  earnings  of 
the  road,  showing  that,  aside  from  the  advantages 
which  it  has  conferred  upon  the  district  which  it  tra- 
verses, it  has  been  a  pecuniary  success.  The  company 
was  consolidated,  in  the  fall  of  1879,  with  the  Wa- 
wayanda Railroad  of  New  Jersey,  by  which  its  line 
is  extended  to  McAfee,  N.  J.,  on  the  Sussex  Rail- 

The  Newburgh  and  New  York  Railroad  Company 
was  organized  in  the  city  of  New  York,  Dec.  20, 1864, 
— Samuel  Marsh,  Daniel  Drew,  John  Arnot,  Isaac  N. 
Phelps,  Robert  H.  Burdell,  Dudley  S.  Gregory,  Am- 
brose S.  Murray,  J.  C.  Bancroft  Davis,  H.  L.  Pierson, 
Alexander  S.  Diven,  Thomas  W.  Gale,  John  J.  Mo- 
nell,  Thomas  H.  Bate,  directors;  J.  C.  Bancroft 
Davis,  president;  Horatio  N.  Otis,  secretary.  The 
capital  stock  was  fixed  at  $500,000,  of  which  over 
one  thousand  dollars  per  mile  was  immediately  sub- 
scribed and  paid  up.  The  project  was  based  on  a 
proposition  for  a  west  shore  road  from  New  York  to 
Albany,  which,  by  its  construction,  would  only  lack 
sixty  miles  of  completion.  Aside  from  the  directors 
named,  who  subscribed  ten  shares  (one  hundred  dol- 
lars) each,  George  Clarke  and  Enoch  Carter,  of  New- 
burgh, subscribed  one  share  each ;  F.  A.  DeWint,  of 
Fishkill,  one ;  and  John  Hilton,  H.  N.  Otis,  Charles 
Minot,  L.  E.  Tillotson,  J.  W.  Guppy,  William  R. 
Barr,  N.  Finch,  E.  W.  Brown,  and  J.  D.  White,  of 
New  York,  each  one.  The  road  being  less  than  fif- 
teen miles  in  length,  the  number  of  directors  was  re- 
duced to  seven,  in  conformity  with  the  general  rail- 
road law,  in  December,  1867,  when  John  S.  Eldridge, 
Jay  Gould,  John  C.  B.  Davis,  Daniel  Drew,  A.  S. 
Diven,  Henry  Thompson,  and  Homer  Ramsdell  were 
elected.  On  the  1st  of  August,  1868,  Mr.  Ramsdell 
was  elected  president.  He  resigned  July  7, 1869,  and 
James  Fisk,  Jr.,  was  elected.  The  line  was  surveyed 
by  John  W.  Houston,  engineer ;  the  contract  for  con- 
struction was  awarded  to  Peter  Ward  and  William 
Leary,  of  Newburgh,  Aug.  1,  1868,  and  the  work  com- 
pleted Sept.  1,  1869.  The  road  was  subsequently 
leased  to  the  Erie  Company,  that  company  supplying 
the  capital  required  for  its  construction. 



The  understood  willingness  of  the  company  to 
second  any  eflfbrt  to  extend  the  connections  of  the 
road  gave  rise  to  what  have  been  called  "  the  New- 
burgh  paper  railroads,"  the  first  of  which,  the  New- 
burgh  and  Wallkill  Valley  Railroad,  took  the  form 
of  a  company  to  construct  a  road  from  Newburgh  to 
Walden,  connecting  at  Vail's  Gate  with  the  Erie 
branch  and  with  the  Newburgh  and  New  York  road. 
The  company  was  organized  in  the  winter  of  1867- 
68  by  the  election  of  directors  and  officers.  In  May 
following  {May  9th)  the  Legislature  passed  an  act 
making  it  lawful  "  for  the  Common  Council  of  the 
city  of  Newburgh  to  borrow,  on  the  faith  and  credit 
of  said  city,  the  sum  of  three  hundred  and  fifty  thou- 
sand dollars,"  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  the  road, 
and  to  issue  the  bonds  of  the  city  therefor, — on  con- 
dition that  the  consent  should  first  be  obtained,  in 
writing  of  a  majority  of  the  tax-payers  of  the  city, 
who  should  also  own  or  represent  more  than  one- 
half  of  the  taxable  real  and  personal  property  of  the 
city.  At  the  time  the  project  was  undertaken,  the 
disposition  of  the  Newburgh  and  New  York  Com- 
pany to  second  the  enterprise  was  not  generally  un- 
derstood as  a  tangible  agreement,  and  this  fact, 
coupled  with  an  expressed  opposition  to  the  Vail's 
Gate  route  on  the  part  of  several  leading  citizens, 
led  to  a  failure  in  obtaining  the  consent  required  to 
bond  the  city,  and  necessarily  to  a  suspension  of  the 
further  prosecution  of  the  undertaking. 

The  second  of  the  series,  the  Newburgh  and  Mid- 
H^d  Railroad,  advanced  several  steps  beyond  the 
point  reached  by  the  Newburgh  and  Wallkill  Valley 
road.  The  proposition  was  to  construct  a  road  from 
the  vicinity  of  West  Newburgh  to  Walden  and 
thence  to  Fair  Oaks,  there  to  connect  with  the  New 
York  and  Oswego  Midland,  and  took  definite  form  in 
the  organization  of  the  "  Newburgh  and  Midland 
Railway  Company," — George  Clark,  president;  Odell 
8.  Hathaway,  vice-president ;  Alfred  Post,  treasurer ; 
John  Dales,  secretary ;  George  Clark,  Abram  S.  Cas- 
aedy,  A.  T.  Rand,  Bradbury  C.  Bartlett,  Odell  S. 
Hathaway,  Seth  M.  Capron,  David  Moore,  James  W. 
Taylor,  Alfred  Post,  William  R.  Brown,  William  J. 
Roe,  Jr.,  Lewis  M.  Smith,  William  O.  Mailler,  di- 
rectors. To  build  this  road  effort  was  made  to  bond 
the  city  of  Newburgh  for  five  hundred  thousand  dol- 
lars, under  the  general  act  authorizing  municipal 
corporations  to  aid  in  the  construction  of  railroads. 
What  was  presumed  to  be  the  consent  of  a  majority 
of  the  tax-payers,  and  also  of  a  majority  of  the  tax- 
able property  of  the  city,  was  obtained.  On  exami- 
nation of  the  list  before  Hon.  Thomas  George,  county 
judge,  it  was  held  by  him  that  while  the  petition  for 
consent  to  bond  was  signed  by  a  majority  of  the  tax- 
payers, the  signatures  did  not  represent  a  majority  of 
the  taxable  property  of  the  city, — $555,099  of  the 
amount  being  held  by  executors,  administrators,  etc., 
whose  right  to  thus  represent  the  frusts  which  tiiey 
held  was  denied.    An  appeal  was  taken  to  the  Su- 

preme Court,  which,  at  general  term,  January,  ]87« 
affirmed  the  decision  of  Judge  George, — Justica 
Tappen  and  Gilbert  concurring.  Justice  Barnard  dii. 
senting.    This  decision  ended  the  undertaking. 

After  two  or  three  years  spent  in  discufisions  and 
surveys  the  New  York  and  Oswego  Midland  Railroad 
Company  was  formally  organized  at  a  convention  of 
delegates  from  Oswego,  Onondaga,  Madison,  Cort. 
land,  Chenango,  Delaware,  Sullivan,  Orange,  Otsego, 
and  Ulster  Counties,  and  New  York  City,  held  at 
Delhi,  Oct.  4,  1865.  At  this  convention  D.  C.  Little- 
John,  of  Oswego,  reported  articles  of  association  or- 
ganizing the  company  with  a  cjipital  of  $10,000,000; 
DeWitt  C.  tiittlejohn,  John  Crouse,  Elisha  C.  Litch- 
field,  Joseph  W.  Merchant,  Edward  I.  Hayes,  John 
A.  Randall,  A.  C.  Edgerton,  Samuel  Gordon,  Hen^ 
A.  Low,  Edward  Palen,  Homer  Ramsdell,  Nathan 
Randall,  and  G.  P.  Kenyon  were  named  as  directors. 
The  location  of  the  route,  whether  by  way  of  Pine 
Hill  to  Rondout  or  Newburgh,  or  through  Sullivan 
County  to  Middletowu  and  thence  through  New 
.Jersey  to  New  York,  was  subsequently  deterniiDcd 
in  favor  of  the  Middletown  and  Sullivan  line,  and, 
under  authority  of  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  the 
towns  of  Wallkill  and  Minisink,  in  common  with 
other  towns  along  the  rou'e,  issued  town  bonds  in  aid 
of  construction, — Minisink  seventy-five  thousand  dol- 
lars, and  Wallkill  three  hundred  thous^Hnd  dollars. 
Sections  of  the  road  in  Orange  were  put  under  con- 
tract,—Middletown  to  Centreville,  Sept.  28,  1868; 
Ellenville  Branch,  Sept.  28,  1868;  Centreville  to 
Westfield  Flats,  Feb.  3,  1869.  On  the  9th  of  July, 
1873,  near  Westfield  Flats,  the  last  rail  whs  laid,  aud 
the  last  spike  driven  by  the  late  E.  P.  Wheeler,  of 
Middletown,  a  iormcr  vice-president  of  the  company. 
After  a  stormy  existence  of  six  years  the  road  was 
sold  under  foreclosure,  Nov.  9,  1879,  and  its  title 
changed  to  New  York,  Ontario  and  Western  Kail- 

The  construction  of  the  Midland  was  the  occasion 
of  the  building  of  the  Middletown  and  Crawford  and 
the  Middletown,  Unionville  and  Water  Gap  roads, 
and  at  least  indirectly  of  the  Monticello  and  Port 
Jervis  branch  of  the  Erie.  The  latter  project  origin- 
ated, we  believe,  in  Monticello,  where  it  was  feared 
that  the  Midland  would  result  in  disaster  to  that 
village  unless  a  road  was  opened  to  Port  Jervis  con- 
necting with  the  Erie.  The  project,  however,  w«» 
really  much  older  than  the  Midland,  having  had  il» 
origin  in  connection  with  tlie  Erie  Company's  efforh 
to  secure  a  State  loan  in  1835-36,  the  loan  advocates 
then  promising  to  construct  a  branch  to  Monticello. 
The  company  was  organized  in  186§,  and  tlie  road 
opened  in  1871.  The  town  of  Deerpark  issued  two 
hundred  thousand  dollars  in  bonds  to  aid  the  con- 
struction. The  road  was  sold,  and  reorganized  as  the 
Port  Jervis  and  Monticello  in  1875. 

The  Montgomery  and  Erie  was  the  first  link  in  the 
Wallkill  Valley  line.    It  was  opened  from  Mont' 



■omery  to  Goshen  in  1867,  and  constructed  by  stock 
ubscriptions  and  bonds  of  the  first  election  district 
[f  Montgomery  for  fifty-one  tiiousand  dollars.  The 
ine  was  continued  to  Walden  and  Ulster  County  as 
[  part  of  the  Wallkill  Valley  Road,  and  fifty-one 
housand  dollars  in  bonds  were  issued  by  the  second 
election  district  in  its  aid.  It  had  its  inception  in  a 
lesire  on  the  part  of  the  leading  men  of  Montgomery 
»  secure  railroad  connection,  and  after  having  sought 
n  vain  for  that  assistance  from  the  capitalists  of  Nevv- 
jurgh  which  would  have  given  to  the  line  a  different 
direction.  This  remark  will  iilso  apply  to  the  Mid- 
filetown  and  Crawford  road,*  for  the  construction  of 
which  the  bonds  of  the  town  of  Crawford  were  issued 
for  eighty  thousand  dollars.  More  detailed  informa- 
tion in  regard  to  these  and  other  roads  has  been 
Solicited  without  answer.  The  following  abridged 
statement  of  the  railroads  in  the  county  is  from 
"Poor's  Manual"  for  1880: 

Am  Y'rt,  Ijilte  Erie  and  Wrttivn.—lenify  City  to  Dnnkirk,  4no.03 
niilili;  liniliclli-M,  l(Hi.8(>  liiilw;  total.  5*<)S1  liiilra.  ItH  lininchcs  U'HWil 
'or  iiwiiHil  III  OrHii;;*.  C.iuiit.v  »rtf  tlie  Ni<wbilt'f;li  niid  Kew  York,  l'J..Oa 
niilfs;  NcwIinrFh  Rntiicli,  1S.73  iiiilfs;  IMoiitpiinery  atiil  Ki'u>.  1u.2'2 
niili^:  fuMilM-ii  iiii<l  llu.-kertiiwii,  II  .(i.~i  niilfH.  (%>iiiift:liiiK  rmule,  Wiir* 
|irii;k  Viillfy  nl  Cni.v  Court,  WiillUill  VnHiy  iit  Gimlu-ii,  ami  P.irt  .lervis 
ami  Miiiitii-tllo  Ht  IN>i't  .li'rvjM.  ('oiiiicclioH  fsul^t  niiolewitli  tlieStlrllii;; 
Moiiiitiilii  anil  SoHtlifiel  I  Hniiidi  In  Miiiiroc.and  iit  Ml<lilli'to\vii  witli  the 
Itfiililletowii  ami  Crawford,  Miildli-towii  hikI  Uliioiivillt;,  and  Kew  Yuik, 
Ontailo  Hii'l  Wh  tprn. 

Tim  iiiiiipiiiiy  was  cliarleri'd  ApHI  24,  IR^*.  roiiHtniction  was  coni- 
menuml  in  IK:t(>.  anil  ttm  Bitliio  year  tin.  creillt  of  tin*  SItiti>  wa>i  p'aiited  to 
tlio  rxtiMit  of  i^l.lllKI,)"'".  I"  ■"^i  (SiptiMuIu'r)  lllr  fliEt  miilioii,  from 
irii'miont  to  GimIkmi,  wan  opuneil,  the  roiiiii'i  tioii  I>ft»'i>i>ii  Pieritiont  and 
Ki'w  York  ln-liiK  li.v  Ktwituiin*  ami  frci;ilit  liiirp<ii.  Tlii!Ltiinpiin,v  Iifconilng 
enibaniii«i-d,  tin*  iiliili'i  takint;  wiin  plact- d  in  tin*  IniiidM  of  iiiiHifsnepH.  nmlur 
wliofii'  liiiiiiii^fllMMit  till*  mail  wiiH  o|ion"il  to  Mii)dli*town,  .Tan.  3,  IM'-i- 
Tho  lost  ti  I'oli  1.  1844.  hiiil  lii'i'li  Jl  7!li.94n.  of  wliicli  S^,'i9l,ril4  had 
been  dfrlvcd  fmni  tin-  Srnto  loan.  In  1845  the  State  released  the  prop- 
erty of  its  ninit;;ii;:e,  pioviiled  the  company  Kliiinid  coln|deti'  the  nind  to 
Lake  Eiie  in  six  years,  iiiid  the  old  Mofklioldora  snrrunderi-d  oni'.half  of 
their  stiK-k.      ConRtrni-tion  was  resunn-d.  and   the  mad  opened  to  Port 

Jervis,  .Tan.  «,  I'4x:  to  liiiis-lnimtiin,  Di-.;.  ■i*.  IM";  to  Unl Oi:t.  in, 

1840;  toHornellsvllle.  Sept.  .3.  185":  and  lb  Dnnk  rk,  Apiil'i-i,  By 
fti't  of  Leiilslatiiru  the  uofnpnn.r  w-iis  also  rei|uireil  to  construct  a  hriineh 
line  to  Ni'wl  iirfch.-M'hich  w  im  i  pene'l  in  ls.'i0.  The  conipany  was  required 
to  run  its  oii^inal  line  witliiu  the  limits  of  the  Slate,  and  hence  lis  first 
outlet  on  the  TI  iiiTsoii  at  Pleviiiolit.  This  pai  t  of  the  line  is  now  operated 
as  a  tiranch,  while  hy  lc>iise  of  the  Union  IhiiltiHid,  coiineeting  the  main 
line  with  Ihe  Paterson  iind  llainiipo  avnl  the  Piitei-aon  and  TIndbun  liail- 
rnails  (Sept.  10,  lft'*J)  .lersey  City  w-ns  made  the  main  terminus.  In  ud- 
dltion  to  Ihe  ii«Mgitmi-nr  of  1843,  tlie  property' went  to  the  bundeof  a 
receiver  in  I8fi0,  mid  aptlii  In  IhT.i.  Hy  Ihe  bisl  it  whb  sold  under  fore- 
cliwnre,  and  its  iiitnin  changed  fniiii  Kew  York  and  Erie  to  ilB  present 

Aeirb'irgh  rmil  Npin  T.trfr, — Vjiil's  Gate  .Titnrtion  to  Oreenwood  .Tiiiiclion, 
I2.'i9  niih  s.  Orpinlzed  in  ISfCS.  ami  i>|n-iieil  in  TSIiO.  I,e>  to  Krie 
SailriHil  ronipiiny.  ('a|>itsl.  S.'iUll.disi:  fiimled  dell,  }25ll,iiOO.  Coat  uf 
ruail,  S-o'^<NKi.    TTu;r1t  .1.  .lewelt,  preisldetit 

Wonifct  l'.!fe/(.— Warwick  to  firay  Cnnrt,  1  .10  miles,  rhartered 
Slan-li  8,  1811(1,  and  reail  oin'iieil  Apiil  1  18li-i.  Eariiiii<!S,  year  I'Uiling 
Sept. 311. iH-fl.-IsoB'njnMS.J."!.-!  (I.'i4;  fieiiilil.  Ji8:iill.3l  ;  other,  $:1I4I  27; 
Intnl.  $  .7.11118.12.  Ols-iiilllii;  e.\  91M»<1M.  <'ii|iltill  slock,  iiUi,- 
(MKI;  filniled  delit.  !ia),cinc).  Cmuk.. Minted  in  fall  of  18711  with  the  Wiiwa- 
jiimla  Riilhiiiid  ('.mii'iiny  of  Xew  .li-i-sev.  the  new  eoiiipnnv  r"lHiiiiiiit 

*  In  the  final  ileteruilnnllMn  -if  Ihe  ploji'cti.u  uf  llils  iinni  the  pos-i- 
liility  of  nllltiiately  l>'coiniii|;  a  part  of  the  line,  cm  I'oiiglikeep  ie  and 
the  l'oM|£hkee|»-ie  hriilce,  fli'm  Hie  coal  tie  d«  to  lliu  Kiihteni  Stiiles.  was 
retluips  an  liii|«Mtnnt  consideration  hnt  bad  Ihe  Newl.iir(tli  and  Wallkill 
Valley  or  the  Nenlairith  iilid  MidlaJid  l"-en  coustruelid  the  Craw  ni.d 
couneclioll  would  have  been  iniido  with  it  ntllicr  than  at  MiJdletowu. 

the  same  name.  Under  this  organizntion,  the  new  line  extends  from 
Gray  Court  to  McAfee,  N.  J.,  on  the  Sussex  Railroad,  22  miles,  of  which 
14.5  is  in  Orange  County,  and  7.5  in  New  Jersey,  which  was  completed 
ill  April,  188(1.  Combined  capital  stock, {340,000 ;  bonded  debt,  SilO.OOO. 
A  hruncli  from  Warwick  to  the  iron-mines  will  also  be  built.  Directors, 
Deueinlier,  1870,  Griiinell  Burt,  James  Burt,  John  L.  Welling,  Riclnird 
Miner,  C.  H.  Deniareet,  S.  C.  Welling,  and  Ezra  Sauford,  Warwick :  J. 
U.  Brown,  VVawayalida ;  James  C.  Houston,  Bell  vale ;  H.  B.  DeKay,  Ver- 
non, N.  J.;  W.  C.  Sheldon  and  D.  B.  Halstead,  New  York  City:  Homer 
Kanisdull,  Newburgh.  Griniiell  Burt,  president  and  superintendent; 
James  Burt,  vice-iireeideut;  Norman  Burt,  treasurer;  G.  H.  Demai-est, 

M'nilgitmenj  and  Erie. — Montgomery  to  Goshen,  10.22  miles.  Chartered 
.Ian.  2, 18(>li :  opened  in  1807.  Leased  to  and  operated  by  New  York,  Lake 
Eric  and  Western  Railroad  Conipany.  Capital  stock,  $150,000;  bonds, 
$1711/100.  Cost  of  road,  $288,930.83.  J.  M.  Wilkin,  president;  C.  J.  Ev- 
erett, treasurer,  Goshen;  W.  J.  Mead,  secretary,  Montgomery. 

Uusheit  ami  Dechrtovm. — Goshen  to  Fiue  Island,  lt.65  miles.  Organ- 
ized Feb.  22,  1807;  opened  April  10, 1809;  leased  to  Erie  Railroad  Com- 
pany for  fifty  yeai-s.  Capital  stock,  8105,800;  bonds,  9246,600— total, 
83o2,50fl.  Construction,  $291,700.75.  James  K.  Houston,  president, 
Kloriila,  N.  Y. ;  George  W.  Murray,  secretary  and  treasurer,  Goshen. 

W'lllhiU  FuHey.— Montgomery  to  Kingston,  33.46  miles.  Organized 
April  2(t,  l8(jC,  aud  opeued  in  1872.  Operated  by  Erie  Railroad  Company 
to  June  ft,  1877,  when  it  was  sold  under  foreclosure,  and  reorganized  July 
2, 1877.  Cost  of  roail,  $970,091 .96 ;  sold  for  $1 28,000 ;  additional  construc- 
tion, S17o,798..50 — total,  $298,798.59  Stock  and  bonds  it^sued  on  reor- 
gauizati..ii,$l>CO,0uO;suudryaS8ets,$ll,893.37— total, $970,691.96.  Thomas 
Cornell,  pi-esident,  Rondout. 

Stirling  Motmtain. — Stirling  Junction  to  Lakeville,  7.6  miles.  Organ- 
ized May  IS,  lSli4;  opeued  Nov.  1, 1866.  Capital  stock, $80,000;  funded 
debt,  $150,000.  Cost  of  rood  and'equipmeuts,  $500,857.02.  A.  W.  Hum- 
phreys, president,  Now  York  City;  George  C.  Clark,  treasurer;  J.  0. 
Midsiiner,  Stirling  Junction,  superintendent. 

Soulhlield  Crane*.— Soutlifleld  to  Southfleld  Furnace,  1.5  miles.  Built, 
owuol,  and  otficered  by  same  parties  as  the  Stirling  Mountain  Railroad. 
Connects  witli  the  Erie. 

Pt»-t  Jervia  and  Mimticello. — Port  Jervis  to  Monticello,  23.75  miles.  Or- 
ganized as  Monticello  and  Port  Jervis  Railroad  Company  Sept.  3, 1868, 
and  under  existing  title  July  10,  1875.  Road  opened  Jan.  23,  1871. 
Capital  stock  issued  on  reorganization,  $724,276.93.  Cost  of  road  and 
eqiiipineiits,$l, 124,080.47.  Frederick  J.  DePeyster,  president.  New  York 
City ;  Henry  Bay,  vice-president ;  Gordon  Morrie,  treasurer ;  J.  W.  Hay- 
waid,  secretary,  all  of  New  York  City.  M.  V.  Heller,  manager.  Port 
Jcr\is.  Earnings,  year  ending  Sept.  30,  1879— passengers,  $0440.24; 
freight,  etc.,  $16,300.60. 

Hmo  York,  Oiidirio  and  IFestem.— Oswego  to  Middletown,  344  miles. 
Organized  as  New  York  and  Oswego  Midland  Railroad,  January,  1860. 
The  New  Jersey  Midland  and  Middletown  and  Dnionville  toads  were 
originally  leased  to  complete  the  line  to  New  York.  The  road  was  sold 
under  foreclosure  Nov.  9,  1879,  and  reorganized  under  present  name. 
The  Crawford  and  Middletown  and  Middletown  and  Unionville  connec- 
tions are  maintained,  lis  well  as  that  with  the  New  Jersey  Midland.  A 
biaiicK  of  the  road  from  Middletown  to  Ellenville  is  also  in  operation. 

MiMleUimi,  Unionville  imd  Water  Gap. — Middletown,  N.  Y.,  to  Union- 
ville, N.  J.,  Stale  line,  13.3U  miles.  Organized  May  25, 1866,  and  road 
opened  June  10,  1868.  Leased  and  operated  by  New  Jersey  Midland 
Kiiilroad  Coinimiiy.t  Capital  stock,  $123,850,  aud  funded  debt,  $400,000 ; 
total  stock  and  bonds,  $.i2:{,8o0 ;  cost  of  road  and  appurtenances,  $350,- 
476.47.  Griunell  Biirt,  Warwick,  president;  W.  H.  Clark,  Westtown, 
treasurer;  Joseph  N.  Plonk,  Middletown,  secretary. 

MitldMoim  and  (>air.foid.— Craw  ford  Junction  to  Pine  Bush,  10.22 
miles.  Chaiteied  Aug.  3, 1808,  and  road  finished  Dec.  14, 1871.  Leased 
to  Now  York  and  Oswego  Midland,  and  subsequently  to  New  Jersey 
Midland,  until  March  18, 1875,  but  now  operated  on  its  own  account. 
Caiiltal  stock  jmid  in,$l22,300;  funded  debt, $79,300 ;  bills  payable,  $787.- 
08;  total.  $2ir2,3»7;08.  Cost  of  road,  etc.,  $202,387.68;  earnings,  1879,  pas- 
sengeis,  $:i604  0i;  freight,  $17,102.94;  mail,  express,  etc.,  $689.7 1 ;  total, 
$21,546.08.  Diiertiirs,  Aug.  12, 1S79,  E.  M.  Madden.  S.  S.  Conkliu,  II.  K. 
Wilcox,  and  Albeit  Boll,  Middletown;  Harrison  Bull,  Circleville;  Sam- 
nel  RoliclDoii  and  Iluriice  Bull,  Bullville;  Dauiel  Tliompson,  li.  M. 
Tliiiiii]ison,  K.  M.  Crosby,  and  Alexander  Thompson,  Thompson  Ridge; 
I.  J.  Wliilten,  H   N.  Van  Keuren,  and  J.  E.  Jansen,  Pino  Bush.    Daniel 

t  Xew  Jciwy  Midland  runs  from  West  Bud,  N.  J.,  to  Unionville  (New 
York  liiii);  councclion  with  Jersey  City;  length  of  road  from  Unionville 
to  Jersey  City,  88  miles. 



Thompson,  president  and  superintendent;  E.  M.  Madden,  vioe-preaident 
and  general  manager;  G.  A.  Tliompeon,  secretary;  Isaac  P.  Madden, 


MiDifiuk,  for  Oswego  Midland $75,000 

Wallkill,  for  Oswego  Midland 300,000 

Deerpark,  for  Munticello  and  Port  Jervls !J00,000 

Crawford,  tor  Middletowa  and  Crawford 80,000 

Montgomery,  for  Mont,  and  E.  and  Wal.  Val 102,000 


Taxable  valuation  of  real  and  personal  railroad  estate,  and  Delaware 

and  Hudson  Caual,  in  the  county,  $1,792,700. 


The  New  York  and  Ellen ville  Plank-road  Company 
waa  organized  March  24, 1850.  The  capital  stock  was 
$100,000,  but  only  $79,770  was  paid  in.  By  special 
act  of  the  Legislature  $44,000  preferred  stock  was 
issued,  and  the  whole  capital  fixed  at  $124,000.  The 
road  was  completed  to  Ellenville  Dec.  22,  1851. 
Charter  extended  to  1890. 

The  Newburgh  and  Shawangunk  Plank-road  Com- 
pany was  organized  in  March,  1850,  and  the  road 
completed  in  December,  1851.  The  capital  stock  paid 
in  was  $30,000. 

The  Middletown  and  Bloomingburgh  Plank-road 
was  constructed  in  1858.    Capital  stock,  $30,000. 

The  Middletown  and  Unionville  Plank-road  was 
constructed  in  1853.    Capital  stock,  $80,000. 


The  Bank  of  Newburgh — the  first  bank  in  this 
county — was  incorporated  by  act  of  the  Legislature, 
passed  March  22, 1811,  on  the  petition  o^  Jacob  Pow- 
ell, John  McAulay,  Chancy  Belknap,  and  Jonathan 
Fisk.  The  capital  named  was  $120,000,  in  shares  of 
$50  each,  and  the  State  reserved  the  right  to  subscribe 
to  the  stock  any  amount  not  exceeding  one  thousand 
shares.  The  Branch  Bank  of  Newburgh,  at  Ithaca, 
was  organized  1820,  and  continued  until  1830. 

The  Bank  of  Orange  County,  at  Goshen,  was  incor- 
porated April  6, 1818,  on  petition  of  Reuben  Hopkins, 
George  D.  Wickham,  and  others.  James  W.  Wilkin, 
George  D.  Wickham,  David  M.  Westcott,  John^t. 
Hurtin,  James  Wheeler,  John  Barber,  and  Jam^ 
Finch,  Jr.,  commissioners  to  receive  stock  subscrip- 
tions.    Capital  $49,000,  in  shares  of  $50. 

The  Highland  Bank  of  Newburgh  was  incorpo- 
rated April  26, 1834.    Capital  $200,000. 

Under  the  general  banking  law  of  the  State,  passed 
April  18, 1888,  the  Powell  Bank  of  Newburgh  (18381, 
the  Middletown  Bank  (1839),  the  Wallkill  Bank  of 
Middletown  (1857),  the  Quassaick  Bank  of  Newburgh 
(1851),  the  Bank  of  Port  Jervis,  the  Bank  of  Chester, 
and  the  Goshen  Bank  were  organized.  All  the  banks 
of  the  county,  by  conversion  or  reorganization,  are 
now  under  the  national  banking  law,  in  the  following 
order : 

First  National  Bank  of  Port  Jerris,  No.  94 tloiuni 

First  National  Bank  of  Warwick,  No.  Mi ,. imm 

NaUoiial  Bank  of  Newburgh,  No.  468 „ jjojjj 

First  National  Bank  of  Middletown,  No.  523 ; loo'oJJ 

Highland  National  Bank  of  Newburgh,  No.  1106 iSum 

Quassaick  National  Bank  of  Newburgh,  No.  1213 SOOjOOO 

Middletown  National  Bank,  No.  1276 goojjgjj 

Chester  National  Bank,  No.  1349 126jQ00 

National  Bank  of  Port  Jervis,  No.  1363 13011X10 

National  Bank  of  Orange  County,  Qoshen,  No,  1399 110^ 

Goslien  National  Bank,  No.  14U8 IIO.U1O 

Walden  National  Bank,  No.  2348 „ jojOM 

Total  capital .- 92,676^ 

The  individual  deposits  in  the  several  banks,  at 
shown  in  the  annual  report  of  the  comptroller  of 
the  currency,  December,  1879,  was  $2,364,148.35;  the 
loans  and  discounts,  $3,111,789.73;  and  the  aggregate 
of  liabilities  and  resources,  $7,871,445.90. 

The  following  are  the  savings  banks  of  the  county; 

Cornwall  Savings  Bank,  GornwallK)n -the- Hudson ;  incor- 
porated 1871;  due  depositors S21,18U1 

Goshen  Savings  Bank,  Goshen ;  incorporated  1871 ;  due  de- 
positors        181,510Jt 

Middletown  Savings  Bank,  Middletown ;  incorporated  1866 ; 

due  depositors 466,906.09 

Newburgh  Savings  Bank,  Newburgh;  incorporated  1852; 

due  depositors 2,867,611.11 

Port  Jervis  Savings  Bank,  Port  Jerris;  incorporated  1869; 

due  depositors 60,583.43 

Walden  Savings  Bank,  Walden;  incorporated  1862;  due 

depositors 111,710.90 

Warwick  Savings  Bank,  Warwick ;  incorporated  1875 ;  due 

depositora 141,I9«.« 

Total  due  depositors (3,8J0,6SSiS 


In  population  the  county  ranks  the  eleventh  in  the 
State.  In  the  value  of  its  farms  it  is  the  ninth ;  in 
farm  buildings  it  is  third  ;  in  average  yield  of  hay  it 
is  second ;  in  buckwheat,  third ;  in  corn,  second ;  in 
winter  wheat,  third ;  in  potatoes,  third ;  in  milch 
cows  it  is  first,  and  first  in  average  yield  per  cow ;  in 
wool  it  is  fourth ;  and  it  has  twenty-three  butter  and 
cheese  factories,  which,  in  1874,  converted  8,688,49! 
pounds  of  milk  into  222,548  pounds  of  butter  and 
751,515  pounds  of  skimmed-milk  cheese, — if  the 
latter  fact  may  be  worthy  of  special  notice.  In  iti 
product  of  old-fashioned  "  Orange  County  butter," 
made  in  families,  it  has  fallen  from  3,285,587  poundi 
in  1865  to  1,225,598  pounds  in  1874,  and  in  anothei 
decade  that  item  may  disappear  entirely  from  the 
enumerator's  list,  thanks  to  the  railroads,  which  hare 
brought  in  the  increasing  traffic  in  milk.  Value  ol 
dwellings,  $32,200,519;  of  farms,  $31,130,188 ;  offam 
buildings  other  than  dwellings,  $4,631,345 ;  of  fam 
stock,  tools,  etc.,  $4,730,929;  total,  $72,693,981.  ft 
banking  capital  is  $2,575,000 ;  valuation  of  railroad 
property  other  than  capital,  $1,792,700 ;  capital  ii 
manufacturing  and  mechanical  industries,  $5,418,620 
making  a  total  of  $82,475,301,  although  the  board  0 
supervisors  say  that  the  whole  value  of  real  and  per 
sonal  estate  is  only  $38,531,382.  The  following  table 
.are  from  the  State  census  of  1875 : 











Hamptonburgh ... 





Mount  Hope 


Newhnrgh  City... 

New  Windsor. 





'  Value  Dwell- 
j  ings  other  than 
Farm  Buildings. 


























Aerea,      1 

3,673     I 








1,646     ' 









{32,200,619       ,    321,411  90,354  60,564         $31,130,188 






















Value  of 







Value  Farm 
Buildings  other 
than  Dwellings. 






Aggregate  value  of  farms,  buildings,  stock,  and  tools $40,494,462 

"  "        1865 25,599,331 

Increase $14,896,131 


Value  of 

Value  of 

154,876     I 

204.346     : 

82,472  I 
278,160  1 
130,760  I 
178,0;W     I 


i  $.3,918,978        $811,961 




Number  of 
of  all  Sizes. 

Under  Three 


Five  and  under  |      Ten  and       i  Twenty  and      Fifty  and  under 
Ten  Acres.       |under  Twenty.j  under  Fifty.       Oue  Hundred. 

One  Hundred        Five  Hundred 

and  under        I       and  under 
Five  Hundred.        One  Thousand, 


One  Thousand 
and  over. 




Blooming-Grove. . 







Hamptonburgh ... 





Mount  Hope 


Newburgh  City 

New  Windsor 


Warwick , 


Total 44,287 








o  a 















111  ,-20 





_     ._ 











I^dt.  Gattons.  I 



,      488,670| 

;  1,153.7861 

3,900 ,      686,7lOf 

1      681,2781 


■     912 













6,825    ' 











13,530,709  2,160,698 









Pounds  of 

Milk  used  in 

Butter,  Skim 


g           Pounds  of 
«              Bolter 
2              made. 

Pounds  of 

Skim  Milk 

















Hamptonburgh . . 





Mount  Hope 


Newburgh  City- 
New  Windsor 



WawHViiiiUa , 























11,838  i 

t     4,069  I 

'     8,790 1 



I  13,064 

'  18,650 

,     8,482 









Tu^il 137,694,26,417 

Bush.  {  Bvah. 

12,223     4,758 

6,561        889 

7,164     1,030 

30,419  11,006 

7,976     1,412 

16,914     4,663 

13,392  ,  2,682 

14,981     6,263 


14,479  I  3,436 
16,579     3,276 




19,896  1  3,383 
36,471  13,339 
49,976  ,16,748 
15,943     5,105 

fe  ,0' 













































The  gross  sales  of  farm  products  in  1874  were 

The  census  is,  unfortunately,  almost  entirely  silent  in 
regard  to  the  mechanical  industries  of  the  State,  as 
well  as  in  regard  to  mercantile  pursuits  and  the  capi- 
tal invested  therein,  and  many  other  branches  of  in- 
quiry falling  properly  within  its  line.  Whether  the 
apology  offered  by  its  superintendent  for  this  omission 



is  sufBcient  is  not  a  matter  for  discussion  here.  The 
United  States  census  for  1870  is  much  more  complete, 
but  in  its  preparation  many  details  were  omitted, 
while  in  others  classification  by  counties  was  evidently 
rendered  impracticable  from  the  magnitude  of  the 
labor  involved.  From  its  "selected  statistics"  of  the 
mechanical  industries  of  the  county  at  the  time  it  was 
taken  (1870)  the  following  table  is  copied  : 





Boots  Hiid  sillies 

Bread  and  bakery  prodtiets 



Cttl'lietB — rag 

CarliHges  and  wagons 



Cliitbing — men's 


Coffee-  and  spice-mill 



Cotton  goods 



Files : l|  8;i 

Fluunng-mitls'  products 25j  7:' 

Food  in-epamlions — iiuinial !  1     2 

Fnrnitiiii- I4]  98 

11  41 
3'  15 
1:  22 
3  270 
2  U7 
1  4i 
i  175 
6  2U2 



^  s* 



1    2!" 

1      3 

2    14 

9    31 


11  4.n 

5    in 

48  207 

11    Si 

9    M 


8,  28 

ll     4 

4      il 

9    33 

2  386 




Gloves  and  mittens. 

Gas : 


Hats  and  caiiB... 


Iron — nails,  etc 



Stores,  heaters,  etc j  2    2i 

Leatlifr — tanned 11 1  97 

Onrried M'  57 

Lime I  6    47 

Liqiiore— distilled '14    4" 

Malt 1    47 

Lumber— planed 1      3 

Sawed 5    79 

Machinery — general 4    67 

Railroad  repairs 1 

Engines  and  Iwilera 6  307 

Marble — gpnelal 1    22 

Tomlifltones R  Si 

Masonry 7   91 

Meat— packed i      4 

Mining — iron  ore 6  268 

Stoue 2    15 

Oil  fliioi'-ciotbs... 


Paper — printing. 


Plaster — gnmnd. 

Printing  antl  publishing j  I 

Newspapers 6 

Btiofiug  materials I  2 

Saddlery  and  harness '27 

Sash,  doors,  etc 



Sua|>  and  candles 

Steel— cast 

Tin,  copper,  and  sheet-iron  ware.^ 
Tobacc4i  and  cigars. 



IVoolfn  goods 

Wojsted  goods 



S  109 

















47.1  lOOl 









123,  WO 















33,(11  H> 




4.1,:i4  I 




i    (iO,i<(JO 

61 1,000 












53,(»  (I 





4  l,.5(IO 

2110.01 10 




123  llHI 



5.(J0  I 

















8,81  f 











ll  0.00(1 













4  ,2  0 








1,6.50 1 
































49,- 00 


















UK  1,000 












86,1  H 10 



:h7,(  00 
3",;*  10 


$5,413,620;  wages  paid,  $2,125,870;  materials  used, 
$6,060,125;  product,  $10,409,348. 

The  growth  of  the  manufacturing  interest  of  tbt 
county  will  more  clearly  appear  from  the  following 
statement  in  Williams'  "  New  York  Register"  for 
1834  : 

"  Oranoh  :  Fraiiklm  Company.  This  factory  Is  sitaated  iu  Wslileg,  „ 
the  Wallklll  Hiver,  near  tile  falls,  for  the  nmimfHcture  of  flitimeli^  laj 
is  the  mnet  extensive  in  the  State  (18:i4] ;  ca|>ital,  $100,1100,  which  in  all 
invested.  Tlie  establishment  consumes  65,000  to  70,000  pon lids  of  vixil 
per  annum,  and  uisuufactures  about  240,000  yards  of  white  and  colotsd 

"  Watlkili  Ormipany^  at  Walden.  This  factory  consumes  about  120/KO 
pounds  of  cotton,  aud  makes  about  300,000  yards  of  sheeting  |ier  aiidiidi. 

*'  Orange  OimpaHi/,  also  at  Walden.  They  manufacture  about  SOyOOO 
yflrils  of  low-priced  broadcloths  per  annum. 

"A  woolen  mannfactiry  at  Warwick. 

**  Paimele  £  Co.'s  iron-works,  for  the  manufacture  of  nails,  etc. ;  u 
extensive  establishment. 

*•  A  nnmlier  of  works  for  making  iron  from  ore,  iit  Monroe. 

'*  Craig's  paper  manufactory,  and  Oakley's  paper  manufactory  tt 

*'Townsend's  cottou  manufactory,  aud  Townsend's  paper  manufactory, 
at  Cornwall. 

"  Walsh's  paper  manufactory,  and  Rogers'  powder  factory,  at  New- 

"Two  woolen  manufactories  at  Wallklll,  one  of  which  is  owned  by 
Messrs.  I'hillips. 

"  The  village  of  Wablen  is  situated  at  the  falls  of  the  Wallklll,  eleven 
miles  west  of  Nowburgh,  and  is  surrounded  by  romantic  scenery.  Here 
is  extensive  water-jiower  fur  nianufactorie» ;  a  jmrt  of  the  sites  o  Ij  ure 
occiipinl.  A  company  was  incorporated  by  the  Legislature  in  1832, 
called  the  Walilen  (Ximpany,  with  a  ca[iital  of  $500,000,  for  the  pnrpoia 
of  puri-hasing,  holding,  and  iin|>roving  the  water-power  aud  mill-sites  of 
the  village,  and  for  manufacturing  purposes." 

Number  mechanical  and  manufacturing  establish- 
ments, 574;  engines  68,  horse-power  2265;  water-wheels 
85,  horse-power  2185;  hands  employed,  5234;  capital, 



The  early  settlers  of  the  district  now  embraced  in 
the  county  were  mainly  Christians,  and  brought  with 
them  their  Bibles,  and  in  some  instances  their  relig- 
ious and  secular  teachers.  In  other  cases  itinerant 
ministers  passed  through  the  forest-paths  in  visitation 
of  the  scattered  settlers,  who  were  led,  as  their  num- 
bers increased,  to  form  societies,  composed  perhaps  of 
those  who  held  different  denominational  views,  and 
who  subsequently  separated  into  societies  in  accord 
with  fheir  faiths;  but  in  one  way  or  the  other,  wher- 
ever population  centred,  the  foundations  of  moral  in- 
fluence through  religious  worship  were  laid,  and  in 
no  county  has  this  influence  been  more  fiiUy  sustained, 
the  census  of  1865  returning  one  hundred  and  fifteen 
churches,  with  a  seating  capacity  of  forty-seven  thou- 
sand five  hundred  and  eighty-four,  to  a  population  of 
seventy  thousand,  a  ratio  higher  than  that  of  the  city 
of  New  York.  In  the  order  of  their  introduction,  the 
first  denomination  in  the  field  was  the  German  Lu- 
theran ;  the  second,  the  Presbyterian  ;  the  third,  the 
High  Dutch  ;  and  the  fourth,  the  Church  of  England. 
Numerically,  there  were  ten  churches  in  the  district 
prior  to  1750,  viz. :  two  Lutheran,  three  Presbyterian, 



two  High  Dutch,  and  three  Episcopal  or  Church  of 
England.  In  1764  the  Baptist  Church  came  in 
through  settlers  from  New  England,  but  with  this  ex- 
ception the  denominations  stated  were  without  rivals. 
Receiving  strong  and  influential  accessions  from  Scot- 
land and  Ireland,  the  Presbyterian  Churches  became 
the  most  numerous  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution, 
and  gave  to  that  movement  a  support  which  has  never 
been  challenged.  Reserving  more  especially  to  the 
towns  in  which  they  were  located  detailed  histories  of 
present  church  organizations,  we  notice  the  earlier 
steps  in  the  introduction  of  the  leading  denomina- 


Lutheranism  was  brought  to  Newburgh  by  the 
Palatine  immigrants  of  1709,  who  were  granted,  in 
addition  to  farm-lots,  a  glebe  of  five  hundred  acres 
for  "  the  sole  and  only  proper  use,  benefit,  and  behoof 
of  a  Lutheran  minister  to  serve  and  have  the  care  of 
the  inhabitants  and  their  successors  forever."  Joshua 
Kockertlial,  who  accompanied  the  nine  families  of 
immigrants  as  their  minister,  did  not  locate  per- 
manently with  them,  but  removed  to  Columbia 
County.  Justus  Falconier,  minister  of  the  Lutheran 
congregation  of  New  York,  served  the  people  by  an 
annual  visit,  and,  it  is  written,  administered  the  rite 
of  baptism  "  in  the  house  of  one  of  the  trustees,  the 
19th  April,  1710."  This  is  the  first  baptism  of  record 
in  the  county.  Falconier  died  in  1723,  and  in  1725 
William  Christopher  Berkenmeyer  became  his  suc- 
cessor in  visiting  the  settlement,  it  being  agreed,  in 
1730,  that  he  should  receive  as  compensation  "thirty 
shepels  of  wheat."  His  successor  was  Michael  Chris- 
tian Knoll,  who  served  similar  congregations  at  Hack- 
ensack  and  Wappinger's  Creek  until  1749,  at  which 
time  it  is  stated  that  "  there  lived"  as  tenants  upon 
the  glebe  and  thereabout,  on  both  sides  of  the  river, 
"  more  than  thirty  families"  of  that "  Protestant  Con- 
fession." Their  house  of  worship  was  erected  be- 
tween the  years  1726  and  1731,  and  was  adorned  by  a 
bell  vvhich  had  been  given  to  them  by  the  govern- 
ment, but  which,  in  the  early  years  of  their  parish 
history,  they  had  loaned  to  the  Luth